An outline of several threads of compatibility between cognitive engineering, pleasure and comfort is made. The pains and gains perspective is discussed, enabling relatively positioning the three areas in relation to two dimensions: design goal (relieving pain and adding gain) and human aspects considered (physical, psychological, sociological, ideological and performance). A third dimension was introduced in the analysis through the consideration of the present focus of the three areas in terms of the pains and gains perspective and their conceptual aims identified from high level definitions and postulates. It is suggested that the methods of comfort (hereby confounded with the term ‘physical engineering’ in an analogy with cognitive engineering) and cognitive engineering are methods that can be used to attain the goals of comfort (relief of pain) and pleasure (addition of gain). The similarities in practice explicit in the analyses are not completely supported by the analysis of commonalities at the subconcept level carried out between comfort (physical engineering) and (physiological) pleasure and cognitive engineering and (psychological) pleasure. There is only a partial interception between the two pairs, which may result from the different design goals pursued in practice (pleasure pursuing addition of gain, while the other two pursue relief of pain). Moreover, pleasure as a discipline recurs to traditional ergonomics, comfort (physical engineering) and cognitive engineering in attaining the design goal of relief of pain. A description of activity theory is presented, based on a collection carried out by Petra Rhodin, aiming at its use in applied studies, which is centered in the theories and models developed and presented by Lars-Christer Hydén, Yrjö Engeström and MariAnne Karlsson
This article is the result of the work to discipline Project of Product II, in which it tried to demonstrate the importance of cooperatives of recyclable materials, as much in the economic, environmental and social condition. For that, a study was made on the work station in the sector of the Recyclable Materials Cooperative (COCAMAR), in Natal-RN - through design tools. Based on typological analyzes of recyclable materials cooperatives in Brazil, studies on urban sustainability and recycling, ergonomic analysis of the work, and the application of a user-centered design methodology, the theoretical basis needed to design new artifacts was obtained. Positively impact the work performance of the cooperative under study. As a result, a workstation was developed based on the requirements and parameters defined from the design thinking tools and the concept of social design. The new job aims to improve the work of the collectors and to highlight the role of the designer as an agent of social transformation.
New research in applied ergonomics explores users’ emotional relationships with products. Such research projects have discussed new user needs analysis techniques like product personality proiling, mood boards, and visual product evaluation toward developing heuristics for emotional design (McDonagh, Bruseberg, & Haslam, 2002). Also, the concept of Kansei Engineering contributes to our understanding of emotional design. New research involves the adoption of Kansei Engi- neering in web sites as a systematic method to engineer consumers’ af- fective appeal and incorporate them into new formulas for web design (Anitawati, Nor Laila, & Nagamuchi, 2007).
And the last exercise performed in the discipline of Applied Fashion Ergonomics is directly related to the user to be served by the work developed by the Interdisciplinary Project of the fourth semester. The purpose of this exercise is to study the usability requirements and goals for apparel products, focusing on user experience. The choice of piece will depend on when the Interdisciplinary Project is being carried out. If the process of creating the collection of the Interdisciplinary Project coincides with the moment of the usability test of the discipline of Ergonomics, the group chooses a prototype piece idealized for the collection. If the disciplines are not aligned by virtue of holidays, for example, each group should purchase a garment item related to the user for which the collection will be developed. In possession of the piece, the group prepares the questionnaire to perform the usability test with five people who depict the user's profile. In this activity, students need to go to the field to conduct research to verify the behavior of their audience. Interviews should be recorded so that, in addition to the analysis of the responses to the questionnaire, all the user's body expression in front of the part can be evaluated, since in the interviews most of the respondents feel they are under evaluation and, therefore, do not always declare their real feelings, responding according to what they believe to be the desire of the interviewer. With the data gathered by this field survey, students can develop the project based on the yearnings and desires and the audience for which the collection was intended.
Abstract: The primary objective of the project is to create a prototype of a purely air powered motorcycle by retrofitting its internal combustion engine to run on compressed air. Firstly, the conventional spark plug was replaced with a solenoid valve. The solenoid valve was initially actuated using a reed switch and magnet duo, but then later replaced with an optical crank position sensor circuit due to reasons that include lack of control over the amount of air injected during each stroke and also for more precise control over the opening and closing of the valve. The torque, brake power, indicated power, air consumption rate of the engine under load are calculated. Separate mounts for the modified engine and the cylindrical storage unit are designed and analysed using Catia v4. Also, possible ways of future scope of the prototype are mentioned.
The GA approach adopted here was proposed by  and extended by . The classi- cal GA is modified to manage composite materials structures. Two genes are used, one for materials and another for the orientation of reinforcement fibers on each ply. The genetic operations used here are crossover, mutation and gene swap. The selection scheme adopted is the Multiple Elitist 1 proposed by . In this scheme some of the best individuals from the parents and sons generations are used in the son generation to maintain and to improve the evolution. N e is defined as the number of individuals of each generation. The criterion to
The patients were evaluated preoperatively 1 day before surgery. Electrocardiogram (ECG), pulse oximetry, cannulation of the invasive arterial pressure (20 gauge) from the left radial artery, and peripheral venous access (18 gauge) from the right arm were inserted into the patient, who was taken to the operating room on the day of the surgery. After induction of anesthesia and intubation, an 8F central venous catheter was inserted from the right internal jugular vein. Midazolam (0.05 mg/kg), propofol (2 mg/kg), fentanyl (5 mcg/kg), and rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) were used for the induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was maintained with a mixture of 2% sevoflurane, 60% oxygen, and 40% air. In addition, 0.2 mg/kg of rocuronium, 0.02 mg/kg of midazolam, and 1 mcg/kg of fentanyl were applied every 30 minutes. All patients were ventilated with positive pressure. Ventilation parameters were set as a tidal volume of 10 ml/kg and a respiratory rate of 10–12/min, which was assessed by arterial blood gases. All patients received 500 ml ringer lactate before the induction of anesthesia. Thereafter, IV ringer lactate solution was infused to keep the central venous pressure (CVP) at 10–12 mmHg.
Design in a sense means the allocation of the sizes of different components of an engineering system. In an endeavor to design an engineering system, the safety and economy should be of prime considerations. To arrive at the optimum cost design, a large number of alternative designs are made and the one that requires minimum cost for its implementation, and fulfills the design requirements, is selected. Generation of large number of alternative designs involve tedious repetitive computations. As such, an efficient optimization algorithm is needed to be adopted. Design of shallow foundation consists of two interrelated steps: (a) Selection of shape, size and depth of foundation and (b) Detailed analysisand structural design for the selected geometry of the foundation. Structural design of the foundation has drew adequate attention from the engineers but the proportioning of the foundation has not received the same. Common practice of the design of footings is to initially estimate the size of the footing from geotechnical engineering point of view, and subsequently carrying out the structural design. Tilt of the foundation is normally restricted by limiting the total settlement; seldom detailed analysis in this respect is performed. An integrated analysis of the footing both from geotechnical and structural engineering aspects are essential to arrive at a proper design. Thus, a general procedure is developed for the optimum cost design of shallow circular foundations taking the above mentioned aspects into consideration.
human hair. In practice, the layout design of the whole circuitry must be compact and preferably based on a regular shape as Fig. 7 shows. The latest diminishes unwanted effects and guarantees that the experimental response corresponds to that deduced from spice simulations. Alternatively, it is recommended that the test chip includes basic primitives for individual characterization. MOS transistors, gates, buffers, switches, and some passive components are examples of them. Furthermore, for testing purposes, each primitive must include its own pads in order to avoid the effect of its operation on the performance of other primitives. Any else additional cautions at layout level have to be taken in account. At the end, the purpose is successfully verifying the basic operation of the primitive under test. The advantage of testing primitives is that the designer uses technological data for enhancing design models and also to fit design parameters.
Noise levels in the workplace were determined using a sound pressure level meter (SPL, model DOS 500, Instrutherm Measuring Instruments, São Paulo, Brazil) with an accuracy of ± 1 dB and resolution of 0.1 dB operating on the compensation scale “A” (Slow), according to a 30-130 scale. Measurements were obtained every 30 minutes in order to detect noise variations during the shift. When determining the continuous noise level equivalent (Leq), a certain period the sound energy was considered as equal to the total sound energy of a succession of discrete noises during the same period (NHO 01, 2001). For the purposes of this standard, Leq is calculated by the following equation:
Statistical optimization of a process or formulation of a fermentation medium can overcome the limitations of classical empirical methods. A successful application of RSM to enhance exoinulinase production from K. marxianus by optimizing the fermentation medium has been reported. The existence of interactions between the independent variables with the responses was observed. The optimized fermentation medium composition was 2% inulin, 2.17% meat extract, 0.65 mM calcium chloride, 0.10 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate and pH 5.5. Applying the RSM medium, the maximum productivity of exoinulinase (64.05 IU/mL) at shake-flask level was more than double as reported in earlier findings using single variable optimization technique (Singh et al., 2007a).
Citizenship is much more than a social issue. In fact, the way each person feels and acts in society is increasingly dependent on participation in the digital worlds and in the realm of new technologies. Digital inequality is particularly significant in a highly technological network society (e.g. Grossi, Costa & Santos, 2013). People in disadvantaged conditions have great difficulty to access technological means. Therefore, there is a clear imbalance not only social, but also digital, between the various strata of the population. In order to combat social inequalities, particularly those related to ICTs, governments created digital inclusion programs, having the main purpose of promoting citizenship. To achieve this goal, governments facilitate the access to information and knowledge among poor populations, promoting training actions, and enabling them to use digital tools and applications, to make them feel better integrated and able to intervene more directly in society at the individual, community, social, political and economic levels (Jambeiro & Silva, 2004). This is why digital inclusion actions are so important. In this sense, since 2005, Brazil has been consolidating its digital inclusion policy with the creation and implementation of various programs, projects and social actions. It should be noted that Telecentres are spaces supported and managed by digital inclusion programs, that offer, free of charge, access to computers, Internet and ICT courses. In this context, the present research aims to investigate how less favored people in Brazilian society (classes C, D and E) 1 , particularly in Belo Horizonte, who participate in social digital inclusion programs,
The closed-loop approaches, include coupled oscillators and ring oscillators. The best are the QOs based on two coupled LC−oscillators: they have the lowest phase-noise and phase error . Recently it was also shown that they can achieve perfect quadrature . However, coupled LC −oscillators require two inductors, which, depending on the frequency, can occupy a large die area. Moreover, inductors do not scale down with the technology, and designing inductors with acceptable quality factor (Q>5) requires the use of thick top metal layers, increasing the chip cost . Inductorless oscillators, like the two-integrator oscillator or the coupled RC-oscillators, are viable alternatives to avoid the use of inductors. Although, in comparison with the coupled LC −oscillators both have poor phase-noise performance , for industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band, the phase-noise of inductorless oscillators may satisfy the requirements. For instance, the phase-noise specification for 2.4-GHz ISM band at the offset of 1 MHz from the carrier is -110 dBc/Hz for Bluetooth and -88 dBc/Hz for Zigbee; these values are within the performance
The interest in Ergonomics has increased during World War II, as increasingly complicated technologies were introduced into sophisticated military equipment, i.e., aircrafts. Items were placed into the aircrafts with little thought about the way the pilots or maintenance personnel would deal with such new systems. Unfortunately, the initial result was a sudden increase of accidents and the subsequent loss of life’s. Maintenance issues also became more complex, and aircraft turnaround increased. It gradually became clear that systems and products would have to be designed to take account of many human and environmental factors if they are to be used safely and effectively. This awareness of people’s requirements resulted in the discipline of ergonomics, which was officially born in England the 1949, 12th July.
There has long been a debate about whether native or non- native speakers of a particular language should teach that language in the second language classroom. Researchers have attempted, with various methods, to examine the teaching skills of native and non- native speakers in an effort to find a pattern of effectiveness or lack of effectiveness in these two groups. Although research that com- pares native and non-native English-speaking ESL teachers within the context of the ESL/EFL classrooms is abundant (e.g., Braine, 1999; Davis, 1995; Kramsch, 1995; Edge, 1988; Medgyes, 1994; Paikeday, 1985; Rampton, 1990; Reves & Medgyes, 1994; Samimy, 1997; Seidlhofer, 1996), little work has been done on non-native teachers teaching languages other than English, such as Chinese, Ko- rean or Japanese. This study compares native and non-native speak- ing Korean foreign language teachers with two purposes in mind. The first is to identify strengths and weaknesses of various foreign language teaching groups. Knowledge of the strengths and weak- nesses common to one’s demographic will encourage more self- examined, and therefore improved teaching practices. The second objective is to identify possible reasons for any trends that appear in the results.
A network may considerably change with certain nodes, links, flows, or parameters. To find the most important nodes, links, or other parameters to determine network structure or performance is of significant. Sensitivity analysis is originated from systems science. It explores the relationship between parametric change and systematic output, and is used to find important parameters in the system model. In principle, the sensitivity analysis used in systems science can also be extended to network analysis in which the model output means network output, network stability, network flow, network structure, or other indices, and model input means network nodes, network links, network parameters, etc. In present article, some methods for sensitivity analysis of systems / networks are described in detail.
As mention before Lean Six Sigma (LSS) results from the combination of Lean Management and Six Sigma methodologies. As describe in  these methodologies were first integrated in 1986 in the US-based George Group, however the term Lean Six Sigma only appear in literature after the year 2000, when a marked increase in LSS popularity and deployment in the industrial world occur, especially in large western organizations such as Motorola, Honeywell and General and in some SME. The objective of the implementation of LSS is to improve performance of production processes by reducing waste, variability, costs and satisfying customers [3, 4]. LSS started to use the DMAIC cycle as support structure for problem solving and to integrate tools from both philosophies . Using both methodologies simultaneously, so that their synergy can be leveraged, makes it more effective and most beneficial. Furthermore, the use of both simultaneously is also more effective to identify root causes of problems rather than focusing on the processes where the problems appear .
ABSTRACT - This theoretical paper discusses de appropriateness of including the concept of variability into projects of automating work stations. It underlines the contribution of ergonomics to the process of introducing new technologies, which not only modify the nature of the work but frequently the health of the worker as well. The variability of work, a consequence of the difference between prescribed norms and reality, may be understood based on (a) the characteristics of the worker, stressing the notion of inter- and intrapersonal variability, (b) the organization of the work process, stressing the variability of equipment, materials and procedures. By taking variability into account when elaborating a project or a situation of technological innovation, it renders favourable improvement in working conditions due to flexibility and reduc- tion of impositions of prescribed work norms, which usually are based on a ‘mean’ worker, well trained and working under stable conditions.
Abstract- The viscous flow simulation over a re-entry vehicle in transonic and supersonic speed region using RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Strokes) equation is carried out from candidate configurations. The aerodynamic characterization of the launch vehicle configuration using turbulence model is done by Computational Fluid Dynamics. Few parametric studies related to the re-entry vehicles also carried out in the view of real time applications. The focus of this article is on viscous flows described by the RANS equations and the k-epsilon model for turbulence. The validity of the overall methodology is illustrated with several design examples, including the optimization of three-dimensional geometries in combination with advanced freeform techniques for mesh deformation. The solid modeling of re-entry vehicle is done using CATIA V5 design toolkit. Grid generation for the re-entry vehicle is performed by computational codes with required relaxation factor. The flow field simulation around the body has revealed several key facts that must be considered in the process of aerodynamic and structural design of re-entry vehicles.