Ethnicity and immigrant

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Cognitive systems evolution: immigrant last generations and cognitive mapping

Cognitive systems evolution: immigrant last generations and cognitive mapping

Shum, Ki and Leong [29] previously showed the masterity of mandarin speaker’s brainin tasks demanding verbal reasoning features (such as the verbal analogy test) and proved, on the other hand, that Mandarin Speakers had problems to decode phonological information that appears in stimulus sequence different from the native ‘habit’ (which pressuposes a neural system associated by experience and adaptative behavior to encode and recognize sequences) in their home language. So, the words and isolated sounds recall would be likely a gap for the Chinese early L2 beginners in languages such as Portuguese. These cognitive (memory and attention) indicators from this specific trial study (students were instructed regarding each task during the assessment period) are explained by ethnic and nationality differences which was not expected according to the evidence of previous analyses [30] that outline race and ethnicity as not predictors of cognitive differences.However we believe that these groups’ specificities are able to determine cognitive differences – neural or brain structure based - as well is well-known that those differences explain other behaviours – in the same neural basis argument - besides the cognition [31]. Along the cognitive or neural structure factor, we argue that the present data is based also in the educational type factor – the culture and resources of instruction - that students recently experienced in their countries of origin. The cognitive processing in these recall tasks might be biased also considering other factor: the parents’ vocabulary and language used at home [33]. This topic should be further examined in similar studies to understand more factors that explain cognitive processing differences and recall abilities.
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Terrorism, ethnicity and Islamic extremism in Sahel

Terrorism, ethnicity and Islamic extremism in Sahel

The penetration of Islamist fundamentalism in Sahel is the result of decade-long historical development. Associated to arms and drug trafficking, money laundering and strategic support of religious, humanitarian and cultural local non-profit organizations (NGOs)., it is carried out by different dissident groups. These NGOs appear under the guise of charities who care for those in need as well as protect the Muslim from their enemies as well as spread the faith and raise funds (the sources are countries in Sahel such as Sudan or the Arab Peninsula) which are then used to finance logistics in terrorist organizations. These NGOs even have subsidiaries in Europe and the USA, which help to globalize extremist activities and rhetoric among immigrant communities (often marginalized in the host countries, which adds to the vicious cycle).
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Vulnerability to extreme heat and climate change: is ethnicity a factor?

Vulnerability to extreme heat and climate change: is ethnicity a factor?

of heat stress to people in ethnic minorities can help save lives and reduce morbidity (19). Following major heat- waves in the recent years, heatwave action plans similar to those formulated by the World Health Organisation (27) are now common in countries around the world, and it has been recognised that early warning messages should be targeted at vulnerable groups including ethnic mino- rities and tourists (61). For example, the Contingency Plan for Excessive Heat Emergencies in California outlines recommendations for identifying vulnerable populations, developing strategies for notification, and increasing awareness by establishing processes to quickly disseminate extreme heat emergency advice to vulnerable populations including immigrant groups (62). Some Australian heatwave plans have also identified increased risk of heat-related illness in those who are not acclima- tised, those with low SES, and non-English-speaking people (63, 64). A multimedia approach incorporating radio, television, and newspapers is most effective to ensure that a public warning system reaches the largest audience. For many recent migrants who may not have access to the broadcast media, networks of family and friends, as well as social workers and charity groups can assist in information dissemination (41).
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Ethnicity and health

Ethnicity and health

The Subcommittee on Planning and Programming is requested to examine this document and issue its observations on: a) the importance of gathering health information on ethnic groups; an[r]

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Factors associated with sarcopenia in subjects aged 80 years and over

Factors associated with sarcopenia in subjects aged 80 years and over

that the prevalence of sarcopenia was greater in very old adults, especially males. Our results corroborate these findings since the likelihood of this age group presenting sarcopenia is approximately three times greater than that of older adults aged 80 to 84 years, and males are approximately four times more likely to have sarcopenia than females. Using Appendicular Muscle Man Index, Newman et al. 17 found prevalences of sarcopenia

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How Teachers' Perceptions Affect the Academic and Language Assessment of Immigrant Children

How Teachers' Perceptions Affect the Academic and Language Assessment of Immigrant Children

This study’s results are partially in accordance with the data of international studies (Bree, Hird, Milton et al., 2001; Horwitz, 1985; Peacock, 2001) of the nineties and forward, in that Portuguese teachers devalue tasks related to the assessment and teaching of language rules, while agreeing with items that focus on vocabulary. Reading and listening comprehension, especially of test questions and written instructions, are the priorities, as noted, of the Portuguese teacher sample. On the other hand, in the groups within the Portuguese sample, teachers with less experience (the younger ones) do not differ from the more experienced ones when determining the reading tasks, which may denote less capacity to differentiate assessment and teaching tasks in general. Also, on the power of the variables referred to in Question 2 of this study, other authors value the analysis of the experience with multicultural groups (Flores & Smith, 2009; Lee & Oxelson, 2006; Pettit, 2011) and other factors, such as length of service and training for L2 teaching, (Flores & Smith, 2009) for professionals to develop positive attitudes towards L2 education and the maintenance of Mother Tongue students as something important for the L2 development process (Bialystok, 2002; Cummins, 1980; Hinkel, 2012; Lee & Oxelson).
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Bioética e doação de órgãos no Brasil: aspectos éticos na abordagem à família do potencial doador

Bioética e doação de órgãos no Brasil: aspectos éticos na abordagem à família do potencial doador

With this scenario, it is clear that the advent of new technologies in the area of health, mainly those for sustaining life, can be confrontational, since that characterizes the living face of multiple concepts of death. By conception of death and dying, a patient with brain death diagnosis still has his organs alive and he would be, therefore, a being who contains elements that are alive. At the same time, however, would also have elements that determine his death, from the medical concept of brain death barrier. This ambiguity creates, in large part of the time, sharp discomfort on the part of relatives in opting for loved one’s organs removal that still contains, somehow, the vitality of the organs 22 .
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Pessoas com deficiência: eugenia na imigração do início do século XX

Pessoas com deficiência: eugenia na imigração do início do século XX

After being informed about the research and its objectives, the interviewees agreed to spoke up about their life story and experiences related to the theme of this study. The audio recording of the conversation lasted approximately nine hours, and then transcribed, according to the guidelines established for field work. To preserve their anonymity, the participants are henceforth referred to by acronyms. As many immigrants have experienced, Mrs. MGLS, blind from birth and the youngest of a family of seven siblings, was denied immigration from Portugal to Brazil in the 1950s. Their parents lived in the parish of Lomba, located in Guarda, a city of the Beira Alta province. AS, her father, and MJL, her mother, born respectively in 1906 and 1909, were married in 1934. As means of survival, Mrs. MJL was responsible for the cultivation of fruits and vegetables, and the animals raised on their land; whereas Mr. AS ran a small shop selling food and beverages.
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Correlations between risk factors for prostate cancer: an epidemiological analysis

Correlations between risk factors for prostate cancer: an epidemiological analysis

The World Health Organization (WHO) considers smoking as the main cause of death that can be prevented in the world and a risk factor for cancer. According to the WHO, more than 5 million people die each year around the world due to smoking, being that the majority of these deaths are concentrated in people with low and medium incomes. It also shows that, in 2030, the number of deaths will exceed the home of 8 million, reaching one billion deaths by the end of this century. Smoking is a predictive cancer variable by inducing significant changes in genetic material, observed by cytogenetic biomarkers.
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Identity, Over-Commitment, Work Environment, and Health Outcomes among Immigrant Workers

Identity, Over-Commitment, Work Environment, and Health Outcomes among Immigrant Workers

The present pattern of temporary work migration adds dimensions to the field of study, for example, when it comes to ideas of identity, belonging and commitment. Ideas of identity are often used as an approach to understand the individual experience of work migration. Identity is defined as the ideas we have about who we are and what groups we belong to (Jenkins, 2008). Identity and a sense of belonging, then, are fundamental for shaping and mediating immigrant o ke s’ e pe ie es i the e ei i g so iet . Gidde s defi es ide tity as the ongoing sense the self has of who it is, as conditioned through its ongoing interaction with others (in Matthews, 2000). While identity conditions the individual experiences of migration, these experiences in turn impact on identity. For example, several studies note that many immigrant workers adopt the norms of the locals during the migration period (see, for example, Breman, 1996). Many immigrants therefore live the experience of having flexible or contradictory roles and statuses in the sending and receiving society. For some, the ambiguity may represent the liberty to express several identities and transcend boundaries, while for others it may pose a threat to the coherency of who they are and where they belong.
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Fertility, migration and acculturation (FEMINA): a research protocol for studying intersectional sexual and reproductive health inequalities.

Fertility, migration and acculturation (FEMINA): a research protocol for studying intersectional sexual and reproductive health inequalities.

Sexual health and reproductive health are equally im- portant parts of personal health and development. For many years the focus of research on sexual health has concentrated mostly on issues such as the prevention of diseases, infections and unplanned pregnancies. Now- adays the focus of this research has expanded to include sexual and reproductive health rights that encompass our sexual health, gender equality and empowerment of women. However, despite the advancements being made, challenges in terms of the fulfillment of the diversity of sexual and reproductive health needs across life course and populations still exist. Migrant populations can be particularly vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health issues due to gender and socioeconomic inequalities, cultural and social norms around sexuality, and other social and structural factors. These include, among other things, how old is the migrant population, how the mi- grant population will adapt to the host culture, how well will it be able to navigate through the health system and linguistic barriers, and how all these factors will impact not only their fertility capacity and status, but also their achievement of sexual health. Thus, some researchers have considered that the process of postmigration cul- tural adjustment (i.e., acculturation) may induce a change in how individuals make decisions about import- ant events such as when and whether to have a child. However proper evidence that establishes the link be- tween migration, sexual health and reproductive deci- sions is still lacking. Therefore, there is a need to study how different generations and genders in immigrant families in Portugal perceive the concepts of family and sexuality based on the institutional and policy context that surround them. The FEMINA (FErtility, MIgratioN and Acculturation) study proposes to explore whether sexual and reproductive health inequalities impact on fertility among Cape Verdean immigrant and Portuguese native families in Portugal.
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Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem  vol.18 número4

Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem vol.18 número4

Segregated individuals with mental disorders, families without support or guidance concerning disease and treatment, and unprepared professionals are some of the factors that can contribute to re-hospitalizations. This study identifies sociodemographic variables, clinical conditions, diagnoses and treatments in order to identify their relationship with psychiatric re-hospitalizations. This is an exploratory and descriptive study. A form was used to search data in patients’ files from 2006 and 2007 in a regional psychiatric facility. A total of 681 re-hospitalizations were identified, the majority due to treatment abandonment. Length of hospitalization was higher for women between 40 and 49 years of age. Positive associations of sociodemographic data with previous hospitalizations were found, such as type of discharge, and physical and mental condition, which is in accordance with the literature. Readmissions are associated with sociodemographic and clinical indicators. These findings can guide care and public policies regarding mental health.
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The relative contribution of immigration or local increase for persistence of urban schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

The relative contribution of immigration or local increase for persistence of urban schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area re- ceived migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic fea- tures suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with preva- lence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribu- tion from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health ef- forts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely.
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Social amnesia and immigrant representations: consequences of historical and colonial oblivion in Europe and America

Social amnesia and immigrant representations: consequences of historical and colonial oblivion in Europe and America

In several countries of immigration today, especially in Europe and North America, the “new” non-European immigrants are seen as more problematic than the “historic” immigrants from Europe. Anti-immigrant movements and politicians generally deny that they are racists, alleging that the new immigrants do not accept western values, and that their cultural characteristics impede integration and produce antidemocratic, sexist and even terrorist attitudes. This article presents historical evidence that this characterization of the new immigrants, as if they were bearers of an insuperable alterity, completely unrelated to the countries of immigration, is only made possible by two forms of social amnesia: the forgetting of the treatment suffered by many immigrants from the European periphery in the past and the forgetting of the colonial and neocolonial past of the countries of immigration. In the past, several immigrant groups from the European periphery suffered hostility and stigmatization in the principal immigrant receiving countries. We also need to take the colonial past into account, in order to understand changes in migrant streams and the representations of the new immigrants, many of whom did not arrive in great numbers earlier, because they were excluded by racist immigration policies. We distinguish between overseas and continental empires, which often incorporated conquered peoples as national minorities and arbitrarily divide nations, redefining as “immigrants” or “illegal” peoples who migrate within their own territories. We argue that historical and colonial amnesia does not only correspond to the psicological need to delegitimate the new immigrants; it is also institutionalized in places and institutions of memory, which exclude from public memory the painful integration of immigrants from the European periphery and the colonial and neocolonial relations between the countries of immigration and the places of origin of the new immigrants.
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‘It’s not enough to migrate. You have to deserve to be an immigrant!’: Narratives as weapons of struggling for the true/best immigrant group identity

‘It’s not enough to migrate. You have to deserve to be an immigrant!’: Narratives as weapons of struggling for the true/best immigrant group identity

Also during the Balkan Wars, the Bulgarians headed for the Thrace and massacred 200,000 Turks and caused 440,000 Turks to flee and immigrate to Tu ke Halaçoğlu, . Bulga ia o ti ued its p essu e o the Tu ks du i g a d after World War I; however, according to the Turkish-Bulgarian Residence Agreement, which was signed on 18 October 1925, Bulgaria would not prevent discretionary migration of the Turks from then on. In the period from 1923 to 1939, some 200,000 Turks fleeing from the mistreatment of the fascist Bulgarian government immigrated to Turkey. The Turks submitted migration petitions to both Turkish and Bulgarian authorities also after the Russian invasion and the socialist government was brought to power in Bulgaria. In August 1950, Bulgaria asked Turkey to open its borders and receive 220,000 Turks within three months. In this process, Turkey closed its borders when Bulgaria sent not the Turks but Gypsies without a visa. That the borders kept opening and closing mutually due to disputes caused part of the Turks to lose their lives due to hunger and cold weather at the border gates during the 1950-1951 migrations. Some Turks remained on the Bulgarian side although their properties or relatives crossed to Turkey.
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Rev. Saúde Pública  vol.46 número5

Rev. Saúde Pública vol.46 número5

possible to assure that the differences observed are only explained by culture, the local experts on immigration and health interviewed in our study stated that, some- times, immigrants consider that infectious diseases have inter-human transmission and there is no perception that animals can infect humans, thus increasing the risk to contract a zoonotic disease. The experts said that the eating habits of immigrants represent a risk factor, especially regarding the methods of food preservation in certain immigrant communities. The risks often reside in the last phase (storage and conservation) of the food chain or imported food from countries where health regulations are less rigid than those in force in Italy. The open questions in our questionnaire were useful to understand the behavior and attitudes of workers facing risky situations in spite of the diffi culty to measure them. In some of the hypothetical questions, participants were hesitant in their answers because they were unsure about how they would behave or prob- ably because they did not understand the questions. According to Launiala (2009), 10 questions related to
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Adaptation and conformity-immigrant parent’s feelings about parenting in Norway: how do immigrant mothers experience parenting in relation to their perception of a Norwegian standard of parenting?

Adaptation and conformity-immigrant parent’s feelings about parenting in Norway: how do immigrant mothers experience parenting in relation to their perception of a Norwegian standard of parenting?

levels, according to Lurie and Tjelflaat (2012) there are programs allowing children the opportunity to take part in conflict arbitration exercises in their schools and communities and political councils for children to participate at both the communal and national levels. Several authors have noted that not all cultures endorse this way of viewing children and parenting all together and that this reality is most noticeable among ethnic minority groups in the population (e.g. Sommers et al., 2010; Hundeide et al., 2011; Bak and Von Brömssen 2010). Accepting the idea of a competent child requires that parents unreservedly trust children with the responsibility to share in decision making and without fear of them being incapable to devise their future. However the insecurity inhibiting some migrant parents is the issue of over-protectiveness. As Wiktoria introspected on the subject, she reached the conclusion that “…we sometimes think that we are overprotective”. She then added the idea that this may be measured on a continuum where as she would not regard herself as an overprotective mom in the Polish context. Her reasoning suggests that Norway is far more advanced in giving children a degree of leeway that immigrant parents are more restrictive in doing.
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J. bras. psiquiatr.  vol.65 número2

J. bras. psiquiatr. vol.65 número2

average interval between the beginning of alcohol use and the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol dependence was 30 years. However, the mean ages of onset of alcohol use, and of alcohol dependence diagnosis and treatment did not differ between the study groups. Although the SAD group had a lower mean age (46 vs. 52 years old), this difference did not reach statistical significance. Thus, population-based studies are needed to evaluate whether SAD comorbidity affects (decreasing or increasing, anticipating or delaying) treatment seeking for alcohol dependence. Nevertheless, in a sample of substance abusers, those with clinically rele- vant SAD symptoms were 4-8 times more likely to report that shyness interfered with addiction treatment activities 22 . The
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Multicultural Media in a Post-Multicultural Canada? Rethinking Integration

Multicultural Media in a Post-Multicultural Canada? Rethinking Integration

A multicultural approach to integrating diversity may have once symbolized a positive step forward in (a) incorporating historically marginalized migrants and newcomers as equals into the existing framework; (b) promoting the concept of respecting differences as grounds for good governance; (c) encouraging full and equal participation to foster social cohesion; (d) acknowledging the importance of accommodative institutions to ensure no one was excluded for reasons beyond their control; (e) securing the tolerance principle of agreeing to disagree in advancing a cooperative coexistence; and (f) capitalizing on the ethos of a specific historic period—namely, equality, respect, inclusion, integration, and unity in hopes of superimposing a shared “we” morality to displace a “them other” mentality (Hrushetska, 2013, March 28; Kymlicka, 2010). However, this commitment to integration under an official multiculturalism also has a downside (Chazan et al., 2011). For all its virtues and strengths, an official multiculturalism remains foundationally anchored in the constitutional order of a monocultural state that upholds a white Eurocentricity as the unmarked norm, a tacitly assumed standard for judging others, and an ideology in deference to a dominant ideology (Pinder, 2010). Moves to manage diversities under the banner of a one-size-fits-all integration creates a multiculturalism that tends to paper over differences, while reinforcing a racialized hierarchy that consolidates a Eurocentric whiteness at expense of the “other” (Latham, 2007/2008). Alternatively, a state multiculturalism may accentuate the diversity principle, albeit for purposes of divide and rule, yet backpedal on putting this principle into meaningful practice. The end result is the ascent of rigid identity politics in which aggrieved groups proclaim their specialness or victimhood by setting themselves apart from others in the competition for recognition and resources (Hrushetska, 2013, March 28).
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