Scour is one of the most recurrent causes of failure of bridge structures in alluvial rivers. There exist a variety of formulas for the assessment of bridge scour characteristics and for the design of suitable protection. Nevertheless, current approaches neglect the effect of debris carried by natural streams during floods, even when the accumulation of debris can extremely amplify the action of scouring processes. Until now, very limited efforts have been conducted to systematically investigate these effects. The present study focuses on the effect of debris on the maximum clear-water scour depth at cylindrical piers inserted in uniform, fully-developed turbulent flows in wide rectangular channels with flatbed composed of uniform, non-ripple forming sand. For these purposes, an experimentalcampaign was carried out by performing 17 long-duration (t d = 7 days) experiments. The
The experimentalcampaign highlighted several aspects: the good workability of air lime-based mortars, even with relatively low flow table consistencies; the difficulty but the need on evaluating shrinkage since moulding; the phenolphthalein test inadequacy to evaluate lime-metakaolin carbonation due to changes registered on PH by pozzolanic reaction; the increase of mechanical characteristics when lime was partially substituted by metakaolin - although the metakaolin that was used was not very reactive and the lime-metakaolin proportion was not optimized; the good deformability, expressed in terms of the dynamic modulus of elasticity, evidenced by all mortars but particularly by mortars with lime putty, with similar flexural strength results; the higher porosity of mortars with lime putty compared to powder air lime mortars, but with similar mechanical resistances when metakaolin replacement occurred; the low capillary water absorption of analyzed lime putty mortars - this lime had a water repellent product - but also the greater difficulty to dry of these mortars - while lime without water repellent mortars absorbed rapidly and more quantity of capillary water but could release that moisture more easily; an improvement of the behavior of powder air lime mortars to initial water capillary absorption and drying capacity when metakaolin was added and the inverse situation for lime putty with water repellent mortars.
The experimentalcampaign highlighted several aspects: the good workability of air lime-based mortars, even with relatively low flow table consistencies; the difficulty but the need on evaluating shrinkage since moulding in lime-based mor- tars; the phenolphthalein test inadequacy to evaluate lime-metakaolin carbonation due to changes registered on PH by pozzolanic reaction; the increase of mechani- cal characteristics when lime was partially substituted by metakaolin - although the metakaolin that was used was not chosen by its reactivity, but by the fact of being an available Portuguese metakaolin, and the lime-metakaolin proportion was not optimized; the good deformability, expressed in terms of the low dynamic modulus of elasticity, evidenced by all mortars but particularly by mortars with lime putty, with similar flexural strength results; the higher open porosity of mor- tars with lime putty compared to powder hydrated lime mortars, but with similar mechanical resistances when metakaolin replacement occurred; the low capillary water absorption of analyzed lime putty mortars, produced with a water repellent agent, but also the greater difficulty to dry of these mortars - while lime without water repellent agent mortars absorbed rapidly and more quantity of capillary wa- ter but could release that moisture more easily; an improvement of the behaviour of powder hydrated lime mortars to initial water capillary absorption and drying capacity when metakaolin was added and the inverse situation for lime putty with water repellent agent mortars; the improvement of the resistance to chlorides of powder hydrated lime mortars with and without metakaolin with humid and car- bonated curing and the generally week resistance to chlorides attack of lime putty mortars without metakaolin - for curing other than C or with metakaolin with cure C.
This paper is part of an extensive work about the technological development, experimental analysis and numerical modeling of steel ibre rein- forced concrete pipes. The irst part (“Steel ibre reinforced concrete pipes. Part 1: technological analysis of the mechanical behavior”) dealt with the technological development of the experimentalcampaign, the test procedure and the discussion of the structural behavior obtained for each of the dosages of ibre used. This second part deals with the aspects of numerical modeling. In this respect, a numerical model called MAP, which simulates the behavior of ibre reinforced concrete pipes with medium-low range diameters, is introduced. The bases of the numerical model are also mentioned. Subsequently, the experimental results are contrasted with those produced by the numerical model, obtaining excellent correla- tions. It was possible to conclude that the numerical model is a useful tool for the design of this type of pipes, which represents an important step forward to establish the structural ibres as reinforcement for concrete pipes. Finally, the design for the optimal amount of ibres for a pipe with a diameter of 400 mm is presented as an illustrating example with strategic interest.
The bioproducts produced with Escherichia (E.) coli strain BL21(DE3) cell culture at the optimal growth temperature of 37ºC. The bacteria cells were feed on LB (Luria Broth) medium, a nutritionally rich medium that contains 10 g of tryptone, 5 g of yeast extract and 10 g of NaCl. This bacterium is a non-pathogenic microorganism and therefore it is safe to manipulate without major concerns. This bioproduct was used on Biotreatments I, using the experimental strategies described by Velez da Silva (2017) with some modifications. In this experimentalcampaign, E. coli BL21(DE3) culture supplemented with iron biproducts were prepared as follows: 1) the cell culture was applied on the construction materials to be tested immediately after growth such as Velez da Silva (2017); 2) the cell culture was centrifuged and resuspended with water (E. coli+Fe (҉)) in order to assess what makes effect, if it is the bacteria for itself or it is the bacteria and its metabolism; 3) the cell culture was stored at 4ºC for 48h (E. coli+Fe (4°C_48h)); 4) the cell culture was stored at -20ºC for 48h (E. coli+Fe (-20°C_48h)) to assess different ways to store the bioproducts. All these bioproducts were applied as liquid suspensions using a micropipette following a 9- points grid scheme (111 µL each point in two successive applications in a total of 2 mL). A fifth biotreatment was performed using bioproduct 1) applied by capillarity rise (E. coli+Fe (↑)).
Four thousand seven hundred and fifty-six cars, motorcycles and utility vehicles, that con- stitute the non-probabilistic sample of the study, were intercepted while circulating on public roads in neighborhoods in the southern part of the capital of the State of Rio de Janeiro (Humai- tá, Gávea and Lagoa) and municipalities of the Baixada Fluminense (São João de Meriti, Nova Iguaçu and Duque de Caxias). The interception did not follow systematic criteria and was con- ducted randomly by police, who informed the drivers about the changes in the CTB after the DUI Spot-Check Campaign, requesting that the breathalyzer test be taken and presentation of the Vehicle Registration and Licensing Certificate and the Brazilian Driver’s License.
Participants welcomed the opportunity to monitor the implementation of all components of the campaign while it was being carried out. Managers of immunization programs learned of the importance of harnessing the support of health authorities and members of government at the highest level for the national campaign, of having readily-available epidemiological information on disease burden, as well as analyses on cost-effectiveness. Equally important were the active involvement of the country’s medical and scientific societies, the implementation of adequate strategies of so- cial mobilization, the availability of simple instruments that allow for the registration of the target population by age group, and the effective management of particular situa- tions, such as monitoring of post-vaccine events during the campaign, planning for safe injections and disposal of hazardous material, and coordination with blood banks.
Desde 2002, um comitê internacional, capitaneado por três sociedades médicas (Society of Critical Care Medi- cine, European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and International Sepsis Forum), vem desenvolvendo uma campanha em todo o mundo, denominada Surviving Sepsis Campaign (Campanha Sobrevivendo à Sepse), no sentido de implementar, à beira-leito, um protocolo baseado nas melhores evidências cientíicas disponí- veis. Atualmente, instituições de mais de 20 países já aderiram à Campanha. No Brasil, o processo é geren- ciado pelo Instituto Latino Americano para Estudos de Sepse (ILAS). O objetivo inal da Campanha é reduzir o risco relativo de óbito em 25% nos próximos 5 anos. Um dos principais componentes da Campanha é o desenvolvimento de diretrizes para o tratamento da sepse grave. Em 2004, um grupo internacional, com- posto de mais de 100 especialistas, representando 11 organizações, publicaram as primeiras diretrizes acei- tas internacionalmente, as quais auxiliariam a equipe multiproissional no tratamento destes pacientes 5 . Na-
Bradshaw, N. G., Vaughan, G., Busen, G., Garcelon, S., Jones, R. L., Gardiner, T., and Hacker, J.: Tracer filamentation generated by small-scale Rossby wave breaking in the lower stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2002JD002086, 4689, 2002. Cairo, F., Pommereau, J. P., Law, K. S., Schlager, H., Garnier, A., Fierli, F., Ern, M., Streibel, M., Arabas, S., Borrmann, S., Berthelier, J. J., Blom, C., Christensen, T., D’Amato, F., Di Don- francesco, G., Deshler, T., Diedhiou, A., Durry, G., Engelsen, O., Goutail, F., Harris, N. R. P., Kerstel, E. R. T., Khaykin, S., Konopka, P., Kylling, A., Larsen, N., Lebel, T., Liu, X., MacKen- zie, A. R., Nielsen, J., Oulanowski, A., Parker, D. J., Pelon, J., Polcher, J., Pyle, J. A., Ravegnani, F., Rivi`ere, E. D., Robin- son, A. D., R¨ockmann, T., Schiller, C., Sim˜oes, F., Stefanutti, L., Stroh, F., Some, L., Siegmund, P., Sitnikov, N., Vernier, J. P., Volk, C. M., Voigt, C., von Hobe, M., Viciani, S., and Yushkov, V.: An introduction to the SCOUT-AMMA stratospheric aircraft, balloons and sondes campaign in West Africa, August 2006: rationale and roadmap, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2237–2256, doi:10.5194/acp-10-2237-2010, 2010.
The 2002 Dutch election campaign has been described as being unusually negative. It was demonstrated that the strongly negatively tinted news coverage towards particular party leaders led to signiicantly lower levels of trust in them (Kleinnijenhuis et al., 2006). Trust in a particular leader, in turn, increased the likelihood to cast a vote for the associated party. Other evidence suggests that coverage bias may also inluence vote choices. For the 2003 Belgian election, it was demonstrated that media attention for certain candidates increased these candidates’ vote shares (Maddens et al., 2006). In particular, those constituency candidates that were covered prominently in newspapers and that appeared on television were more successful (van Aelst et al., 2006). In a similar vein, Hopmann et al. (2010) demonstrated a visibility effect with regard to party sup- port at a Danish election. For the Dutch 1998 elections, is was shown that in particular attention to politicians in sound bites contributed to voters’ responding favourably to their party (Oegema & Kleinnijenhuis, 2000). Related, for the 2010 Dutch election, it was shown that personalized news coverage can prime party leader evaluations. Based on a 11-wave panel survey combined with media con- tent analysis, the authors demonstrate that those respondents who were more strongly exposed to personalized news coverage of the candidates were more like- ly to draw heavily on leader evaluations what choosing which party to vote for (Takens et al., 2015). Some German studies indicated similar priming effects of candidate-centred coverage; during strongly personalized election campaigns heavy users of media that place a great emphasis on personalities seemed to take candidate orientations more strongly into account when deciding how to vote (Schulz et al., 2005; Zeh, 2005; Prinzen, 2010).
O programa experimental realizado no presente estudo tem o objetivo de estudar perfis de aço formados a frio de seção do tipo rack sem e com a presença de perfurações na alma, para os quais o modo de flambagem local é predominante. Estas seções foram definidas através de análises numéricas, conforme apresentado no capítulo anterior. Os ensaios foram sob compressão centrada em colunas curtas e o programa experimental envolveu o projeto dos protótipos, o levantamento das imperfeições geométricas, a instrumentação utilizada e a metodologia da realização dos ensaios.
obtained a power level above .99 to detect Ahn et al.’s Study 1 effect size of d = 0.45. Meta-ana- lytic calculations were deployed using SPSS syntax developed by Wilson . Effect size input comprised Cohen’s d corresponding to the independent samples t-test comparing campaign compliance intention (single-item) in the sad-anthropomorphism and non-anthropomor- phism conditions from each of the three experiments (see Table 2, row 1). These effect size esti- mates were then adjusted using a standard small sample size bias correction and weighted by inverse variance, as advocated by Lipsey and Wilson . A Q-test for heterogeneity across effect sizes revealed no significant violations of homogeneity, Q(2) = 2.57, p = .28. As such, we utilized a fixed effects model , which yielded an effect size estimate that did not differ sig- nificantly from zero (-0.04, 95% CI [-0.22, 0.13], p = .63).
can be used to derive an experimental value for k ′ from the gradient of a fitted regres- sion line on the data, while β = 1 was derived from in situ HO 2 and RO 2 measurements at Mt. Cimone using the Heidelberg ROXMAS instrument (Uecker et al., 2001). Note that Zanis et al. (2000b) derived a much higher value for β of 4–7 using a box model to simulate the HO 2 /CH 3 O 2 ratio at the Jungfraujoch. Sensitivity studies indicate that