Pretende-se com este estudo, “A análise de risco em investimentos do tipo de Parcerias Público- Privadas” baseado na metodologia FMEA – FailureModesandEffectsAnalysis – Análise de Modos de Falha e Efeitos, dar um contributo para as boas práticas de implementação das PPP, bem como aumentar os índices de investigação do tema, que em Portugal ainda está numa fase embrionária, contrariamente ao volume de negócios das parcerias já implementadas e em plano de implementação, quer ao nível do Estado, quer ao nível da Administração Local.
Information gained by performing FMECA can be used as a basis for troubleshooting activities, maintenance, manual development and design of effective built-in test techniques  .The analysis is characterized as consisting of two sub-analyses, the first being the failuremodesandeffectsanalysis (FMEA), and the second, the criticality analysis (CA).The method is widely used and accepted throughout the military and commercial industries  .This tool was used by Ibrahim, A. et’al  , 2015 to assess the reliability of a Reactor – regenerator unit. Their result showed that the reliability of the unit was found to be low. Similarly, Thangamani, G. et’al 
Faced with the complexity of an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), the reality of a plurality of therapies, including pharmacological and advanced technologies, can render inpatient health care unsafe. The objective was to analyze potential risks of the clinical drug process in the Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital in Ceará. The study is an action research, with a quantitative and qualitative approach of the observational type. Initially, the FMEA team was formed and after the analysis of the prescriptions released at the unit on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays between October 2017 and January 2018. The Microsoft Excel 2010® program was used to analyze the data and the Pareto principle to evaluate the occurrence of failuremodesand the variance of these occurrences as well as the GUT matrix. For pharmaceutical interventions, a descriptive statistical analysis was performed. 170 prescriptions were analyzed, 63 possible potential failuremodes were identified, among them: drug-drug or food-drug interaction (n = 25, 39.6%), incompatibilities (n = 18, 28.5%), and medications needed of renal adjustment (n = 9, 14.2%). It was found that for all drug-drug, drug-food and incompatibility interactions the causes were the same: lack of interaction / incompatibility by the medical and nursing staff. The severity indexes had a high score (n = 32; 53.3%) and moderate (n = 15; 25%) and a minimum score (n = 21; 35%). There were 39 (65%) failuremodesand by Pareto analysis the most frequent occurrences were: lack of dosage form and dosage. In the Pareto analysis of CP, the following should be prioritized: absence of pharmaceutical form and Amiodarone + Atorvastatin. In the Pareto analysis of the GUT matrix, the ones with the highest criticality are: dose, Amiodarone + Amlodipine and Fentanyl + Amiodarone. There were 287 pharmaceutical interventions (IFs), in which 70.03% (n = 201) were accepted, contact was made with medical staff in 93.38% (n = 268). Improvement actions were also carried out involving the continued education of the multiprofessional team. The study allowed to identify and analyze the modesandeffects of the failures identified in the clinical drug process, besides revealing the necessity of the elaboration of protocols and standardization of processes involving the use of medications.
Equations derived from purely elastic behaviour of the material were used to calculate the stresses and modulus of elasticity of the material. It is important to mention that these typical equations of solid mechan- ics serve as a comparative parameter between the different modes of rupture, in the scope of the research, in the sense of assisting the practice of design and structural analysis in wooden structures, even though there is no theory for that situation. According to JORISSEN and FRAGIACOMO 0, timber elements are usually designed using linear elastic analysis for the calculation of both the effects of loads on the structural members (strength demand) and the strength of members at cross-sections (strength capacity), which is the only design method currently recommended in the Eurocode. KIM and HARRIES 0 predicted the behaviour of timber structures by using models ranging from simple analytical ones based on linear elastic theory to three- dimensional finite element analysis models, even though wood is an anisotropic material. According to KONOPKA et al. 0, orthotropic elasticity is a commonly used material model for the description of the ap- proximately linear (in the range of small strains) and cylindrical anisotropic behaviour. Therefore, Hooke’s law gives the linear relation between elastic strain and stress.
in delaminated areas (LFT). Groups with bondline thickness of 0.15 mm, showed a relative increase of 55.36%, when delaminated areas changed from 61.72% of failure region in group A00-015 (pure adhesive) to 95.89% in group A10-015 (adhesive + 1.0% CNT). Also an improvement of 13.85% in peak force was reported in group with 1.0 wt% CNT. These effects could be associated to interactions between CNT and polymeric chains leading to formation of a mechanical barrier, reducing the nucleation and propagation of cracks and improving the adhesion between adhesive and adherent. The presence of CNT agglomerates in some samples could be reduce the CNT capacity of improve mechanical properties.
beneﬁcial (10), including the reduction of inﬂammatory response (1,11) and oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant system (12). These exercise-mediated responses seem to be dependent on several factors, such as exercise intensity, duration, and the muscle mass involved (13). These responses have barely been studied in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). In a previous study on patients with CHF, we observed that 30 min of moderate- intensity exercise elicited a better positive acute inﬂam- matory response than that elicited by mild exercise (14). However, it is not clear whether this result is related to the intensity, duration, or the amount of exercise. Thus, this study aimed to compare the effects of three exercise situations of different intensities and durations on the levels of the inﬂammatory markers sTNFR1 (soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor) and IL-6, and on oxidative stress, as assessed by plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concen- trations, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in indi- viduals with CHF.
ABSTRACT: In this study experimental investigations were carried out to explore the possibility of using Fly Ash, silica fume and metakaol in as a replacement of cement and bottom ash as a replacement of sand to make high performance concrete mixtures. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the flexural strength of high performance concrete beams by utilizing fly ash, silica fume, metakaolin and bottom ash. A total of eight rectangular beams were cast and tested. The beams were 125 mm 250 mm in cross-section and 3200 mm long. The beams were tested in two point loading over a simply supported span of 3000 mm. Of the above eight beams, 2 beams served as control specimen, 6 beams were cast with three different combinations of replacement of cement and fine aggregate. All the beams were evaluated in terms of load, deflection, moment, curvature and ductility. The test results indicated that beam with cement replacement by 10% silicafume and 10% metakaolin and fine aggregate replacement by 20% bottom ash exhibit 60% increase in load carrying capacity when compared to that of control beam.
In the present paper, computational models are formulated for the strength estimation of the damaged lug. The propagation of semi-elliptical crack emanating from the lug hole is investigated through the following issues: the stress analysis, the fatigue life evaluation and the crack path simulation. The two-parameter driving force crack growth model is applied for the failureanalysis of lug under cyclic loading. The stress intensity factor is calculated by applying the finite element method and/or analytical approach. The predictive capability of proposed models is verified through the comparison between the calculations and experimental data.
This paper shows the conclu sions about the corro sion mecha nics in storage data magnetic systems (hard disk). It was done from the inspec tion of 198 units that were in service in nine diffe rent climatic regions charac te ristic for Mexico. The results allow to define trends about the failure forms and the factors that affect them. In turn, this study has analyzed the causes that led to mecha nical failureand those due to dete rio ra tion by atmosp heric corro sion. On the basis of the results obtained from the field sampling, demons trates that the hard disk failure is funda men tally by mecha nical effects. The dete rio ra tion by envi ron mental effects were found in read-write heads, inte grated circuits, printed circuit boards and in some of the elec tronic compo nents of the contro ller card of the device, but not in magnetic storage surfaces. There fore, you can discard corro sion on the surface of the disk as the main kind of failure due to envi ron mental dete rio ra tion. To avoid any incon ve nience in the magnetic data storage system it is neces sary to ensure sealing of the system.
cal prediction of the aerothermodynamic characteristics of satellite for very high altitude with a Knudsen number rel- atively suitable to the application of Navier-Stokes equa- tions. According to the Mach number and heating effects observed, nonequilibrium chemical, vibrational and elec- tronic modes are taken into account. The series of calcu- lations are carried out taking into account, in a progressive way the assumptions which allow as well as possible to ap- proach the reality of physics within the flow. The numerical simulations begin with a frozen air flow, followed by the taking into account of a chemical kinetics with 5 species in which the various couplings are included. The last step is made by an extension for conditions being able to cause sig- nificant ionization of gas (chemical kinetics with 7 species) and the electronic excitation of the species. An efficient and robust thermochemical nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes code based on Upwing technology with Riemann’s solver has been developed.
similar to those used in previous studies (e.g., Martins et al. 2016). The beams were discretized into S HELL 181 elements (A NSYS nomenclature – 4-node shear deformable thin-shell elements with six degrees of freedom per node and full integration). The analyses were performed by means of an incremental-iterative technique combining Newton-Raphson’s method with an arc-length control strategy - in some cases, the stabilization control strategy substituted the arc-length, aiming a faster convergence. After several mesh tests (Barichello 2016), a satisfactory accuracy was reached for a 5mm × 5mm mesh. The material behavior was deemed either perfectly elastic or elastic-perfectly plastic (Prandtl-Reuss model: von Mises yield criterion and associated flow rule), with an elastic modulus E = 210 GPa, a Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.3 and various yield stresses f y . Several yield stresses
Thirteen women were selected for this study, while one discontinued because of difficulties in traveling to the laboratory, one presented cardiovascular disorders and one was unable to attend the established schedule for the experimental sessions. Thus, ten women (33.2 ± 5.8 yr; 159.3 ± 9.4 cm; 58.0 ±6.4 kg; 28.4 ± 2.8 body fat%; 114.4 ± 11.7 mmHg SBP; 75.1 ± 8.3 mmHg DBP; 79.6 ± 7.8 bpm) were selected for this study. All subjects responded the short-version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and were considered seden- tary. The inclusion criteria were: pre-menopausal between 24-45 years of age and no regular exercise training in the previous 12 months. The adopted exclusion criteria were: (a) use of drugs that could affect cardiovascular response to RE (i.e., beta-blockers and inhibitors of angiotensin- converting enzyme), (b) smoking and (c) presence of any cardiovascular or osteomyoarticular problems that could affect performance during RE.
The power Plant considered in this investigation agreed a contract on a full service warranty period of two years from the end of the plant „reliability test run‟. This is when the plant is operated for ninety days continuously without any problems. As part of the warranty agreement, the vendor has given over the full operation and maintenance manuals (database) to the plant maintenance department. The plant management contract must ensure they „carry out and record‟ the required maintenance tasks, as set out by vendor in order to retain the warranty status for the plant. These maintenance tasks list make up the foundation for the future maintenance schedule for the Plant. This investigation focuses particularly on the Booster Fan. The data selected in the study are man- hours, downtime, and cost for each of the PM‟s associated with each area of the plant. The area for the Booster fan is broken down into the following: 6 sub systems (the fans & fan bearings, motor and motor bearings, lubrication system, Variable Inlet Vanes coupling, brake and Control Vane Actuator). A summary of one year data for the whole Booster downtime, cost and man-hours required following a failureand schedule maintenance is displayed on the graph in Fig. 1 below.
The present work demonstrates the application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) methodology as a risk management tool in industrial and administrative processes of Flessak Eletro Industrial S/A. The seven steps provided in the method were applied to the welding process of electric generator housings and information technology of the company, seeking to analyze possible failures and potential causes, effect and risk of each type of potential failure. As a result, analysis in the IT industry demonstrated high concentration of potential failure causes in the execution of "failure on ckeklist" and "full backup server". In the boiler industry, the processes "welder with little experience", "absence of preventive maintenance" and "contaminated welding surface" represent 88% of the degree of severity, occurrence and detection of failure. Finally, the low cost of applying FMEA and the ease of adaptation to the different areas of the company were also demonstrated.
foi baseada nas palavras do dicionário Medical Subject Heading Terms (MeSH), descritores e operadores boleanos. A primeira busca foi realizada na base de dados MEDLINE (via OvidSP) conforme segue: [(heart failure/ or congestive heart failure.tw) and (CPAP ventilation.tw or continuous positive airway pressure/ or bilevel positive airway pressure.tw or positive pressure respiration/ or no invasive ventilation/ or CPAP) and (exercise/ or aerobic exercise/ or rehabilitation/) and (exercise tolerance/)]. As buscas nas bases subsequentes sofreram adequações conforme a base de dados utilizada, e tais buscas podem ser solicitadas aos autores. Para complementar, foi realizada uma busca manual nas referências dos artigos incluídos.
A.S.P.C. is one of the major petrochemical com- plexes in Iran. In 2006, the petrochemical complex was put into operation in an area with extent of 72 ha located on P.S.E.E.Z (situated in Bushehr Province) within the Assaluyeh Port. The complex includes low, medium and high-density polyethylene as well as C2 Cracker Units. The section under study includes the low-density polyethylene unit with a production capa- city of 300,000 ton/year. Assaluyeh is regarded as Iran’s main economic base and the world’s largest energy production region [21,22]. The area, situated near a village in adjacent the Persian Gulf, is located 276 km southeast of Bushehr. It is the nearest ter- restrial spot of the Persian Gulf northern margin to the South Pars Gas Field. It is worth noting that Gonbade Shomali sphere (belonged to Qatar) is located along the study area. Approximate area of the Assaluyeh in- dustrial zone is equal to 14000 ha, in which the con- struction capability is almost equal to 10000 ha re- garding deduction of alluvial lands and environmental buffer zones [23,24]. The nearest protected area to the considered petrochemical complex is Nayband Protected Area situated approximately 30 km away from the complex. The location of Arya Sasol Petro- chemical Company is shown in Figure 1.
The research method adopted in this research is the multiple case study. It is exploratory (examining the mechanisms of KM in the light of modes of knowledge conversion) and descriptive (reporting on KM in firms) in its essence. Applying the multiple case study method it is possible to analyze the phenomenon in its natural environment, and multiple data collection methods can be used to obtain information from one or more entities (individuals, groups or firms) [Yin, 2005]. Multiple case study findings are more compelling than the findings from only a single case [Yin, 2005]. This research project involved four firms operating in Portugal. The main criterion for firm selection was the existence of KM mechanisms. Other criterion was to be a knowledge intensive firm, since according to Lindvall et al. [2003, p.137], “knowledge intensive firms have realized that a large number of problems are attributed to un-captured an un-shared product and process knowledge, as well as the need to know who knows what in the firm, the need for distance collaboration, and the need to capture lessons learned and best practices”. To maintain confidentiality the firms were named A (predominantly Portuguese capital with about 400 employees), B (multinational company with about 400 employees in Portugal), C (mostly Portuguese capital with about 14,000 employees) and D (multinational company with about 1400 employees in Portugal). Firms A and B are from the systems and information technology sector, firm C is in the communication sector, and firm D is in the consulting sector.
The most common type of complaint from students was un- questionably related to excessive lecturing on the part of the native TA (about 70% of negative comments related to excessive lecturing, not enough time to talk.) Students often felt shorthanded when not given opportunities to discuss topics in class. (Although this contra- dicts the statements above related to difficult discussion topics, we should assume that students who requested more discussion in class are expecting discussion at an appropriate language level.) One stu- dent said of a native male TA, “I think if there were more opportuni- ties to speak instead of hearing him speak for most of the class, it would have been more beneficial.” Another complained about a na- tive female TA, “She was very enthusiastic about teaching, but activi- ties that actually involved speaking were sparse.” More than anything else, students mentioned discussion in the classroom, and the majori- ty of these complaints and requests were aimed towards native female TAs: “I did not like how little we got to speak as a class. My under- standing increased but I feel my speaking skills went down”; “More class participation would have been good”; “I wish we would have had more opportunities to have class debates and class discussions”; “mostly a lecture [with] little interaction”; “I think the only thing that could be improved is if she would have us speak more in class.” Fi- nally, one student wrote an extensive comment for a female TA that depicted her as an outstanding TA, but then ended with the sugges- tion that “more emphasis on free class discussion might help.”
Cell culture media formulations contain hundreds of individual components in water solutions which have complex interactions with metabolic pathways. The currently used statistical design methods are empirical and very limited to explore such a large design space. In a previous work we developed a computational method called projection to latent pathways (PLP), which was conceived to maximize covariance between envirome and fluxome data under the constraint of metabolic network elementary flux modes (EFMs). More specifically, PLP identifies a minimal set of EFMs (i.e. pathways) with the highest possible correlation with envirome and fluxome measurements. In this paper we extend the concept for the analysis of culture media screening data to investigate how culture medium components up-regulate or down-regulate key metabolic pathways. A P. pastoris X-33 strain was cultivated in 26 shake flask experiments with variations in trace elements concentrations and basal medium dilution, based on the standard BSM+PTM1 medium. PLP identified 3 EFMs (growth, maintenance and by-product formation) describing 98.8% of the variance in observed fluxes. Furthermore, PLP presented an overall predictive power comparable to that of PLS regression. Our results show iron and manganese at concentrations close to the PTM1 standard inhibit overall metabolic activity, while the main salts concentration (BSM) affected mainly energy expenditures for cellular maintenance.
The modernization of the world made the speed, accuracy and reliability of all existing processes become increasingly necessary. For this evolution to occur every day, the evolution of the equipment was strategic, but not as much as needed. It is necessary for such equipment to ensure its function and, in case of failure, an early diagnosis to prevent loss. Therefore the evolution of maintainability and reliability in equipment is also paramount. Thus, the growth of forms of maintenance was driven by this scenario, forming maintenance philosophies. Among many, there is the RCM, which have its focus on the identification, parameters development and performance preview. One of those methodologies from this idea is the FMEA, process that has been studied and implemented this work, aiming the anticipation of failuremodesand guidance for the use of a heat exchanger and a pump. This implementation has the aid of another process of RCM, the PHA, which was also shown and implemented, these results being used to start the FMEA process. The results show the activities with the highest chance of failure, presenting also the measures to be taken to avoid or minimize them. It is shown, in this paper, concern with the valves because they maintain control and system security, and its flaws related to accidents with possible danger to people and the whole system, emphasizing the priority of action.