In the Text S1, we report the descriptive statistics of the main variables and their zero-order correlations (See Table S6 in Text S1). Experiment 2 revealed that perceived disgust from the negative stimuli differed across emotionregulation strategies, F(2, 109) = 3.61, p = 0.03 (Fig. 3). A planned contrast revealed that participants in the reappraisal condition were significantly less disgusted (M = –0.40, SD = 0.40) than were those in the control condition (M = 0.13, SD = 1.06), p = 0.03. Also, participants’ ratings of purity as a relevant moral concern (i.e., whether one takes purity and decency into account when making judgment about right and wrong) differed significantly across the emotionregulation strategies, F(2, 111) = 3.59, p = 0.03. Participants in the reappraisal condition were less likely to perceive purity concerns as relevant to their moral judgment (M = –0.38, SD = 0.91) than were those in the control condition (M = 0.15, SD = 1.04), p = 0.05. Interestingly, we did not observe any statistically significant difference in other concerns for morality (harm, fairness, loyalty, and respect) across the three emotionregulation conditions, although similar patterns appeared for loyalty and respect (p .0.52 for all contrasts).
Despite these limitations, our results have important im- plications for clinical practice. Attachment orientations are believed to form over long periods of time and show relative stability (Fraley, 2002). For this reason, identifying targets of intervention that are associated with attachment but are more malleable is critical. Our findings suggest that these targets may be patterns of emotion expression. The research also sug- gests that any intervention aimed at emotionregulation must consider the interpersonal consequences of these regulatory strategies in addition to intrapersonal consequences. Clinicians should work to create a supportive context for exploring emo- tion challenges particularly in interpersonal contexts of inse- curely attached individuals. Efforts can be made to promote adaptive strategies to regulate emotion in the context of couple relationships. An awareness of partners' insecurities may help to reduce insecure reactions and help to deal with fears of re- jection and abandonment in the context of close relationships. Additional areas of therapeutic focus suggested by this research include focusing on exploring needs and challenges involved in communicating attachment concerns, promoting the identification and effective signaling of emotions, and improving abilities to understand and respond to a partner's emotions. These foci could be targeted in individual or couple interventions, but regardless of the venue, may help improve individual psychological well‐being. By helping individuals improve the way they regulate their emotions individually and in couple interactions clinical work may foster greater security and well‐being.
Finally, this study aimed to identify the predictors of the child’s emotionregulation. Results showed that the parents’ acknowledgement of adoption related differences and communication about adoption were signifi cant predictors of the child’s emotionregulation. Through a more emotionally positive communication about adoption and more parental satisfaction with it, an acknowledgment of differences that does not insist on the specifi cities of adoption signifi cantly predicted less emotional lability/negativity in the adopted child. It is worth noting the simultaneous presence of both mediators in order to produce a signifi cant effect: parents’ attitudes (in this case, acknowledgement of differences) are relevant insofar as they translate into specifi c behaviors (emotional attunement of communication about adoption) and feelings (satisfaction with adoption communication). Similarly to non-adoptive families (Eisenberg et al., 2010; Kim-Spoon et al., 2013), adoptive family Emotionally attuned
Therefore the present study aimed to develop and test different models that consider quality of social relationships and emotionregulation ability as mediator and/or moderator variables that explain or enhance the effects of extraversion on happiness in an adult community sample (Figs. 1 and 2). Emotionregulation ability was evaluated using the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). This work aims to help fill in several gaps in the research literature. One is the need to address the research question while avoiding the high risk of bias associated with self-reported measures of emotional intelligence or emotionregulation used in most studies on this topic. Self-reported measures do not directly assess people’s emotional abilities but rather people’s self-reported beliefs about their emotional abilities. Self-reported emotional intelligence measures are highly correlated with established measures of happiness and personality and may therefore contain a great deal of unwanted variance (Cˆot´e, 2014; Brackett et al., 2006; Webb et al., 2013). Another gap addressed in the present study is whether and how the quality of social relationships affects happiness; most relevant studies have focused instead on the number or amount of social relationships. A third gap is to examine mediation or moderation in a large community sample with people of diverse ages, since most relevant studies have been performed with small undergraduate samples.
steps here described. The English version of the CERQ was translated into Portuguese by two independent translators fluent in English and Portuguese, and back-translated into English by two other independent translators. Three psychologists compared the original English version of the CERQ to the back-translated versions, and the items that were closest to the original ones were selected to compose the preliminary Brazilian version of the CERQ. Four expert judges in the fields of emotionregulation, human cognition, and psychometric properties evaluated the preliminary version. After the judges’ evaluation, each item was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale considering clarity of language, practical pertinence, and theoretical relevance (1=none to 5=completely), generating a coefficient validity index (CVI) for each dimension. The judges’ suggestions were taken into consideration and necessary changes were made for the final version, which was, once again, showed and evaluated by the judges. Finally, the final version was tested in the first 30 subjects of the study, who were inquired about item comprehension using a 5-point Likert scale (1=I understood nothing to 5=I understood everything).
The important role of emotionregulation and expression in adaptation to breast cancer is now widely recognized. Studies have shown that optimal emotionregulation strategies, including less constrained emotional expression, are associated with better adaptation. Our objective was to systematically review measures used to assess the way women with breast cancer regulate their emotions. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Nine different databases were searched. Data were independently extracted and assessed by two researchers. English-language articles that have used at least one instrument to measure strategies to regulate emotions in women with breast cancer were included. Of 679 abstracts identified 59 studies were deemed eligible for inclusion. Studies were coded regarding their objectives, methods, and results. We identified 16 instruments used to measure strategies of emotionregulation and expression. The most frequently employed instrument was the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale. Few psychometric proprieties other than internal consistency were reported for most instruments. Many studies did not include important information regarding descriptive characteristics and psychometric proprieties of the instruments used. The instruments used tap different aspects of emotionregulation. Specific instruments should be explored further with regard to content, validity, and reliability in the context of breast cancer.
regions during reappraisal of negative emotion. Importantly though, unlike the general recruitment of the DLPFC across reappraisal conditions, activity in the lateral OFC was uniquely observed during reappraisal of negative stimuli. The location and functional neuroanatomy of the OFC makes it ideally suited for suppressing neural activity in subcortical structures due to its rich reciprocal connectivity to both the PFC and emotion generating processing regions . A comprehensive meta-analysis on the role of the OFC has suggested that subregions within this region serve functionally distinct roles . According to this view, while activity in the medial region of the OFC is related to monitoring, learning and memory of the reward value of reinforcing stimuli, activity within the lateral regions of the OFC is more related to evaluation of punishers that can promote behavioral change . In line with a medial-lateral division within the OFC, previous reappraisal studies have demonstrated an association between increased medial OFC activity and reactivity to emotional material [4,7], whereas lateral OFC activity has been associated with down-regulation of emotional responses [5,7,27], and a functional coupling with the amygdala during reappraisal [28,29]. In fact, in a mediation analysis reported by Wager and colleagues , the lateral OFC was identified as a core region mediating reappraisal success through two independent sub- cortical pathways involving the nucleus accumbens that predicted successful reappraisal, and the amygdala, that predicted un- successful reappraisal. These results were interpreted to suggest that the lateral OFC is engaged both by a negative appraisal process that involves the amygdala, and a positive appraisal process involving the nucleus accumbens. As such, our results are supported by these data as they implicate the lateral OFC as critically involved in the regulation of emotion. Moreover, our results fits particularly well with a recent study  that directly contrasted emotionregulation accomplished by two different regulation strategies and reported that the lateral OFC was specifically engaged by reappraisal as compared to when using the strategy of distancing. Importantly, the present results, which directly compared the relative contribution of the DLPFC and the lateral OFC during reappraisal, are consistent with the proposed role of these regions in other regulation tasks, such as during the regulation of pain [20,43–45] and selective attention [13,46].
Sixty female students (mean age: 23.262.53 years, range: 18–28 years) from Beijing Normal University voluntarily participated in the EmotionRegulation-Implicit Association Test (ER-IAT) study. All participants were right-handed. Data from all participants were included in the analysis. Fifteen participants, whose scores in the emotion control category of ER-IAT were in the top 27% of the 60 participants, were recruited into the high-automatic emotionregulation group of the ERP study. Fifteen participants, whose scores in the emotion control category were in the last 27% of the total participants, were recruited into the low-automatic emotionregulation group of the ERP study. One participant was excluded due to technical problems, and four participants did not finish the experiment. All participants had normal or corrected-to-normal vision, reported no medication use at the time of the study and had no history of neurological disorders or drug abuse. Each participant received 15 Chinese yuan for participating in the ER-IAT study and 30 Chinese yuan for participating in the ERP study.
However, less attention has been given to other constructs such as shame (external and internal), and emotionregulation processes as self-compassion and self-judgment and the role they may have in perceived infertility-related stress. The relationship between shame and emotional difficulties has been well established, particularly regarding depression (for a review see Kim, Thibodeau, & Jorgensen, 2011) and anxiety (e.g., Irons & Gilbert, 2005; Tangney, Wagner, & Gramzow, 1992). This relationship led us to investigate the role of external and internal shame on infertility-related stress. Moreover we were interested in exploring the mediator effect of the emotionregulation processes of self-compassion and self-judgment. Self-compassion has been described as a self- regulation process in terms of dealing with stress because it involves identifying, understanding, and expressing emo- tions in an adaptive way (Neff, 2003b). It has also been linked to adaptive psychological functioning, as a protective process against self-evaluative anxiety (Neff, Kirkpatrick, & Rude, 2007). Conversely, self-judgment includes a critical attitude towards the self when facing pain or failure, the feeling of being isolated and separate from others in those instances, and of becoming so immersed in subjective emotion reactions that one is carried away by one’s emotions (Neff, 2004). Considering self-judgment as a process in which individuals tend to be self-critical, to feel isolated and disconnected from others, and to overidentify with their negative emotional states (Neff, 2004) we would expect it to be positively asso- ciated with infertility-related stress and shame.
clinical significance of emotionregulation, reviewed the extant literature to conceptualize emotional regulation with the objective of developing and validating a measure to assess difficulties in this ability. After this review, the authors concluded that emotional regulation involves a) awareness and understanding of emotions, b) acceptance of emotional responses, c) ability to control impulsive or inappropriate behaviors and behave in accordance with desired goals when experiencing negative emotions, and d) ability to use situationally appropriate emotionregulation strategies flexibly to modulate emotional responses as desired in order to meet individual goals and situational demands. Therefore, an absence of any or all of these categories would indicate the presence of difficulties in emotionregulation, or emotion dysregulation.
study. They answered to the self-report instruments about emotionregulation and sexual satisfaction, and to an in-depth interview which assessed aspects related to the family, emotional background, besides the loving and sexual relations, including aspects on risky sexual behavior. A descriptive, quantitative and qualitative outlining was carried out. The results showed that all the evaluated presented emotion dysregulation in major or minor levels. Regarding sexual satisfaction, six participants presented positive rates of satisfaction and some of them reported the preservation of there desire and sexual satisfaction. However, other participants reported some difficulties such as sexual aversion and hypersexual behavior. Some risky sexual behaviors were identified in two of these participants and linked to past behaviors.
Despite evidence linking empathy to prosocial behaviour (e.g. , ) and the proposal that individual differences in emotionregulation may moderate associations between empathy and prosocial behaviour , , this has not, to our knowledge, been directly examined. Moreover, how distinct emotion regula- tion strategies might moderate associations between empathy and prosocial behaviour has not been explored. The majority of studies suggesting empathy as a motivating factor for prosocial behaviour have investigated self-reported empathic concern (feeling ‘for’ another person, including compassion and sympathy, e.g. , ), rather than self-reported affective empathic responses (the ability to vicariously experience the emotional experience of others; or feeling ‘as’ another individual). While these two processes are no doubt closely related, there is a lack of empirical data regarding how feeling in a similar emotional state to another may motivate prosocial behaviour. In addition, self-reported cognitive empathic ability (i.e. the ability to position oneself ‘in another person’s shoes’) might also relate to prosocial behaviour, but compared to the role of affective empathic processes
Grounded on attachment theory and emotionregulation processes, we reported six studies that, by using different methodological approaches, aimed to examine the specific role of social support dynamics and emotion processes in understanding individual variability in the process of adaptation to breast cancer. In Studies 1 and 2, we performed two systematic reviews to better understand the role of psychosocial factors in the process of adjustment to breast cancer, by focusing on social support dynamics and emotion processes. In Study 2, we also aimed to identify how emotions processes have been measured in the context of breast cancer and how reliable are those measures. In Study 3, we tested the validity and reliability of the EmotionRegulation Questionnaire (ERQ) using a confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. In Study 4, we explored the possible mediating role of avoidant emotion processes in the associations between attachment and adaptation to breast cancer. Finally, in Study 5 and 6, we explored the results of a pilot study testing the feasibility and the preliminary efficacy of a 16-weekly sessions of supportive- expressive group therapy (SEGT) for women with primary breast cancer, using quantitative and qualitative approaches. In general, the results indicate that higher levels of perceived social support and individual’s ability to express and identify their emotions can facilitate the process of adaptation to breast cancer, and that the ERQ is a valid and reliable tool for assessing two emotion processes in the oncological context. Moreover, results partially confirmed the hypothesis of a mediating effect of avoidant emotion processes in the link between attachment and adaptation to breast cancer. Specifically, lack of emotional awareness, but not emotional suppression, mediated the link between attachment avoidance and quality of life in women with breast cancer. Finally, despite the null quantitative results on the preliminary efficacy of SEGT, results from the qualitative study shows that SEGT seems to be a feasible and effective way of supporting women with primary breast cancer. These results highlight the importance of social support dynamics and emotion regulatory strategies for the successful adaptation to breast cancer. Psycho-oncological care should assess and, if necessary, refer the patients for psycho-oncological interventions that target these specific psychosocial factors to facilitate the process of adaptation to breast cancer and optimize patients’ quality of life.
A meta-analysis explored the effectiveness of strategies from the model of emotionregulation. Webb and colleagues (2012) have carried out a systematic review for which they have identified 306 experiments that included different emotionregulation strategies assessed by experiential, physiological and behavioral measures. On a wider level, the results showed some differences between emotionregulation processes: attentional deployment presented no effect on emotional outcomes (d+=0.00), response modulation produced a small effect (d+=0.16) and cognitive change presented a small-to-medium effect (d+= 0.36) (Webb et al., 2012). Their findings also highlighted some important differences within processes. While the suppression of emotional expression was effective (d+=0.32), the suppression of emotional experience and the suppression of thoughts were not (d+= -0.04 and -0.12, respectively) (Webb et al., 2012). Reappraising the emotional response also proved effective (d+=0.23), as well as emotional stimulus reappraisal (d+=0.36) and perspective taking (d+=0.45) (Webb et al., 2012). Furthermore, Augustine and Hemenover (2009; in Webb et al., 2012) found an even greater effect of reappraisal (d+=0.68), although this result should be taken with caution since it was only based on two studies.
One of the most widely used instruments for assessing ER is the EmotionRegulation Questionnaire (ERQ) , a self-report questionnaire assessing two ER strategies with 10 items. Cognitive reappraisal (CR) assesses the tendency of individuals to alter an emotional response by reinterpreting the meaning of a specific stimulus. CR has been characterized as an antecedent- focused ER strategy since it is focused on the emotion generative process . Expressive suppression (ES) assesses the tendency of individuals to inhibit or control behavioral expressions of an emotional response, and is considered a response-focused strategy since it addresses
Emotion words were regarded to be essential in describing one’s own understanding of emo- tion experience , recognizing the emotion of faces  or voice , and identifying the men- tal states of targeted features in movie clips . So children’s emotion word comprehension (EWC) has always received a great deal of attention in developmental science [5–9]. Scientists constantly expected to understand the developmental changes of EWC in children from the very beginning. Some of them basically focused on basic emotion words (such as happy, sad, angry, afraid, surprised, and disgusted) [10–12], but others insightfully considered a broader range of emotion words (including basic and complex terms) [5, 8, 9]. For instance, Ridgeway and Waters used a list of 125 emotion words and tried to reveal the developmental changes in children aged 1.5–6 years old . Baron-Cohen et al. suggested a much broader range of emo- tion words (n = 336) to understand the developmental trajectories of EWC in children and adolescents aged 4–16 years old . Additionally, they insightfully divided these 336 emotion words into 24 emotion categories and showed interestingly that EWC of different emotion cat- egory may generally have different development trajectories and different sensitive periods. However, previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary. In view of this, it is of interest to reveal the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chi- nese children, as well as the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Additionally, valence of stimuli may have an effect on individual’s emo- tion recognition , emotional experiences , emotionregulation [15, 16], and cognitive processing [17, 18], however, thus far, it still remains unknown if valence of emotion words may have an influence on EWC.
Emotional self-regulation is a psychological construct linked to emotions, cognition and feelings, being a component of emotional intelligence. The main objective of the present study was to find evidence of validity for Escala de Autorregulação Emocional (EARE) based on the relationship with other variables. Secondly, it was intended to analyze the differences in relation to the sociodemographic variables of the participants. Initially, an integrative literature review was carried out in the SciELO database, in order to investigate the instruments used to evaluate emotional regulation in the period between 2007 and 2016. Were analyzed 24 articles and it was identified that the Emotional Regulation Questionnaire and the Difficulties in EmotionRegulation Scale are the most used to assess emotional self-regulation and emotional intelligence was the theme that most often appeared related to the regulation of emotions. Furthermore, research on self-regulation of emotions indicate be an important resource in the preservation of health and that research should be expanded to different contexts. To meet the main objective of the present study a sample of 152 caregivers (71.1% informal; n= 108) was investigated, being 84.2% (n= 128) female, with age between 19 and 79 years (M= 45.05, SD= 14.27), chosen for convenience, from the region of Campinas, State of São Paulo. Were used the Escala de Autorregulação Emocional (EARE), the Medidas de Inteligência Emocional (MIE) and a sociodemographic questionnaire for comparison in relation to gender, age, marital status, among others. The choice of the sample in the present study is justified by the fact that caregivers experience stressful processes inherent in caring for others and emotional self-regulation can be an aid in adaptive behavior in similar situations. The coefficients found in the Pearson correlation indicated 7 significant correlations of the 20 possible between the factors of the EARE and the MIE, with values between 0.21 and 0.30, and all factors of EARE were significantly related to some measure of the MIE. Linear regression analysis indicated that age and schooling were, respectively, predictive variables of the coping factors and paralysis of EARE. The results found are discussed in light of the literature.
compassion can be seen as a useful emotionregulation process that encompasses a positive and supportive attitude towards the self, as it is associated with greater psychological health (28). Recently, Raque-Bogdan and Hoffman (29) found that self-compassion mediates the relation between the need for parenthood and subjective well-being in women with primary (“When a woman is unable to ever bear a child, either due to the inability to become pregnant or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth”) (30) or secondary infertility (“When a woman is unable to bear a child, either due to the inability to become pregnant or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth following either a previous pregnancy or a previous ability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth”) (30). These authors suggest that self-compassion may function as an emotional regulation strategy and a form of resiliency to deal with feelings of self-blame or blame for infertility.
The study of affect related to creativity has been relied on the valence-based approach, considering differences between positive and negative emotions. The valence dimension has been the distinct factor among each group of emotions, instead of analysing discrete emotions with particular characteristics and how they affect creativity (Baas, De Dreu & Nijtad, 2008; George & Zhou, 2002). The goal of this dissertation is to consider the specificity of one discrete emotion – anger – based on the specific emotion approach, which asserts that each emotion has its idiosyncrasies (Lerner & Keltner, 2000; Zeelenberg & Pieters, 2004). It was studied anger relationship with creative process, which is the process leading to creative outcomes and that has been less studied than creative outcomes (Shalley & Gibson, 2004). This relationship included the interaction effects of some relevant moderators. The first article studies individual characteristics influencing creative process engagement, such as state anger and trait anger temperament. Emotionregulation as a moderator of these relationships was considered, as an emotional skill influenced by social norms. The second article discusses the existing differences in the relationship between anger and the three levels of creative process engagement. It is also considered the relevance of contextual factors in this relationship by analysing the moderation role of co-worker support and relationship conflict. The third article attempts to study how anger is caused by emotional exhaustion and competitive psychological climate. The main contributions are discussed from a human resources development and management perspective.
The relationship between mindfulness and emotionregulation was addressed in several studies. Grice (2015), for instance, sought to better understand psychological constructs as possible risk factors for young female stu- dents in the development of anorexia nervosa. This study examined 119 undergraduate students without prior diagnosis of eating disorder in order to explore the relationship between mindfulness, emotionregulation, and eating disorder symptoms in a nonclinical environ- ment. The participants completed a cross-sectional survey that included the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)-short form, the Difficulties in EmotionRegulation Scale (DERS-36), and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-3). The results indicated that individuals with more typical eating disorder symptoms had lower levels of mindfulness and greater difficulties in regulating their emotions. The relationship between mindfulness and eating disorders was identified as medi- ated by emotionregulation.