Refactoring methods are applied to improve the software quality attribute but the effectof refactoring on particular quality attribute is still ambiguous. In this paper, we applied fourteen refactoring methods and noticed that they effect randomly on different software quality attributes. We classified the refactoring methods which improve a set of metrics which belongs to the attribute, method, coupling, cohesion and inheritance category of software. We focused on different external quality attributes, which are Reusability, Complexity, Maintainability, Testability, Adaptability, Understandability, Fault Proneness, Stability and Completeness and found the effectof refactoring methods on them. By looking at the results, we found that there are few refactoring methods which particularly improve a certain quality attributes of software, which can help the developer to choose them. Our work concludes that refactoring improves the quality of software but developers need to look for the particular refactoring method for desirable quality attribute.
ABSTRACT - The main objective of this study was to assess the effectof photoperiod on sexual activity of three breeds of boars: Swedish Landrace (n=34), Large White (n=38), and Duroc (n=32). Boar sexual activity was analysed based on the libido index and intensity of ejaculation. The libido index was calculated as the ratio between the duration of ejaculation and time of preparation until ejaculation. The intensity of ejaculation was the volume of ejaculate (mL) secreted in the unit of time (min). The effectof photoperiod was analysed as the effectof duration of daylight (<12 h and >12 h) within photoperiod intervals (increasing and decreasing). Impact assessment was carried out by applying the General Linear Model procedure. Libido and intensity of ejaculation varied under the impact of photoperiod and the breed of boars. With the increase in age, the boar libido weakened, while the volume of ejaculate and intensity of ejaculation increased. Boars manifested better libido when the daylight lasted longer than 12 h in both photoperiod intervals. Different from libido, the volume of ejaculate and intensity of ejaculation were highest when the daylight was shorter than 12 h, but only in the decreasing photoperiod interval. Swedish Landrace boars manifested best libido, while in the production of sperm the Duroc boars were inferior compared with Swedish Landrace and Large White. The phenotypic relationship among libido, ejaculate volume, and ejaculation intensity ranges from very low to high; however, the coefﬁcients were positive, which indicates the possibility of simultaneous improvement of these traits.
PRINCIPLES AND USE OF THE MIRAGE EFFECT TECHNIQUE - MIRAGE EFFECTOF CONCENTRATION. Abstract: The aim of this work is to present the theoretical and experimental aspects of the mirage effect technique. We are especially interested in the concentration mirage effect, which is a powerful tool in the study of electrochemical reactions that produce ionic movements close to electrodes and to get some fundamental information on mass transport and charge transfer during electrochemical processes. Limitations of this technique are discussed as well as the recent attempts to overcome them.
For ferromagnetic materials the reduction of the Zeeman energy splitting of the energy levels results from a combination of the direct effectof reducing the external field, and an indirect effect due to the reduction of the thermal value of the magnetic moment in the field direction. The internal fields, due to exchange energy, are extremely large at low temperatures, and the external field affects the magnetic order most significantly in the neighborhood of the Curie temperature. In the ordered phase 1T is an increasing function of the temperature, with a maximum at the Curie temperature [ 1 ]. It has a “caret-like” shape whose width is inversely proportional to the temperature interval where order–disorder transition occurs. Helimagnetic materials have a rich phase diagram and a complex MCE. In the magnetic ordered temperature interval the external field may induce changes in the magnetic structure, without appreciable changes in the thermal average value of the magnetic moment per atom. The effectof external field on the magnetic entropy is dependent upon the field strength, and both positive and negative MCE may occur.
The collecting duct, as the final portion of the nephron, plays an important role in the control of the extracellular water and salt balance. During water deprivation or extra- cellular volume contraction, increases in va- sopressin release elicit a rise in osmotic wa- ter permeability in the kidney collecting ducts. The effectof vasopressin on water reabsorp- tion in the collecting duct is mediated through the classic second messenger adenosine 3',5'-
Objective: To evaluate the effectof a clinical management program involving education on hand function in patients with rhizarthritis. Methods: One hundred and eight patients with rhizarthritis and multiple arthritis (191 hands with clinical and radiographic rhi- zarthritis) followed for two years as part of an educational program on osteoarthritis were administered the SF-36, DASH, and HAQ questionnaires and measured for the strength of their palmar grip, pulp to pulp pinch, key (lateral) pinch, and tripod pinch at the time of inclusion and after 24 months. Age, race, level and frequency of physical activity, sex, body mass index, percentage of body fat, and degree of osteoarthritis were correlated to the test outcomes. Results: Women improved less than men on the HAQ (p=0.037). Each 1% reduction in fat percentage increased the chance of HAQ score improvement by 9.2% (p=0.038). Physical activity did not influence improvement in the parameters evaluated (p>0.05). Palmar grip improvement was affected by age and presence of rhizarthritis (p<0.05); patients with unilateral rhizarthritis improved 5.3 times more than patients without the disease (p=0.015), while improvement in palmar grip strength decreased 6.8% per year (p=0.004). Pulp pinch grip strength improved more in women than in men (p=0.018). Conclusion: Patients with rhizarthritis and multiple arthritis improved quality of life and grip strength through clinical treatment, an educational program, and fat loss. Level of Evidence II; Retrospective study.
G.Murali and P.Sruthee 1 (2012) studied that when metakaolin is used as a partial replacement for Portland cement, tends to improve the compressive strength of concrete. Vikas kumar and Rakesh kumar 2 (2012) investigated the effectof silica fume and metakaolin combination on concrete. They reported that the combination of these materials the compressive strength of concrete and the workability both are improved. P. Dinakar 3 (2013) reported on the behavior of a metakaolin on properties of high strength concrete.
Fig. 6 shows that the increment of the substrate concentration retarded the conversion process. The immobilized cells appeared to be less affected than the free cells, probably due to the protection provided by the immobilization against the toxic effectof the substrate. However, the transformation rate was dramatically reduced when the substrate concentration reached 1 mg/ml. Suppression of the reaction at this substrate concentration may have been caused by the blocking of the pores of the matrix, hindering the transport of oxygen and nutrients to the cells. Goetschel and Bar (16) also concluded that the reduction in transformation rate using PVA as carriers was a result of the blocking of the pores by the substrate when high concentration was utilized.
snake venoms for the treatment of animal tumors, with controversial results. While some authors have reported an antitumor effectof treatment with specific snake venom fractions, others have reported no effects after this treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectof Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo study, Swiss mice were inoculated with EAT cells by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route and treated with BjV venom (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.), on the 1st, 4th, 7th, 10th, and 13th days. Mice were evaluated for total and differential cells number on the 2nd, 5th, 8th, 11th and 14th days. The survival time was also evaluated after 60 days of tumor growth. In the in vitro study, EAT and normal peritoneal cells were cultivated in the presence of different BjV concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, and 80 mg) and viability was verified after 3, 6, 12 and 24 h of cultivation. Results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal–Wallis and Tukey tests at the 5% level of significance. It was observed that in vivo treatment with BjV induced tumor growth inhibition, increased animal survival time, decreased mortality, increased the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on the early stages of tumor growth, and did not affect the mononuclear cells number. In vitro treatment with BjV produced a dose-dependent toxic effect on EAT and peritoneal cells, with higher effects against peritoneal cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BjV has an important antitumor effect. This is the first report showing this in vivo effect for this venom.
Fisheries have been analysed in many contexts, considering several frameworks. The context of uncertainty is itself a very interest field to analyse the way fisheries can be organized, considering that marine resources are much exploited, often exploited either in the limits of sustainability or others beyond these limits. Some works considering chaos in fisheries have been presented. This study intends to have in consideration chaos theory and complexity and intends to present a model to explain the dissipative effectof catches in fish marine systems.
Since in a previous study (3) the effectof dipyrone on gastric emptying could be abol- ished by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, we may assume that the DVC is primarily in- volved in this phenomenon. The DVC is formed by the nucleus tractus solitarii whose neurons receive information through the af- ferent route and by the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve, where cholinergic stimulating and non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic inhibi- tory motoneurons are located, whose axons
The effectof urea on biomimetic aggregates (aqueous and reversed micelles, vesicles and monolayers) was investigated to obtain insights into the effectof the denaturant on structured macromolecules. Direct evidence obtained from light scattering (static and dynamic), mono- layer maximum isothermal compression and ionic conductivity meas- urements, together with indirect evidence from fluorescence photo- dissociation, fluorescence suppression, and thermal reactions, strongly indicates the direct interaction mechanism of urea with the aggregates. Preferential solvation of the surfactant headgroups by urea results in an increase in the monomer dissociation degree (when applied), which leads to an increase in the area per headgroup and also in the loss of counterion affinities.
relationships give these properties only after achievement of the equilibrium (see for instance Pacek et al (8) for a review). In the present study, the influence of temperature on the product properties during the agglomeration process was investigated. In particular the aim of the present work is to gain further insight into how the agglomerates are formed and evolve during the process, and into the mechanisms behind the spherical shape. For this purpose the effectof temperature on the particle properties through the agglomeration process of carbamazepine as a model compound was investigated. Carbamazepine normally crystallizes as needles or flakes that can be difficult to handle in downstream processing. Carbamazepine was crystallized from ethanol by drowning out with water and agglomerated using isopropyl acetate as the binder liquid according to our previous study (9).
Alexiou PN, Marchant JF, Groves KW. Effectof pre- steaming on moisture gradients, drying stresses and sets, and face checking in regrowth Eucalyptus pilularis Sm. Wood Science and Technology 1990; 24: 201-209. Batista DC. Qualidade da secagem convencional conjunta da madeira de nove clones do gênero Eucalyptus. [dissertation]. Curitiba; Universidade Federal do Paraná; 2009. Bourgois PJ, Guyonnet R, Janin G. La mesure de couleur: une méthode d’étude et d’optimisation des transformations chimiques du bois thermolysé. Holzforschung 1991; 45(5): 377-382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hfsg.1918.104.22.1687. Camargos JAA. Colorimetria quantitativa aplicada na elaboração de uma tabela de cores para madeiras tropicais [dissertation]. Brasília: Universidade de Brasília; 1999. Camargos JAA, Gonçalez JC. A colorimetria aplicada como instrumento na elaboração de uma tabela de cores de madeira. Brasil Florestal 2001; 71: 30-41.
The aim of this work was to verify the effectof different probiotic strains applied through a drinking water source to fattening and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Fattening experiment was realised in half-operating conditions of experimental basis of Department of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry in three-floor cage technology. Totally 90 broiler duck were divided to three groups. Experimental group 1 (n=30) received probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7158 with concentration of 1x10 9 colony forming units (CFU) in drinking water daily addition of 0.90 g day 1 to day 56 of fattening. Experimental group 2 (n=30) received probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M 74 with concentration of 1x10 9 colony forming units (CFU) in drinking water daily addition of 0.45 g
resuscitating skills learning 7 . Larsen 8 concludes that tests that call for effortful recall of medical content are more effective in producing the retention of knowledge than repeated reading with no testing. Interestingly, the effect is stronger when feedback is provided after the test. Karpicke 5 compares the effectof testing to repetitive studying. The study reaches the conclusion that testing is more effective in promoting the memorization of factual content. Such studies have been replicated 1,2 thus indicating that, in medical education, testing can fulfill an important mission that is to help students memorize what they have studied, having an important influence in the learning process.
These results permit us to conclude that thiamethoxam applications can be made to control whiteflies in soy culture without any harmful effect on the action of the virus for the control of velvetbean caterpillars. Indeed, the possibility exists of a joint application of these control agents when both pests are present at the same time. The use of the virus in a mixture with reduced thiamethoxam doses for the control of velvetbean caterpillars under conditions of infestation above the limits established for its application alone needs further studies for the determination of its efficiency. In this respect, Moscardi & Sosa-Gómez (1992) observed that the NPV of the velvetbean caterpillar mixed with several insecticides at concentrations up to 1/6 of the recommended ones resulted in adequate control of pest populations when they occurred beyond the limits established for the use of the virus alone. Similar results were obtained by Silva (1995) for extremely elevated population densities. According to Moscardi (1998), this strategy may be useful for cases in which the pest population exceeds the limit for use of NPV alone, considering that reduced doses of insecticide would involve less of human intoxication risk, reduction of populations of natural enemies and environmental damage. From an economic viewpoint, Crébio & Melhorança (1999) evaluated the possibility of applying NPVAg mixed with post-emergent insecticides and concluded that this technique is viable for soy culture management.
The andiroba oil showed satisfactory effects in an induced periodontitis in rats in a systemic administration. Because of the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents, the andiroba topically administered or inside dental dentifrices would probably lead to better results. The concentration of the best active principles of the plant associate with mechanic therapy would improve the clinical outcames 13 . New studies are required to verify the effects of the oil
the degree of reduction and oxidation increased with temperature, which was in agreement with some other investigations (Song et al., 2008a; Zheng et al., 2011). This result also indicated that the conversion rate of CaSO 4 increased with the temperature in the reduction period. Besides, the conversion rate of CaSO 4 in the experiment with lime addition was larger than that without lime addition. It should be noted that the conversion rate of CaSO 4 showed the same value in the oxidation period, because the reaction rate was controlled by the oxygen aeration rate (Su et al., 2016). The improvement of the conversion rate may be attributed to the catalysis of lime on the water-gas shift reaction (Teyssié et al., 2011). During the oxidation period, the oxygen carrier conversion could not be restored to the same level as before. As will be discussed later, this phenomenon resulted from the sulfur release during the reduction/oxidation process. Note that the conversion rate of CaSO 4 with lime addition at 900 °C was even slightly larger than that without lime at 925 °C. This could be attributed to the sulfidation reaction of lime,