Two important field management practices in rice, the onset of flooding irrigation and nitrogen dressing, are recommended at the, V 3 stage. The simulated average date of V 3 for the three cultivated rice genotypes in the six emergence dates and in the eleven climate scenarios is in Table 2. Under current climate, the number of days from emergence to V 3 was 18, 22, and 19 days for IRGA 417, EEA 406, and the HYBRID, respectively, in the 08/20 emergence date and decreased as emergence date was delayed, reaching 10, 12, and 11 days respectively, in the 12/20 and 01/20 emergence dates. This fastening of leaf development for the latest emergence dates is a result of the increase in air temperature from the end of winter to beginning of summer in this Subtropical location. As temperature increased in the elevatedtemperature scenarios, the date of V 3 was anticipated in the early emergence dates (08/20, 09/20, and 10/20) and little or no change in the V 3 stage was estimated for the 11/20, 12/20 and 01/20 emergence dates. The greatest anticipation in days was for the 08/20 emergence dates at the +5 °C scenario, (6, 7 and 6 days for IRGA 417, EEA 406 and the HYBRID, respectively). These results indicate that if rice is sown from November to January, increased temperature will not affect the timing of the onset of flooding irrigation and nitrogen dressing. However, if rice is sown early in August and September, future climate change may change the timing of these management practices in rice fields. This is an important mitigation strategy for decision makers and producers.
Appropriate criteria for antibiotic use was defined as patients found to be febrile (>101 de- grees Fahrenheit) and/or UA findings of positive nitrites and/or presence of greater than five white blood cells per high power field (hpf) on micros- copy. Given the lack of clear data in the litera- ture regarding UA interpretation in the setting of nephrolithiasis, the definition of pyuria used in this study was based on expert opinion. Whether a urine culture was ordered during the ED visit was evaluated. Patients who had a negative UA or did not have a UA completed with concomitant find- ing of an elevated serum white blood count (WBC) greater than 11.000/µL or elevatedtemperature were excluded from the analysis. These patients were considered a “soft indication” for antibiotic administration, where clinical acumen beyond the scope of an EMR data analysis may play a role in decision making.
Similar to corals, foraminifera have been reported to host a wide variety of dinoflagellate clades of the genus Symbiodinium [78,79] and these different clades may confer different stress tolerance characteristics, as has been reported for symbiotic dinoflagellates in corals [25,26]. Cantin and colleagues  demonstrated that reduced photosynthetic output limits the translocation of carbo- hydrates from symbiont to host and that this effect was dependent on symbiont type. Reduced energy acquisition could decrease overall fitness and resilience of the host animal to further stressors. The results obtained here suggest that foraminifera hosting diatoms are more vulnerable to temperature stress and species hosting dinoflagellates more vulnerable to the effects of herbicides. Recently, we suggested a species’ ultrastructure may influence diuron biokinetics as we observed delayed uptake and effect in porcelaneous (imperforate) species as opposed to hyaline (perfo- rate) species . Despite an equal sensitivity to the effects of elevatedtemperature, the current study revealed a slightly greater sensitivity to diuron in H. depressa when compared with co-existing A. quoyi (hyaline versus porcelaneous, respectively; both hosting diatoms). Marginopora vertebralis (porcelaneous; dinoflagellates) was more heavily affected by diuron than either hyaline or porcela- neous diatom-bearing species, while at the same time less vulnerable to elevatedtemperature as assessed by PAM-fluorom- etry. Following our results, improving water quality (by reducing herbicide levels) will have the greatest effect for the diatom-bearing species H. depressa and A. quoyi, as these species are most likely to suffer the effects from elevated SSTs. The symbiotic dinoflagellates tested here may be less vulnerable to thermal pressure than diatoms, but suffer more stress from herbicides alone. For short- term exposures this may not be a problem, but it remains unclear how foraminifera respond to longer-term exposures of physical or chemical stress.
Our findings emphasize the importance of selecting a real- istic temperature when designing perturbation experiments, which may be especially important in polar organisms where temperature regulates many physiological processes. Choos- ing a temperature close to the optimum growth temperature, rather than at ambient conditions, might either over- or un- derestimate the effect of carbon enrichment due to a tem- perature dependency of the response. Earlier studies suggest that elevatedtemperature within the temperature range of the species increases growth rate and photosynthesis in phy- toplankton and ice algal species (Eppley, 1972; Montagnes and Franklin, 2001; Torstensson et al., 2012). Furthermore, acclimation and the ability to benefit from elevated carbon dioxide levels could be an alternative explanation to the in- teraction observed for the growth rate in this study. Since growth rate was higher in the warmer treatment, the poten- tial acclimation rate to high CO 2 was also higher. Although
Titanium alloys parts are ideally suited for advanced aerospace systems because of their unique combination of high speciic strength at both room temperature and moderately elevatedtemperature, in addition to excellent corrosion resistance. Despite these features, use of titanium alloys in engines and airframes is limited by cost. The alloys processing by powder metallurgy eases the obtainment of parts with complex geometry. In this work, results of the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys production are presented. Samples were produced by mixing of initial metallic powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densiication by sintering between 900 up to 1500 °C, in vacuum. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. It was shown that the samples were sintered to high densities and presented homogeneous microstructure from the elements dissolution with low interstitial pick-up.
Furthermore, our finding is in line with two previous studies showing an association between intrapartum fever and increased risk of neonatal seizures [28,29]. Another recent study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort found no association between self-reported elevated maternal body temperature (due to fever or sauna use) during pregnancy and increased risk of epilepsy in offspring . However, children with prenatal exposure to more than two maternal fever episodes, maternal fever with urinary symptoms, or maternal fever of 39.0 uC or did have an increased risk of epilepsy – suggesting that the underlying causes of fever rather than elevatedtemperature play a role . Recently it has been suggested that inflammation may be involved in the mechanism linking fever and epilepsy . Experimental studies in rodents have shown that inflammatory reactions in the brain can enhance neuronal excitability , and anti-inflammatory
Under eT, although the number of ramifications was the lowest observed (Fig 3.3C), there was a differentiated flowering percentage (30.6%, Fig 3.4) in relation to Control. The elevatedtemperature favored the flowering of S. capitata and the process of ramification is clearly hampered under eT throughout time (Fig 3.5A). Under eT, S. capitata were investing on reproductive growth instead vegetative growth. High temperatures can induce changes in the phenology of plants and change the networks of interaction between plants and pollinators (97–99). For example, elevated temperatures are responsible for the decrease in the number of flowers of some species (100), but warming may increase flowering in others (101). These opposite effects caused by the elevatedtemperature in the production of flowers suggest that some particular species are more susceptible to high temperatures while others are more tolerant (102). Typically, plants that depend on temperature signals to regulate flowering and those that are more limited by the availability of nitrogen than water may be better adapted to respond to warming (103,104).
Abstract - In gypsy moth caterpillars exposed to a temperature of 35ºC (for 1, 12 and 24 h and caterpillars that were ex- posed to elevatedtemperature for 12 h and were allowed to recover for 12 h at 23ºC), changes in the brain protein proiles and morphometric characteristics of A1’ medial and L2 lateral protocerebral neurosecretory neurons were analyzed. In all groups, protein bands with a molecular mass corresponding to that of members of heat-shock protein families were detected, indicating that acute exposure to this temperature likely induced the synthesis of HSP. Increased morphometric parameters of A1’ neurons and the large amount of neurosecretory material in the neuron body implicate that the tem- perature of 35˚C is not in the temperature range that exerts stimulatory efects on growth and survival. Changes in the morphometric characteristics of L2 neurosecretory neurons from the lateral part of the protocerebrum, and retention of neurosecretory material in their cytoplasm indicate a low level of secretion.
Superposition of the crystal structures of thermostable xylan- ases from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharoclyticum  and Clostridium thermocellum  reveals that an N-terminal exten- sion forms an additional b-strand that increases the number of hydrogen bonds in the b-sandwich ﬁnger domain, and has led to the suggestion that the N-terminal regions of these enzymes contribute to their thermostability. Hydrophobic interactions and salt bridges have also been suggested to be important struc- tural features for thermostability [6,7]. The hydrophobic core of G/11 xylanases extends along the entire length of the internal surface of the b-sandwich and is rich in highly conserved tyro- sine and tryptophan residues, and indeed the thermostability of family G/11 xylanases has been improved through the introduc- tion of aromatic interactions by site-directed mutagenesis . Salt bridges are distributed over the whole surface of the pro- tein, and mutagenesis of His149 (located on the opposite side of the active site) to Phe or Gln did not modify the catalytic activity, but signiﬁcantly improved the thermal stability . Furthermore, the thermostability of family G/11 xylanases has been improved by the inclusion of additional surface charges , arginine residues  and disulphide bonds [11,12]. Several experimental approaches have been used to improve the thermostability and thermophilicity of xylanases including chemical modiﬁcation, cross-linking, immobilization, treat- ment with additives and protein engineering , and the results of these studies suggest that multiple factors may contribute to the structural basis of thermostability. In an eﬀort to identify the structural basis of thermostability, we have focused on understanding the structural changes in the G/11 xylanases at various temperatures leading up to the optimum temperature for catalysis. With the aim of identifying and delineating the structural basis for the catalytic activity at elevatedtemperature of these industrially relevant enzymes, we report the crystal structure at 1.7 A ˚ resolution and molecular dynamics studies in the range of temperature of a recombinant thermophilic fam- ily G/11 xylanase from Bacillus subtilis 1A1 (rXynA).
Families 1 and 2 (68 offspring and 20 offspring respectively) with dams from an isogenic XX clonal line and XY sires (as judged from balanced sex ratios in crosses to clonal line and outbred females and a high association between phenotypic sex and the LG 1 UNH995 marker) were used to prepare RAD Libraries (Table 1). The available genome draft of O. niloticus is based on females from this clonal line. The sex associated SNPs were further validated by genotyping four further families with balanced sex ratios (Families 3–6: 24 offspring each) and broodstock (40 individuals; Table 1). These SNPs were finally used for genotyping a family in which elevatedtemperature induced a change in sex ratio (Family 7) to test whether the above SNPs could be useful in distinguishing neomales (XX males) from normal males. The sex ratio of the control group (reared at 28uC) did not show any deviations from the expected 1:1 ratio, while in the high temperature (36uC) treated group the proportion of males exceeded 96%.
The emissivity coefficient is nearly always the temperature function, and for liquid cast iron alloys a violent fluctuations in its value occurs. Quality of measurements performed by the total radiation or monochromatic pyrometers is often not sufficient for the technological needs. A better accuracy of the temperature measurement is provided when the spectral composition - not the energy - are compared. If ε(λ,T)=constant, then the determination of the thermodynamic temperature of the object is possible by means of measuring the ratio of radiation intensities emitted for two wave length λ 1 i λ 2 :
et al., 2016). Moreover, the RLS gene was selected based on the fact that, according to structural-functional analyses, most of the important amino acid residues necessary for catalysis are present in the large subunits (Morita et al., 2014). The consensus ranking established by RefFinder identified MDH, UBQ2, and DNAJ as the best stable genes to temperature, whereas a-TUB, CYCL and EF-1A where the least stable ones. Given that the increase in atmospheric temperature has proven to be the most disturbing variable to metabolism performance, mineral nutrition and acclimation limitation under predicted future environmental conditions (Martins et al., 2014, 2016; Rodrigues et al., 2016), with particular strong negative implications to RuBisCO catalytic ability (Rodrigues et al., 2016), we decided to use the most/least stable genes to temperature for RLS validation.
since temperature primarily regulates growth. However, ambient temperatures may be- come closer to the peak of the thermal window during an ocean warming event and promote the effect of carbon enrichment. Temperature is essential to enzyme activity and metabolic processes where the speed of reactions increases with increasing tem- perature. Results from this study indicate that N. lecointei is more efficient in utilizing
To evaluate the relationship between dietary intake (food groups and total energy intake percentages of macronutrients) and total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-Cholesterol and HDL-Cholesterol (in a categorized model – elevated and normal levels) multiple linear re- gression analysis was used adjusted for the sex, gender, TEI and BMI. The estimation of foods that are eaten sporadically is more complex in statistical modeling due to the higher frequency of consumption equal to zero (Tooze et al., 2006) . In this study, the consumption of some food groups (fruits and vegetables) was sporadic (zero or near zero). For this type of analysis was used is a statistical method developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) that estimates the distribution of food in- take sporadically consumed from data of two or more 24h-recalls. This statistical model represents the habitual food consumption as a result of the probability of the food intake amount in a given day. The food amount intake was transformed to normal distribution using the Box- Cox transformation. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed by a routine commands (MIXTRAN DIS- TRIB) available on NCI website to identify the habitual food intake and its association with covariates. The same analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship be- tween dietary intake and blood lipid levels.
The advantages of MRgFUS as a form of image guided therapy, especially for small animal applications, are augmented at higher magnetic field strengths. Namely, the quasi linear increase in both effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the PRF temperature sensitivity with increasing field strength promise improvements in image quality and temperature precision for MRT at high field strengths ($7T). High field scanners are particularly advantageous for small animal imaging where the increased SNR as compared with lower field clinical scanners (e.g. 1.5, or 3T) can be utilized to gain needed spatial resolution. Clinical implementations of therapeutic FUS, typically around 1 MHz [24,25], may have inadequate depth-of-field (,1 cm) for use in small animals where the focal spot length can be prohibitively large. Thus, benefit is derived from higher frequency FUS where the depth-of-field is significantly reduced and focal spot length is on the order of 1– 2 mm (for 3 MHz) . The combination of a 7T scanner and 3 MHz FUS promises to provide numerous advantages for small animal MRgFUS. Moreover, GRAPPA based PPI algorithms provided in many modern MR imagers offer an ease of implementation that is especially attractive if suitable temperature accuracy may be obtained. Thus, we examined the use of GRAPPA for MRT and its applicability on a 7T system for MRT, coupled with a 3 MHz FUS transducer, for use with small animals. We report the development of a combined FUS-MRI system at high field for the delivery of precise thermal doses along arbitrary trajectories facilitated by integrated real-time feedback control. High thermal accuracy, spatiotemporal resolution, and homogeneity of thermal dose distribution were achieved with implementation of GRAPPA.
Description. Male (holotype): total length 1.34. Cephalothorax: carapace orange- brown, broadly oval, pars cephalica strongly elevated, posterolateral surface without spikes, surface of elevated portion of pars cephalica and sides smooth (Fig. 120); lateral margin with blunt denticles. Clypeus margin slightly rebordered, straight in frontal view, high. Eyes: ALE separated by less than their radius. Sternum as long as wide, orange- brown, surface smooth, with pits (Figs 124, 152). Chelicerae, endites and labium orange- brown (Fig. 125). Abdomen: book lung covers large and elliptical. Pedicel tube medium. Dorsal scutum orange-brown, smooth, anterior half without projecting denticles (Fig. 127). Epigastric and postepigastric scutum orange-brown (Fig. 129). Legs: orange-brown. Leg spination: tibia I v4-4-0; metatarsus I v4-2-0. Genitalia: epigastric region with small, narrow sperm pore. All palpal segments pale orange. Embolus dark, with wide and large embolar apical projection (Figs 133, 137).
The significant correlation between plasma BDNF, plasma lipids and diastolic blood pressure in both males and females strongly suggests that plasma BDNF is important for cardiovas- cular health. In addition to potentially playing a direct role in atherogenesis, plasma BDNF may be a regulator of lipid metabolism and blood pressure control. Dislipidemia and hypertension are major risk factors for coronary heart disease. Whether the associations described above are causal or whether elevated plasma BDNF represents a compensatory response to disrupted lipid metabolism and hypertension is presently unclear. It remains to be elucidated if the link between dislipidemia and Figure 5. Linear regression analysis correlating plasma BDNF with thyroid function, adiponectin levels and glucose sensitivity in males. A and C. Plasma BDNF was positively correlated with FT3 (p = 0.0053, R 2 = 0.03348) and glucose-120 (p = 0.0460, R 2 = 0.02170). B. Plasma BDNF