Abstract:This paper examines the link between health indicators, environmental variables and economic development, and the consequences of this relationship on economic convergence for a large sample of rich and poor countries. While in economic literature income and environment are seen to have an inverted-U shaped relationship (Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis), it is also well established that an improvement in environmental quality is positively related to health. Our study focuses on the implications of this relationship for economic convergence. In the early stage of economic development, the gain from income growth could be cancelled or mitigated by environmental degradation through populations’ health (and other channels) and create a vicious circle in economic activity unlike in developed countries. This in turn could slow down economic convergence. To empirically assess these issues, we proceeded to an econometric analysis through three equations: a growth equation, a health equation and an environment equation. We found that health is a channel through which environment impacts economic growth. When we take into account the effect of environmentquality on economic growth, the speed of convergence tends to increase slightly. This shows that environmental quality could be considered as a constraint for economic convergence.
The urban environment is where the most part of people is concentrated. In the cities the people seek for comfort and beauty, however in the urban chaos many times the environmentquality is lost. In 2006 a study of environmentquality and consequently life quality of the people based on landscape ecology was done. To live in the city the man uses new techniques to modify the nature, so the landscape suffers intense modifications, even the highest techniques can recuperate it. The environment has the capacity of regeneration, however if there is an extreme modification, it’s hard for the system to reach the balance. The study of environmentquality was done in the neighborhood Santa Mônica, in Uberlândia - Minas Gerais. For elaboration of the maps of environmentquality the following questions had been raised to be answered for the inhabitants: index of general satisfaction related to the neighborhood; arborization of the streets; squares (frequency and satisfaction); pollution; noise; floods; public transport; piece of land with garbage deposit and violence. This type of study is important for the urban planning, so that the environmentquality is always on first plan.
In order to evaluate and sustain interventions in the pedestrian environment, several approaches as the Pedestrian Environmental Data Scan (PEDS) , the Pedestrian Safety Index (PSI) , the Pedestrian EnvironmentQuality Index (PEQI)  and the off-street Pedestrian Level of Service (HCM)  have been used. In general, these approaches are translated into an index that allows a global evaluation (scoring) of the environment and conditions offered to pedestrians, or into the preparation and update of pedestrian environment databases. For these purposes, it is usually necessary to gather a set of indicators that allow assessing the physical safety of pedestrians, the existing pedestrian infrastructure and land use, and the aesthetic and security aspects. In some approaches, a subjective evaluation component with questions of personal opinion is also considered.
By focusing on the environmentquality in urban texture and environmental threats in big cities including air pollution, urban Thermal Island, energy crisis and etc., making the roofs green is considered due to its environmental benefits and as an ecological solution. With all great environmental benefits of green roofs, high installation costs, irrigation and maintenance of green space, this new technology has not found its great position in contemporary sustainable cities. In the past, the roofs were green due to their functional benefits and now due to their environmental benefits. By integrating these two ideas and adding great social benefits of making these spaces as functional, local governments can take big steps for sustainable development of green roofs and urban sustainable management. This function can be consistent with the building application. Based on the problem of most metropolises regarding the development of urban green space and fair division of township green space regarding urban construction, functional use of roofs as public or private green space is a great step to development and increase of green space per capita beside the work place or life of citizens. Also, it creates a safe green space for people namely the old and children beside their living place
The set of indicators and description of each indicator have been refined through various trials and iterative processes, after which a pilot case study in Lodi was successfully completed (DELSANTE, 2007). However, is the context tested in Lodi applicable to other urban contexts? Even though the methodology is meaningful to obtain an overall urban environmentquality index (DELSANTE, 2007), what is of the utmost importance is not the numerical value in absolute terms, but its progress over time and its comparison with other locations.
Improvement of living standards of the population by protecting and improving the environmentquality are favored by the improvement of integrated water treatment systems, waste management, reduction of pollution and preserving biodiversity, reducing negative environmental effects caused by urban heating systems and climate changes, use of modern technologies in business and the adoption of measures to prevent natural disasters in vulnerable areas.
The application of service oriented architecture in business is to meet the best quality requirements to the customers and providers. Where, service evaluations are carried out based on the quality attributes of scalability, usability, security, performance. In past many evaluation systems have been proposed for business applications with different criteria. However, security metric to be considered this study proposes a new Analysis Estimator Service (AES) system to analyze and estimate the transaction data from the multiple scalable factors. For this purpose two types of estimations namely, Transaction Service (TS) and Quality Service (QS) Estimators are proposed to evaluate the transactions concerning Security and Quality. From this estimation analysis, it is observed that the transaction data achieves two beneficial advantages of secured data transmission and offered quality services to the customers. So in this proposed approach customers have the clear view to analyze and estimate the service data to-From the providers.
There are few social epidemiologic studies on chickenpox outbreaks, although previous find- ings suggested the important role of social de- terminants. This study describes the context of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Cauca Valley region, Colombia (2003 to 2007), with an em- phasis on macro-determinants. We explored the temporal trends in chickenpox incidence in 42 municipalities to identify the places with higher occurrences. We analyzed municipal character- istics (education quality, vaccination coverage, performance of health care services, violence- related immigration, and area size of planted sugar cane) through analyses based on set theory. Edwards-Venn diagrams were used to present the main findings. The results indicated that three municipalities had higher incidences and that poor quality education was the attribute most prone to a higher incidence. Potential use of set theory for exploratory outbreak analyses is dis- cussed. It is a tool potentially useful to contrast units when only small sample sizes are available.
Based on the cluster analysis of the historical ad- justed yield data from the AGROTEC database, the up- land rice production region was classified in the three environmental groups (Figure 3). The HFE is composed by 11 microregions: Sinop (3); Colider (4); Alta Floresta (6); Arinos (32); Alto Teles Pires (31); Parecis (37); Norte Araguaia (45); Jauru (41); and Alto Pantanal (39), in the state of Mato Grosso, and Colorado do Oeste (35) and Vilhena (24), in the state of Rondônia (Figures 1 and 3). Silva and Assad (2001), based on a regional climatic risk assessment, also described the Mato Grosso state as a favorable environment for upland rice production, with a well distributed rainfall during the growing season, a lower rainfall inter-annual variability and a large win- dow of sowing dates. This environment had the highest average of adjusted yield (2,740 kg ha –1 ) and minimum and maximum adjusted yield of 1720 and 4,629 kg ha –1
Estimates of sewage treatment eficiencies proposed by optimization models 2 and 3, considering the restrictions on the group 1 simulations, were possible when the loads from the two districts presenting lower organic matter contribution – Nossa Senhora das Graças and Santissima Trindade – were excluded from the water quality modeling. The attempt to maintain equity between the treatment systems has required the AG to search for extreme eficiency values that could be compatible with the values of organic loads discharged by the different urban areas, ranging from 840 kg.day –1 , in Ibatiba, to 11 kg.day –1 , in Santissima Trindade.
From that point of view, Internet is still (in its multiple platforms and technologies) one of the major variables to consider when choosing the perfect location for your business. Speed, capacity, complementary services, technology, added value, quality and price are priority aspects. Third generation Internet has turned consumers into producers of information. When you upload information into the web you’re generating virtual communities in the form of blogs, tweets or sharing information with others on Facebook. But at the same time you are also creating social networks. At the end the virtual doesn’t sty only on the virtual, it becomes physical and real. People share large quantities of information on social networks. But at the same time they like, they play, they talk and they buy.
The content of vitamin C in cherry tomato fruits did not present a significant difference for water availabilities and potassium doses. The average value of vitamin C was 27.5 mg 100 g −1 of pulp. According to Agbna et al. (2017), vitamin C is a vital antioxidant in the human diet, being one of the main factors that characterize the nutritional quality of fruits. In our research, the cherry tomato cultivar BRS Iracema showed a higher concentration of vitamin C when compared to other cultivars and varieties assessed in other researches.
Standards of Joint Commission International (JCI) emphasize on the organizational performance level in basic functional domains including patient right, patient care, medical safety and infection control. These standards are focused on two principles: Expectations of the actual organizational performance and assessment of organizational capabilities to provide high quality and safe Health Care Services (HCS). The aim of this study was to analyze the regression model of the Quality of Life (QOL) in cancer patients from Mazandaran province in 2013. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 185 cases after a chemotherapy treatment session during in the first three months that was referred to Rajaee Chemotherapy Center in 2013. The method of sampling was Purposive. General quality of life was assessed using WHO questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) and particular life quality was assessed using researcher-developed questionnaire. Data analysis was consisted of a multiple regression method and for comparison one-sample test of Kolmogrov- Smirnov was used. Statistical analysis showed that the average of general life quality, particular life quality and total average was evaluated, 1<0.96<5, 1<1.13<5 and 1<1.04<5, respectively. Due to the low quality of general and particular life, fully integration of the care program of patient care in primary health care system, easy access and facilitation in intervention to improve the quality of life is offered. Our motivation behind the research and the implications of the research was improvement of QOL cancer patients.
Therefore, being familiar with the typology and the s pe ialists’ ole i this field is e ele a t for the research of the human resources importance on improving the organizations activities. The human resources involved in this process are mainly the consultants in quality management, whose skills and abilities objectively determine the performance growth of organizations having called for their support.
With the rapid progress of internet technology, more and more software projects adopt e-development to facilitate the software development process in a world-wide context. However, distributed software development activity itself is a complex orchestration. It involves many people working together without the barrier of time and space difference. Therefore, how to efficiently monitor and control software e- development in a global perspective becomes an important issue for any internet-based software development project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to tackle this crucial issue by means of controlling e-development process, collaborative task progress and communication quality. Meanwhile, we also present our e-development supporting environment prototype: Caribou, to demonstrate the viability of our approach.
First, the study population was described accord- ing to gender, age and child’s birth order in the fam- ily; main caregiver’s schooling, age and marital sta- tus; number of children under five in the household, father’s involvement and working mother. In univariate analyses, the differences between HOME Inventory means were tested using t-Student test. The quality of stimulation in the family environment, measured through the overall HOME Inventory score, was included as the main independent variable and the child’s cognitive performance, measured through the Bayley scale was included as the dependent vari- able, and both were used as continuous variables. The normal distribution of variables was assessed using the Shapiro-Wilk test at 5% significance level. Multiple regression with normal errors, based on
This study demonstrated that short term WE training improves cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular fitness. As a result, the ability to carry out tasks of daily living is enhanced with WE training, leading to independence, psychosocial well-being and better quality of life in older women. However, regularity of the exercise had a key role, as after a short period of detraining, most neuromuscular fitness parameters and quality-of-life scores returned to baseline levels.
The largest industrial application so far have the gray cast irons which are characterized by low tensile and bending strength, while at the same time they have good ultimate comprehensive strength. Additionally, the fatigue strength of gray cast irons is comparatively low and they are only to some extend sensitive for the surface waters effects. Cast iron is the material, which is comparatively easy to be processed, and for this reason – it is not expensive. Brake discs are exploited in particularly hard conditions. They must be resistant both against the thermal fatigue and abrasion wearing (at dry friction) as well as against seizing, corrosion and mechanical load [1-3]. The gray cast iron, better than other materials, fulfills all the requirements necessary for making the material for the casts resistant against such tough conditions. This work reflects the researches aiming to define the quality of cast brake discs (ventilated and non-ventilated ones) upon a period of their exploitation in real conditions. The following researches were performed: evaluations of the disc surface condition, measurement of disc thickness, examination of run – out flank and metallographic analysis. In order to more detailed recognition of mechanisms and reasons of brake discs wearing in real conditions, one should conduct additional examinations: computer analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition analysis, etc., as well as study of the technology of their production in foundries, where they are manufactured . By obtaining the full set of the mentioned above data one can draw final conclusions and remove causes of possible defects.
Companies could not provide any justification on the quality of their products to the users and users are left with uncertainties on the standard and quality of the software .There are other issues that relate to quality attributes, among them are priorities and different views of quality among users, developers and managers. It is recognized that views of users, developers and managers are different. A manager is more interested in the overall quality rather than a specific quality characteristic thus requires assigning weight to reflect the business requirements .
components also important to consumers but repeated purchases are dependent upon flavor quality. The main factors that affect flavor quality are the genotype (cultivars/rootstocks), maturity at harvest, environment and cultural practices and the cross effect between them. Pest and diseases control with pesticides, the use of growth regulators to improve quality and consumer acceptance also play an important role in cultural practices and are firmly related to safety.