Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 6, n.4,p.22666-22687 apr. 2020. ISSN 2525-8761 the trajectories of young students of the popular class in their practices of social entrepreneurs of the “Embaixadores da Escola” project , who develop non-formal education activities with public elementary schools in Belo Horizonte-MG. As an instrument of data collection, an interview was used in search of the trajectory of the young people in the project and it was chosen in this context, to proceed with the summary analysis technique of the collected data. The summary is also appropriate to the way the interview was structured. The results of the analyzes showed that from the analysis carried out, we identified the various issues that were presented to young people throughout the schooling path and their choices. From criticism of the current educational model to negative experiences after the transfer of private education to the public education network. It is observed that it is the desire of the interviewees to break with the culture of reproduction of the content of formal education.
Many other examples could illustrate the entrepreneurial qualities that exist among a vast number of individuals in Angola, particularly in urban centres. Angolan urban entrepreneurs show a great capacity to deal with market transformations and changes, which have been, over the last few decades, quite challenging. This capacity is one of the main ingredients for developing national entrepreneurial potential, which is present among small-scale informal operators, private entrepreneurs of different busi- ness volumes and even among individuals that work for large companies. Considerable sums are currently being invested in the development of entrepreneurial capacities among the urban poor, namely through micro-financing initiatives, but little is being done regarding those intermediate and/or better positioned entrepreneurs who have already accumulated significant social, economic or educational capitals. Apparently, there is now the need to take an almost natural next step in terms of educationand, specifically, the develop-
QP is a mandatory survey submitted annually to the Portuguese Ministry of Employment and Social Security by firms with at least one employee. This database contains detailed information on an average of 207,000 firms and two million individuals per year, which basically covers all Portuguese private sector from period of 1986 to 2009. Annually, each firm reports: year of creation, geographic location, size, industry, number of establishments, initial capital, and ownership structure (foreign ownership, government ownership and domestic ownership). At the individual level, the database contains information on gender, age, education (number of years of educationand field of education), occupation, working hours, and October’s earnings, and other regular wage components.
Certainly there are differences between rural and urban environments, for example while 73% of rural Tanzanian population has free access to drinking water, in Dar-Es-Salaam water is free for only 8%, being that 77% pay private providers and 13% are billed by public utility (REPOA, 2007: 39). On the other hand, Dar-Es-Salaam region alone, which is home to less than 8% of the population, contributes about 18% of Tanzania GDP. The arguable reasons of such are the fact that it has the highest concentration of political power, resources and related support and ancillary activities; that it is Tanzania’s major a national survey was conducted in order to capture the “Views of the People” on economic progress, standard of living, quality and access to economic and social services, and trends in governance. Summing the results of the survey, people reported to be worse off economically then 3 years earlier and there is a general perception of growing inequality. Even so there is appreciation for the public investment made in education, but health seems to be deteriorating, such as water access (REPOA, 2007).
Education is the main factor for driving firm performance and competitiveness (Aldcroft, 1992; Prais, 1995), by making workers more productive (Schultz, 1961; Becker, 1962; Lynch and Black, 1995). Education provides individuals with better analytical abilities and knowledge about entrepreneurial opportunities recognition and exploitation (Casson, 1995; Davidsson and Honig, 2003) and become more successful in running a venture since they have better managerial and communication skills (Henley, 2009; Parker, 2009). Although, Jovanovic (1982) argued that entrepreneurial abilities are acquired over time. For some authors, entrepreneurial skills do not depend on educationand formal knowledge but on learning by doing and learning effects from past entrepreneurial experience (Blau, 1985; Wit, 1993; Minniti and Bygrave, 2001; Cope, 2005). Findings about education are mixed (House, et al., 1993; Taylor, 1996). Parker (2009) argues that there is a positive relationship between educationand entrepreneurship in developed countries. Pietrobelli, et al. (2004) find that there is a negative relationship between entrepreneurship and secondary educationand positive only with primary education, privileging entrepreneurial skills 9 . This association can also depend on the type of business: formal businesses are related to higher degrees of educationand informal businesses to secondary education (Lederman, et al., 2014).
With regards to the link between gender and entrepreneurship i.e. entrepreneurial identity, several studies provide insights into the motives, areas of activity and success rates of female entrepreneurs. Women seem to start their own enterprises because of frustration at hitting the ‘glass ceiling’, dissatisfaction with slow career advancement and unmet career expectations, corpo- rate downsizing (Buttner, 1993; Moore & Buttner, 1997), as well as a desire for more flexibility (Royal, 1998). Also, the start up of their own business is seen as a way of integrating family and career needs (Moore & Buttner, 1997; Buttner, 1993). Thus, motives can consist of positive i.e. offensive (pulls) or negative i.e. defensive (pushes) reasons (Poutsma & Van den Tillaart, 1998). Since female entrepreneurs often lack specific education, women are more likely to start busines- ses in a service related area, public relations, sales or educational services (Hisrich, 1989; Carsrud, 1989). Several studies found that women are rated significantly lower on attributes of successful entrepreneurship (Buttner, 1993; Royal, 1998; Aldrich, 1989). This is probably based on percep- tions people have of women’s lack of fitness for entrepreneurship which can result into a bias in the capital funding process (Buttner, 1993; Smulders, 1998; Hisrich, 1989) which is aggravated by a lack of financial track record in business. Besides, most of the time, enterprises are conceived as a masculine world offering status and power to men.
Organization of the higher education process must respect the cognition that natural changes in the logical thinking are typical for young people. These changes were found in the classic four-year research of students' thinking process involving 140 students from universities in the United States (Perry, 1970). The mentioned research confirms that at the beginning of their studies students interpret the world and their educational experience in the authoritarian, dual way. They are looking for truth and strive for cognition. According to them, the world can only be good or evil, right or wrong; the role of teachers is to teach them, but their personal role – to dutifully learn. Soon students, in their quest for cognition, face uncertainty, disagreement of opinion, deceptions and variations. Often the subjects are set out in a way to encourage students to seek answers to questions. Dealing with different opinions, the students gradually begin to recognize and accept the diversity of views and opinions. This period is long, because it is very difficult to disregard the logic of one right answer which has been acquired during the secondary school, often impossible to guess what right answers are expected. In the study process students gradually get used to the realization that people are entitled to the diversity of opinion, and each person is entitled to view the same phenomenon from two sides depending on the context, and maybe even in several aspects. Thus, students’ thinking influenced by the study process evolves from the original dualism to conceptual relativism, and then to their own chosen position and responsibilities. This is a typical example of the intellectual development of early youth (Perry, 1970). This stage of intellectual development is important in creation of the personal opinion, values, and ideals of the emerging professional.
Before examining the subjects of women in en- trepreneurship and technology, it is important to note a few caveats when discussing research into issues affecting women. The first caveat is that women do not constitute one homogenous group but rather a spectrum characterized by differences in race, class, ethnicity, age, ability, gender identity, and sexual orientation, among other things (Holvino, 2001; http://tinyurl.com/ 3to4pmm). One of the primary critiques levelled at much organizational research in this area is that it does not take these differences into ac- count, instead privileging sex over all other as- pects of identity (Holvino, 2001; http://tinyurl .com/3to4pmm). This focus necessarily ignores intersectional or contextual analyses that exam- ine how sex interacts with other identity charac- teristics to change a particular group’s experience (Tatli and Ozbilgin, 2010; http://tiny url.com/5v3rwyu). While recent reports on the status of women in traditionally masculine fields do include analyses based on race and ethnicity, the vast majority of the data are disaggregated according to sex alone (Hill, Corbett, and Rose, 2010; http://tinyurl.com/3lnq4gy).
In this paper we use the European Community Household Panel to explore the connection between education, over-education, and wage-inequality in Spain for the period 1994-2001. Our central approach is based on quantile regression. We find that higher education is associated with higher wage dispersion. This indicates that an educational expansion towards higher education is expected, criteris paribus, to increase overall wage inequality. We find that over-education contributes to enlarge wage differentials within university graduates, still, over- education itself can not account for the positive association between higher educationand wage dispersion. Finally, we show that over the last wage distribution of over-educated workers with university education became more dispersed. This process, together with an increasing proportion of over-educated workers, contributed to raise overall wage inequality through the within dimension.
This article is about study of subjectivity and the teacher education process of students with special needs, intending to understand the movements and paths of the personal and professional formation process of the sub- ject-teacher, as well as the productions of meaning that configure teaching with students who present a diagnosis of special needs, as intellectual defi- ciency and/or multiple deficiency, associated or not with psychic disorders. Considering that human subjectivity is characterized by the production of meanings, the present study points to the understanding of the subjective senses attributed to the different experiences lived in the context of teaching with students with disabilities. It was intended to produce, through the un- derstanding, analysis and argumentation, effects of meaning that make it possible to advance the understanding of the complex field of teacher educa- tion in Inclusive Education. The research was based on the Narrative-Life Sto- ries approach of two teachers of the State Public School System of Porto Ale- gre-RS city, with a long teaching experience in Special Education, whose bio- graphic trajectories were interpreted in the light of the philosophical herme- neutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. That is, we sought to understand the discur- sive horizons that constitute the teacher of students with disabilities and, thus, life stories were understood from four categories: dialogue, otherness, expe- rience and the construction of oneself. They seek to discuss the horizons they demarcate and constitute the training path of the teachers. In this way, it be- comes possible to think philosophically the teacher’s formation, seeking to give a singular look/sense to the concept of formation, because it is considered fundamental to understand how the subject-teacher is constructing and con- figuring his existence as a teacher of students with disabilities. This under- standing of teaching as a relationship experience can allow the quest for the know-how to live with oneself and with the other.
For this reason, a substantial amount of research has been devoted to trying to understand entrepreneurs’ characteristics, personality and contexts, having contributed greatly for the understanding of the role of personality in the entrepreneurial process (Zhao, Seibert and Lumpkin, 2010; Brandstätter, 2011). Attention to work values (global beliefs or abstract ideals that transcendentally guide actions and judgments across specific objects and situations) that can affect this process have been less researched and only a few studies have explored in detail beliefs about work (e.g. Buchholz, 1978; Dickson and Buchholz, 1979; Dickson and Buchholz, 1977). Buchholz (1977) constitutes a seminal contribution, providing a theoretical framework for measuring beliefs and testing it with managers. Later, Puffer, McGarthy and Naumov (1997: 272) studied Russian managers based in Buchholz’s framework and concluded that “respondents saw work as a meaningful and rewarding activity rather than an opportunity for passive experience in a bureaucratic environment”.
The personality of an entrepreneur is one of the most important characteristics of reaching success by creating jobs and opportunities. In this paper, we demonstrate an empirical study on personal characteristics of students who are supposed to act as entrepreneur to create jobs in seven fields of accounting, computer science, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, metallurgy engineering, electrical engineering and drawing. There are seven aspects of accepting reasonable risk, locus of control, the need for success, mental health conditions, being pragmatic, tolerating ambiguity, dreaming and the sense of challenging in our study to measure the level of entrepreneurship. We uniformly distribute 133 questionnaires among undergraduate students in all seven groups and analyze the results based on t-student test. Our investigation indicates that all students accept reasonable amount of risk, they preserve sufficient locus of control and they are eager for success. In addition, our tests indicate that students believe they maintain sufficient level of mental health care with strong sense of being pragmatic and they could handle ambiguity and challenges.
and the women’s perceptions on managerial activity one could formulate a set of solutions oriented towards the improvement of regional entrepreneur activity conducted by women. One of the four fundamental cultural dimensions which articulate a society refers to the individual perception of social roles. On the dimension “male-female” one can identify numerous variations from one to the other extreme: as the extremists are generally weakly represented in the modern society, we should admit that in Romania, perceptions on the role of women are still significantly different then those from the Western European ones. The state of dependency of women on the men’s income (mostly in rural areas) supports the idea of gender inequality and contributes to role differences based on gender. Gender stereotypes are still consistent tracks for daily behavior not only in Romania. Not accidently some authors declare that the “women paths as top managers is paved with glass specifically with shivers” 711. The concept of glass ceiling refers explicitly to the fact that women access to managerial positions is possible until a certain point and stop at an apparently invisible level.
The direct beneficiaries of AEC are its clients, who see their businesses grow and thrive with AEC’s help. Indirectly, the people they employ and the communities they work in benefit from the increase in economic activity and new sources of stable income. As mentioned, current and past clients are important in sharing AEC’s benefits and activities and bringing in more clients. Furthermore, project partners such as Kiva, Spring, Anza and AIP are essential in the development of their specific projects (and in the case of Spring, is also important for financing it) and other organizations like Akilah, Opportunity International, Gain and Africa Leadership Network which partner in unique events. The government, through the Rwandan Development Board, is also a supporting partner, represented in the Board of Directors. Finally, institutional donors, such as the Segal Family Foundation, and individual donors have been essential for AEC’s financial sustainability.
In order to continue analysing entrepreneurship, we must first closely look at the very notion of the terms: “entrepreneurship” and “entrepreneur”. Thus, entrepreneurship can be viewed as the formation of a new firm that uses innovation to enter existing markets (or to create new ones) and grow by making new demand, while taking market share away from existing suppliers (Schumpeter, 1934). On the other hand, entrepreneur is someone who independently owns and actively manages a small business (Collins, Hanges & Locke 2004). Entrepreneur is someone who introduces new ideas and changes the rate at which the wheels of enterprise go around (Evans, 1942). Talented persons should be particularly ecouraged to become entrepreneurs, for it is these who will contribute most to the creation of labour demand (van Praag & Cramer, 2001) and the economy growth.
Studies in infants 18-months of age have shown that naps promote abstraction of grammar in language learning experiments , gains which are retained over a subsequent night of sleep . Among preschoolers in childcare, one study found daytime naps to be negatively correlated with neuropsychological measurements of vocabulary and auditory attention span, while nighttime sleep was positively correlated with vocabulary . One interpretation of these results is that children who receive inadequate sleep at night sleep are more likely to take daytime naps. But it may also be that these naps, within the daycare environment, lack the physiological features required to support memory consolidation. Notwithstand- ing, an electroencephalographic assessment of daytime naps among preschoolers found that such naps signiﬁcantly beneﬁt visuo-spatial learning, compared to equivalent waking intervals. Nap-dependent learning was the greatest for children habituated to daily naps, and was not rescued by subsequent overnight sleep . Importantly, sleep spindle density was strongly correlated with this nap- dependent learning among preschoolers (Fig. 1D). Finally, a study of sixth grade students found that post-training naps of 2 h improved memory retention measured 5 days later .
In chemistry courses at universities, education has mainly been centered on the lecturer’s comprehension of a topic rather than that of the student. Recently, student-centered learning has aroused considerable interest in all levels of education systems, including universities. Several alternative methods, based on students being at the centre of control, have been suggested since Aristotle’s time  . The science education literature contains several studies of student’s understanding of scientific phenomena [3-12] . Teaching some uncommon elements at introductory level has made them obvious to the teachers. In this study, a mythological approach has been compared with with conventional teaching approach while teaching uncommon elements (niobium and tantalum).
"(http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/35/51/37967294.pdf). Истовремено, унапређење и развој људског капитала подразумева и поштовање и спровођење једног од основних начела образовних политика демократског друштва – обезбеђивање свим члановима заједнице приступ свим нивоима образовања и стварање услова за доживотно учење. Појединцима којима, због различитих разлога, образовање није доступно, ограничена је и могућност задовољавања многих потреба, а самим тим и могућност остваривања одређених људских права. Због тога се у Белој књизи о образовању и усавршавању у Европској унији (White Paper on Educationand Training: Teaching and Learning – Towards the Learning Society, 1995), спречавање и смањивање социјалне искључености помоћу образовања наводи као један од четири образовна циља (оспособљавање за трајну запошљивост, за активно грађанство, повећање социјалне кохезије и смањење социјалне искључености). Лисабонска стратегија даје нови подстрек сузбијању социјалне искључености кроз систем образовања, с обзиром да се савремена трансформација државе благостања која полази од концепције данског социолога Esping-Andersena усмерава првенствено ка превентивним стратегијама друштвеног улагања у образовање младих (Колин, 2008. стр. 202). Програми социјалне интеграције усмерени су посебно на образовни развој деце рањивих друштвених група (сиромашни, деца која живе у руралним подручјима, мањинске групе), а нужност образовања током целог
Is briefly analyzed the evolution that the objectives, strategies and models of medical education have had since their presentation and subsequent implementation of the famous model of Abraham Flexner, is now 103 years. Although globally accepted in their original pedagogical principles and instruments, that model does not have avoided the continuing dissatisfaction by the medical community and students and, most markedly in recent decades, the demanding of a most efficient health care by society, in general, and by patients in particular. In response to these ambitions, the medical community felt that it was essential to review the traditional criteria of medical professionalism, adapting them to a new paradigm of society and an appropriate and more efficient model of medical education. In this respect, are analyzed strategies and methodologies, apparently more suitable proposals for the inclusion of the principles and responsi- bilities of medical professionalism since the early period of pre-graduated medical education. It is assumed that the emphasis in teach- ing and practice of reflection throughout the course will have positive and lasting repercussions during active working life. However, the author believes that the success of the measures to be introduced in medical education programs to a new model of professionalism continues to depend, above all, of the humanistic and cognitive attributes of the students to be chosen, and the pedagogical quality, professional and academic of their teachers.