P≤0.001) better values of eggshell quality parameters were detected in Czech Hen breed. We found out that Czech Hen breed had also statistically significantly lighter colour of eggshell. There were no significant interbreed differences in egg weight, proportion of yolk and albumen. The egg shape index was significantly higher in Oravka. Index of yolk and albumen was also significantly ( P≤0.001) higher in Oravka. Haugh units score, that reflect the quality of the eggs, were found significantly
regardless of being cleaned. Results indicate that sanitization causes physical damage to the egg when it is removed the cuticle that envelops the shell and left the eggs more exposed to gas exchange through shell pores, providing a higher release of carbon dioxide and humidity, resulting in greater egg weight loss during storage time (STRINGHINI et al., 2009). It was possible to observe through electron microscopy that cleaned and disinfected eggshells had suffered changes in their structure, such as cracks and fissures, egg shell thinning and even partial or total cuticle removal (FAVIER et al., 2000). On the other hand, test results indicated that eggs with the covering layer showed lower weight loss, regardless of whether they were cleaned or not (P<0.05). According to FIUZA et al., (2006), the internal quality of eggs can be preserved longer since the shell is impermeable to carbon dioxide loss. Membranes and covering layers may close shell pores and, for this reason, promote the reduction of humidity and gases transport. (KESTER & FENNEMA, 1986). ALLEONI & ANTUNES (2001) observed a decrease in internal egg quality on eggs stored at 25°C and 75% of relative humidity, after seven days of storage.
this characteristic between companies was found. The eggs from company A presented lower average weight in comparison to those from company B, regarding storage time. No differences were observed between eggs from companies A and B for Haugh unit value. Storage time of 15 days after packing promoted reduction in Haugh unit value in comparison to those stored for 5 days. Quail eggs from company A presented lower variation in weight, although heavier eggs are produced by company B. Internal quality of quail eggs from both companies was similar. Storage time affected eggsquality.
The aim of this work was to assess the quality of pejerrey eggs and larvae throughout its spawning season. Fertilized eggs were taken on September, October, November, and December from a captive broodstock. The egg diameter, yolk diameter, and oil droplets area decreased along the spawning season, with higher values in September. Fertilization and hatching rates decreased throughout this period, with highest values in September (88.0%; 55.2%) and the lowest values on December (43.0%; 25.2%). The larvae hatched from eggs obtained on October were the heaviest and longest (1.57 mg; 8.24 mm). The survival rate at 30 days post hatching (dph) was similar in larvae from September and October eggs (66.1%; 62.9%) with a sharp decrease in larvae from November and December eggs (22.4%; 23.3%). Furthermore, the highest body weight (15.1 mg) and total length (15.25 mm) at 30 dph were obtained in larvae from October eggs. The results obtained showed that overall eggsquality was better at the beginning of the spawning period, influencing the larvae performance.
The main research interest in the recent years accentuates on the ecological animal production [6,13,15] and organic technologies of animal raising [8,9,10]. The modern animal husbandry incorporated natural feed additives as substitute for nutritive antibiotics and other allopathic medicine largely due to concerns over bacterial resistance. Such additives are phytobiotics. They are products of plant origin added to the feed or to the drink water in order to improve performance, gut health and immunity . To this group of products belongs Bulgarian dry extract of the annual herb Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) commercially known as VemoHerb-T, produced by the ﬁrm “Vemo 99” Ltd, Soﬁa. It is made from the whole aerial plant’s part harvested during the ﬂowering period by extraction in water-ethanol mixtures. The TT extract is easy soluble in water and has strong bitter taste. The biologically active substances of VemoHerb T are: steroidal saponins of furostanol type determined as protodioscin (55 to 65%); dubbing substances, calculated as tanin (not more than 10%); ﬂavonoids, determined as rutin (not more than 10%).The qualitative indices of this product are controlled in accordance with company documentation . TT extract improves the reproductive functions [4,7], productivity [17,18] and health [5,14] in animals.Our earlier studies demonstrated positive effect of VemoherbT addition on the laying capacity and egg quality in hens [2,3] and Guinea fowls . To our knowledge there are no information regarding the effect of TT supplementation on this parameters in quails. The objective of the current study was to examined the inﬂuence of VemoHerb T supplementation on laying productivity in Japanese quails and on their eggs’ morphological and sensor properties
Although fresh eggs are excellent, the maintenance of their chemical and physical characteristics on the market for commercialization is a challenge. Egg processing in Brazil, a tropical country, occurs on farms and the eggs reach the commercial outlets at room temperature when they should have been refrigerated at 10-13°C and relative air humidity of 70- 85%, immediately after laying (Barbosa et al., 2009; Moreng & Avens, 1990). Further, since the refrigeration of eggs is not mandatory, it constitutes a negative point in egg quality. Eggs are normally refrigerated by the final consumer (Figueiredo et al., 2011). So that the benefits provided by eggs are enhanced, costs with feed should be decreased and storing strategies for a longer shelf period at each age should be undertaken, without diminishing their performance.
This study evaluated the influence of the bird’s age on the quality of the shell and percentage of bacterial penetration in commercial eggs. White-shelled commercial eggs were used, laid by light laying hens in their first laying cycle at 21, 39, 51, and 62 weeks of age. Shell quality evaluations comprised: egg weight, specific gravity, percentage and thickness of shell, number and size of pores. For evaluations regarding bacterial penetration, strains of several enterobacterias and one salmonella were used, all of which resistant to Nalidixic acid (100µg/ml). The method employed for evaluation of bacterial penetration was filling the eggs with growth medium. The data were subjected to variance analysis with 5% of probability using SAS (Education Analytical Software, 2013). Eveb though increase in the laying hen's age caused reduction of the quality of eggshells, it failed to affect the percentage of penetration of the bacterial samples evaluated.
ABSTRACT - This investigation was carried out to evaluate certain egg quality characteristics of ISA Brown laying hens and Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in relation to their age. One hundred forty-four brown-egg ISA Brown laying hens and one hundred female quails were used in the study. A total of 1,678 eggs of laying hens and 2,060 eggs of Japanese quails were used during the experiment. The eggs for technological values were collected during two consecutive days in a 4-week period when the laying hens were from 20 to 60 weeks of age and the quails were from nine to 49 weeks of age. The results show that egg weight was affected by the age of the hens and quails (overall means 61.13 g and 12.52 g, respectively). Despite frequens fluctuations, as the age of the laying hens and quails increased, the yolk index and yolk proportion increased as well, while the albumen index, eggshell strength and shell thickness decreased. The increasing age of the hens also led to a decrease in egg shape index and eggshell proportion, but these parameters increased in the quails. A significantly higher proportion of albumen was found in the hens than in the quails, but of worse quality than in the quails as expressed by Haugh units score. The egg from ISA Brown hens had a darker yolk color than those from Japanese quails (5.90 vs. 4.87 in the La Roche scale).
The reduction in the internal quality of eggs is mainly associated to the loss of water and carbon dioxide during the storage period, and it is proportional to the increase in the temperature of the environment. As for the assessment of the albumen height, when the egg is broken out onto a smooth surface, its quality can be determined since as it ages the proportion of albumin increases at the expense of the liquid density. The loss of carbon dioxide during storage results in a change of the egg flavor as a consequence of the increase in alkalinity, besides the numerous chemical reactions involving the carbonic acid in the egg inside. Thus, good quality fresh eggs have a neutral pH and the egg white will be limpid, clear, consistent, dense and thick, with a small fluid portion (Leandro et al., 2005).
ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to determine the effects of egg quality characteristics (egg weight, egg width, egg height, and shape index) on fertility of eggs of Japanese quail with different colored feathers (yellow, white, grizzled, and normal), which are of economic importance for poultry production. For this purpose, 383 eggs of Japanese quail with various feather colors were used. In the study, usability of classiﬁcation and regression tree (CART) data-mining algorithm as a classiﬁcation tree method is necessary for poultry breeders to deﬁne proper cut-off values of egg quality characteristics that ensure Japanese quail eggs at good quality in fertility. Fertility as the dependent variable in the study was examined as a binary trait (fertile and infertile) and all the egg quality traits accepted as explanatory variables were continuous variables. Feather color was also included as a nominal categorical explanatory variable. The classiﬁcation tree results showed that the highest fertility ratio of 90.9% was obtained from the eggs of Japanese quail of white, grizzled, and normal feather colors with 10.425 g ≥ egg weight, 24.565 mm ≥ egg width, or the fertility ratio of 88.2% of the eggs was observed with 10.425 g ≤ egg weight and 25.605 mm ≥ egg width. Consequently, usability of the tree-based CART algorithm is important in practice for properly establishing fertilized eggs, depending on feather color types of Japanese quail.
Quality variations in retail eggs are widely reported. This study aims at assessing the quality of eggs according to the marketing channel in the department of Bejaia (Algeria). In spring and summer 2012, 3330 eggs were bought in 30 stores divided into 3 categories: 10 supermarkets (1146 eggs), 10 public markets (1048 eggs), and 10 shops (1136 eggs). Egg weights differed significantly between marketing channels with 58.9±0.14, 61.2±0.13 and 62.8±0.13 g for public markets, shops and supermarkets, respectively (p<0.001). Although shell thickness was similar for all marketing channels, the proportion of damaged eggs was higher in public markets (9.0%), intermediate in food shops (7.3%) and lower in supermarkets (5.7%; p<0.05). The yolk/albumen ratio was significantly higher for eggs from supermarkets (48.0%) compared with the other channels (around 47.4%; p<0.05). The freshness of the eggs, measured by the Haugh method, was lower in public markets (74.3 units), intermediate in shops (77.6 units) and higher in supermarkets (79.9 units; p<0.05). The price of eggs, expressed in Algerian Dinar (AD) per kg, was significantly lower in public markets (124 AD/kg) compared with the two other channels (around 131 AD/kg; p<0.05). It is possible to conclude that egg quality in Bass Kabylie differs significantly among marketing channels, with higher quality observed in supermarkets. The lower quality of eggs in public markets is associated with lower price. Eggs from shops present an intermediate quality. A one-year study would allow studying both the potential seasonal effect and compare intrinsic variability across marketing channels.
The results of the quality of eggs from the groups sanitized or not-sanitized at the beginning of the experiment (unpublished data) were consistent with those observed by Carvalho et al. (2007) with fresh eggs. The average of all analyzed eggs at the initial time for speciﬁc gravity was 1,085 and 70 Haugh units, indicating a good quality for shell and albumen. The Haugh unit value equal to or greater than 72 indicates an excellent quality, as long as the other factors are normal (Silversides et al., 1993). These results were similar to those found by Leandro et al. (2005) and Xavier et al. (2008), when they analyzed the external and internal quality of fresh eggs collected directly from the farm.
Some results found in the literature were contradictory to those obtained in this study. Pappas et al. (2005) and Gajcevic et al. (2009) concluded that the supplementation of diet for laying hens with selenium in organic form resulted in eggs with higher values of Haugh unit when stored for 0, 7 and 14 days and 0, 14 and 28 days at room temperature and 4 °C, respectively. However, Mohiti-Asli et al. (2008) did not observe changes in quality of eggs of laying hens with organic selenium supplementation stored during 14 days under different temperatures (4 °C, 23-27 °C and 31 °C). For every quality trait of eggs evaluated during storage periods, there were interactions (P<0.0001), except for weight loss, between time and temperature. When slicing these interactions (Figure 1), quality of eggs worsened according to the storage period at room temperature; however, when at refrigerated temperature, the quality was maintained.
feed intake in birds fed on 100 % PABM could have a negative effect on the consumption of other essential nutrients. For example, if the optimal calcium and phosphorus requirements are not met due to low feed intake, the quality of egg shells could be compromised. The interaction between strain and PABM inclusion on ADFI was also unexpected. For Amberlink birds, the feed intake dropped by 5 %, while a massive 17% drop was observed for the large-framed Hyline layers. These findings suggest that inclusion of PABM to curb VAD should take into account the strain of bird to be utilised. Egg weight is one of the important traits that influence consumer’s egg purchasing behaviour. One of the main factors influencing egg size is body size of the laying chicken (Robinson & Sheridan, 1982; Summer & Leeson, 1983). As expected, the egg weight for the Hyline birds was significantly heavier than that of Amberlink birds. Lacin et al., (2008) also explained the negative relationship that exists between egg weight and egg production. Increase in body weight decreases egg production, while egg weight and feed consumption increase. Heavy birds consume more feed and lay larger egg with large egg yolk than light hens. Even though, inclusion of PABM had no direct effect on egg weights and egg production, strain of the bird and the strain × PABM inclusion interaction had significant effect on egg weights and egg production. Moreover, the recommended value of FCR for Hy-line layers for the age range of 20 to 90 weeks is 1.95 to 2.07. The observation that, the Hy-line birds except for those on the diet containing 100 % PABM, had high value of FCR than the recommended was not expected. It was however, expected that layers with heavier body weight would produce fewer eggs. It is possible that, the high level of FCR of those Hy-line layers on the diets 0 % and 50 % of PABM could be caused by their significantly heavy body weight as comparing to the Hy-line layers under 100 % PABM diet.
The results for egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight and eggshell percentage of quails (Table 2) did not present statistical differences. Possibly, the results of quails performance and internal and external quality of eggs were not altered by vitamin A supplementation in diets because vitamin requirements were already supplied by the control basal diet. Consequently, the excess of this vitamin was stored in the liver for later deposition on other tissues. The retinol content in yolk presented a linear increase with the supplementation of vitamin A in diets of the birds (Table 2; Figure 1). The coefficient of determination, R 2 =0.7985, indicates good adjustment of data to the line, meaning that 79.85% of data variability could be explained by the linear regression model.
Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O 2 ) absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O 2 ) absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days), control group (fresh eggs)], with three repetitions (12 eggs each). The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O 2 absorbent and CO 2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O 2 gas absorbent and CO 2
Dose-dependent positive effects on hatchability and hatchling weight have been attributed to ascorbic acid (AA) when eggs were submitted or not to intermittent heat stress during incubation. Fertile breeder (Cobb®) eggs were used to determine if the pre-incubation injection of AA in ovo affects the incubation and hatchling quality of egg incubated under thermoneutral or intermittent heat stress conditions. Eggs were not injected or injected with 0, 2,4, or 6% AA/100µL water and incubated at continuous thermoneutral (37.5ºC) or hot (39.0ºC) temperature. Eggshell temperature (EST) increased in the second half of the incubation period in all experimental groups. The EST of non-injected eggs and of those injected with water was higher when incubated at 39°C than at 37.5°C, but EST was not different among eggs injected with AA. Egg mass loss and eggshell conductance were higher in the eggs incubated at 39°C than at 37.5°C.Hatchability was lower in the eggs injected with AA. Liver and yolk sac weights were higher, whereas heart and liver weights were lower in hatchlings from eggs incubated at 39°C; however, hatchling weight was not affected by incubation temperature. The results showed that AA doses affected egg conductive heat loss and hatchability, and that they did not minimize the effects of high incubation temperature on liver and heart development.
According to De Blas (1991), in eggs production the dietary restriction can be used at an economic situation where the feeding cost is high, and the egg price is low. In the case of free-ranger egg production, the introduction of hay in the feeding of laying hens reduces the amount of feed supplied, and improves the yolk color, which is the differential of quality more important for this type of product. Nevertheless, the producer should not forget that the remuneration for the activity will takes place by selling the higher number of eggs, since although these eggs has differentiated price in relation to other commercial eggs, this is fixed for each category. Therefore, as shown in the present study, the problems related to the greater reduction in the concentrate supplied for laying hens can not be solved with the supply of forage for the birds. Conclusion
Our results showed that no significant effect was observed (P> 0.05) in groups on the variables of performance analysis, but with respect to the internal quality of eggs, there was change in the intensity of the color of the yolk and the values of the Haugh unit group II which were higher than group I. We conclude that the supplementation of organic minerals not affect hens performance, but was significant in the internal quality of eggs.
program related to the intermittent ones. The eggsquality (Table 3) did not change due to lighting programs. The high P-value (probability) coupled with the low coefficient of variation obtained in the observation of variables to certify the eggsquality (Table 3) is an excellent indication that the intermittent lighting programs do not affect the eggsquality. KOELKEBECK et al. (1986) also indicated that eggs density and Haugh unit were not affected when comparing the continuous and intermittent programs applied from 21 weeks of age.