Feelings and Emotions

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Consumer emotions, perceived image and behavioral intentions toward Portuguese gastronomy

Consumer emotions, perceived image and behavioral intentions toward Portuguese gastronomy

Destinations with a strong and positive image have a higher probability of being chosen by tourists (Hunt, 1975) because a positive image creates positive consumer expectations, which lead to product purchase (Almli et al, 2011). Valls (1992) suggests a definition  from  the  consumer’s  perspective, which defines a brand image of a country as a set of consumer perceptions. However, the brands’  image  in   consumer’s  mind  does not always match with the image of the company (or the place) it intends to transmit (Lopes, 2011). As such, the author suggests three different analyzes: the perceived image (how the target segment perceives the brand); the actual image (strengths and weaknesses), the image perceived by the company (based on an internal audit); and, finally, the analysis of the desire image (how the company wants to be perceived by the target segment). The author suggests these three studies because there are considerable differences between them. Additionally, latest research on this matter admits that the overall image of the destination is a combination of cognitive (destination image is evaluated by the attributes of its resources and attractions) and affective (referring to feelings and emotions raised by tourist destinations) dimensions (Beerli & Martín, 2004).
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Confidence in emotion perception in point-light displays varies with the ability to perceive own emotions.

Confidence in emotion perception in point-light displays varies with the ability to perceive own emotions.

4.1. The Effect of Alexithymia on Emotion Perception People with alexithymia have trouble in identifying and describing their own feelings and emotions. Typical deficits may be found in identifying, describing, and working with own feelings [29,30]. However, because we are social animals, the ability to perceive, recognize, and understand the emotions of our conspecifics is considered to be a cornerstone of human social life. On the social level, people with alexithymia demonstrate interpersonal problems, for example, they tend to avoid emotion- ally close relationships. Clinical observations report that people with alexithymia tend to be un-empathic, cold, and detached [31]. Chaotic relationships [32] as well as an inadequate differentiation between self and other have also been observed [33]. Empirical data have demonstrated that alexithymic persons describe themselves as distant and nonassertive in social relationships [31], and that alexithymia might be associated with an impaired understanding and demonstration of relational affection [34]. Furthermore, it was stated that alexithymic individuals demon- strate a lack in self-confidence [35,36]. Regarding these deficits, several experimental approaches have demonstrated that people with alexithymia also lack understanding of the feelings of others [7,8,37–40]. In line with this notion, the major finding in this study is that it is particularly the confidence in rating emotions depicted in PLDs that decreases as alexithymia scores increase in a healthy population. This decreased confidence in rating emotional stimuli suggests that the perception of emotions of others might be influenced by the ability to recognize and evaluate one’s own feelings and emotions. As the present data stem from a subclinical sample, one might speculate that in a healthy sample only the confidence is influenced by the factor alexithymia whereas in a patient sample also the valence detection in PLDs might be influenced (for example, [7,8]). Support for this speculation is that patients with other neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, which are also characterized by social cognition problems, prove to have impairments in biological motion perception when observing PLDs [41–43].
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Rev. bras. geriatr. gerontol.  vol.19 número3

Rev. bras. geriatr. gerontol. vol.19 número3

Satisfaction was expressed with activities of daily life, social support and feelings and emotions, which may be explained by the fact that the work of the participants is carried out in a public environment, in contact with the various actors present in such locations including customers, police authorities, passers-by and others working in the same labor conditions, in contrast to other elderly persons who tend to be institutionalized in spaces such as the home and care facilities, restricting their autonomy and in detriment to their social connections and therefore their affective life. Similar findings were reported in a study by Urzúa et al., 24 in which individuals who
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Emotional intelligence and mismatching expressive and verbal messages: a contribution to detection of deception.

Emotional intelligence and mismatching expressive and verbal messages: a contribution to detection of deception.

Lying and deception are highly pervasive [1]. DePaulo et al.’s [2] classic diary study suggested that almost everybody lies at least once a week, and about 30% of lies regard feelings. People tell lies to pretend that they feel better than they do or to signal agreement with their partners. For successful deception, the verbal message should be coherent with nonverbal signals. Lewis [3] argues that emotional deception is part of ‘normal’ socialization (e.g., parents encourage their children to smile even if a gift was disappointing). Ekman and Friesen [4] pointed out that in order to deceive others her/his inner state, the liar can 1) simulate an emotional expression when s/he does not feel any emotion 2) mask emotion that s/he really feels with another emotional expression or 3) try to neutralize emotion s/he feels by showing neutral expression. However, fake emotional expression may be accompanied by emotional ‘‘leakage’’. Even people adept at masking and simulating emotion cannot prevent leakage of real emotions [5]. The leakage of real emotions appears especially in the upper part of the face [6]. Emotional leakage has been demonstrated in studies of micro-expressions. According to Ekman [7], deception may be accompanied by a brief (,1/15 s) facial expression of emotion inconsistent with the speaker’s statements. Speakers may
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Interpersonal closeness and morality predict feelings of being moved

Interpersonal closeness and morality predict feelings of being moved

Our first study collected episodes of tears shed because of something positive from US participants. To obtain discriminant validity, we also collected episodes of tears resulting from something negative. We predicted that events leading to positive tears compared to negative tears (1) evoke an emotion people call “moved” or “touched”, (2) also evoke goosebumps and the perception of chest warmth, and (3) are appraised as involving an increase in interpersonal closeness and a moral act (our two focal appraisals) 1 . This prediction was based on prior conceptualizations as well as on our own qualitative research (Fiske, Schubert & Seibt, 2017). We also predicted (4) that the two appraisals mediate the difference in being moved across events, and (5) that they predict being moved both for episodes which participants observed and episodes in which they were actively involved. (6) Finally, we expected that being moved is a distinct emotion and therefore would be related to the two appraisals beyond its common variance with other emotion terms such as admiration or awe. To corroborate hypothesis 6 we conducted a second study, this time with video stimuli that each induced one of four emotions: happiness, sadness, anxiety, or being moved. We now sampled from two cultures, Norway and the US, to broaden the generalizability of the findings. Norway has the lowest and the US the highest heterogeneity of long-history migration (1 versus 83 source countries, Putterman & Weil, 2010, scored following Rychlowska et al., 2015). Norway also scores lower on individualism than the US (69 vs. 91, Hofstede, 2001, p. 215) and higher on ingroup collectivism practices (GLOBE index 5.34 vs. 4.25, House, Hanges, Javidan, & Dorfman, 2004). These factors are important for norms guiding emotional expressivity (Rychlowska et al., 2015).
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Bilingualism, emotions and decision-making

Bilingualism, emotions and decision-making

Regarding the differences in the emotional component, already Arsenian (1945) offered to analyze the affective values of single words, and in 1953 Weinreich mentioned the idea that bilinguals may have distinct emotional attachments to their languages. Later in 1954 Ervin examined responses in Japanese and English from a Japanese-English bilingual who was born in the United States into a Japanese-speaking family and educated in Japan between the ages of eight and fourteen. The researcher discovered that the Japanese stories were much more emotional compared with the English ones. The English sentences were abstract and cold, and the Japanese ones included feelings. This was explained by the differences in the emotional relationships formed in two languages of the bilingual individual. Further Vidomec (1963) showed that bilinguals have distinct emotional attachments to the languages. The new wave of research connected with bilinguals and emotions appeared after the development in the fields of psychology, linguistics and anthropology about the human emotions (Ekman, 1980; Izard, 1977).
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Accessing movies' emotional information

Accessing movies' emotional information

The representation of emotional aspects in everyday applications is quite uncommon. Movies are by definition one of the most emotional media, because of their “impression of reality” that turn users more empathetic and vulnerable to their content; Movies can indeed affect viewers’ emotions and perceptions [21]. Their impact is obviously related to a diversity of individual differences such as historical periods, viewers’ pleasures, desires, affects and moods. Whenever people think of motion pictures, they often remember the higher emotional impact movies and then they remember those scenes that turned that particular movie so unforgettable. But sometimes, even those scenes become impossible to recall, among hundreds or even thousands of movies people watch in a few years. Thereof, with this system, we tried to collect and present to users a set of emotional characteristics about movies, describing the feelings of the person who watched a particular movie, along with their movie profile, and we also created some visual interface mechanisms to help in exploring such emotional information. Specifically, we developed a system –iFelt – that consists of an interactive web video system designed to learn users’ emotional patterns and make use of this information to create emotion based interactions. As stated before, in this paper we present a set of modifications of the iFelt interface, based on the results of a usability test of a previous version but also propose a set of new mechanisms for movies’ emotion exploration. So, we will first explain our interface and design goals, we will then present a summary of the conditions of the usability study, then present the set of modifications of this new version of the interface based in the results of the usability test fully explained in [29], and then present the novel interaction mechanisms for exploring movies emotions.
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FEELINGS AND PERCEPTIONS OF ELDERLY RESIDENTS AT HOMES FOR THE AGED

FEELINGS AND PERCEPTIONS OF ELDERLY RESIDENTS AT HOMES FOR THE AGED

Objective: Know experiences of elderly residents at asylum. Method: Qualitative and descriptive research. Participated 10 elderly residents at homes for aged of a municipality of northwest of Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil. For data collection was used open interview, with the follow guiding question: Talk me, how is to you live at home for aged? Results: Of declarations emerged two analytical categories that deal about reasons that directed to institutionalization and feelings arising, and the home of aged as the single option of habitation. Between factors responsible by institutionalization were: loss of family and lack of time them. The feelings identified were: joy and happiness in reside in institution. Conclusion: Became evident that the institutionalization provides to elderly, different feelings of those that generally expected. Descriptors: Homes for the aged, Emotions, Health of institutionalized elderly.
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Emotions, burnout and presenteeism in the workplace

Emotions, burnout and presenteeism in the workplace

As far as these reactions are concerned, anger can be expressed directing it outwardly toward individuals or objects in the environment as if the participant confronted the offender of the angry event, verbally or physically. For that reason, anger can be considered the most dangerous emotion since individuals may try to harm the offenders (Booth et al., 2005 and Ekman, 2004). When an individual hides their feelings of anger from the offender it is called suppression of anger due to the fact that anger is being expressed directing it inwardly by trying to suppress or hold in angry feelings, for example by ‘biting their tongue’ or ‘walking away’ from them. On the other hand, if the individual controls their feeling of anger, it must not be shown anyway (Booth et al., 2005; Foley et al., 2002 and Parrott et al., 2005). Furthermore, individuals can also fake the emotion that they are feeling at that moment. When employees are hiding or expressing emotions that they are not feeling, it is called emotional labour (Booth et al., 2005). This concept is associated with negative outcomes in the workplace environment and the health of the worker, as it will be seen in the next chapters.
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Moral emotions as determinants of third-party punishment

Moral emotions as determinants of third-party punishment

Especially Robert Frank’s (2004) notion of emotions as “commitment devices” seems relevant to understand how moral emotions promote prosocial behavior, in spite of the associated costs. Frank argues that moral emotions have been evolved as commitment devices that make peo- ple forego their immediate self-interest, committing them to a more rewarding long-term strategy. For instance, an angry individual retaliating a norm-violation may incur an immediate cost, but may derive a greater benefit in the long run by deterring future exploitation. Similarly, Frank also argued that guilt feelings act as a commitment device because a guilty person may invest time and en- ergy to make up for something (s)he did to another per- son, but may eventually benefit thereof by saving a mutu- ally rewarding and beneficial relationship. Precisely this effect was empirically supported (De Hooge, Breugel- mans, and Zeelenberg, 2007; Ketelaar & Au, 2003; Nelis- sen, Dijker & de Vries, 2007). Moral emotions, par- ticularly anger, have also been proposed as the proxi- mal mechanism underlying third-party sanctions (Fehr & Fishbacher, 2004; Fehr & Gachter, 2002). Nevertheless, the proposed role for emotions in third-party punishment requires further exploration for two main reasons.
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FEELINGS, RECEPTION AND HUMANIZATION IN PALLIATIVE CARE TO CHILDREN WITH LEUKEMIA

FEELINGS, RECEPTION AND HUMANIZATION IN PALLIATIVE CARE TO CHILDREN WITH LEUKEMIA

Objective: To realize the vision of a multidisciplinary team before the child with leukemia in palliative care. Methods: This study is a qualitative approach, outlined by the case study method. The study subjects were 17 health professionals who provided direct assistance to children with leukemia in palliative care. Results: The results showed that, for practitioners, palliative care involves suffering by the family and the professional, arouses many emotions in the team. And that humanized care should be done seeking the host of both the patient and family comfort, relief of pain and symptoms, support and assistance to the family. Conclusion: It is concluded that the health professional creates bond with the child in palliative care, and also with his family, which is beneficial for the treatment of the child. Descriptors: Palliative care, Child health, Cancer, Leukemia, Emotions.
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Feelings and difficulties experienced by cancer patients along the diagnostic and therapeutic itineraries

Feelings and difficulties experienced by cancer patients along the diagnostic and therapeutic itineraries

Objective: To understand the feelings and difficulties experienced by cancer patients in relation to the diagnostic and therapeutic itineraries. Methods: An exploratory study of a qualitative nature, developed with 13 people with cancer, through an interview. In the period from June to September of 2017 data were collected and later submitted to content analysis. Results: The results included the unpleasant feelings that patients with cancer experience, and the recognition of factors that influence the re-signification of this phase. In addition, we observed the difficulties that perpass the routine of treatment and that compromise the basic needs of these individuals. Final considerations: It was understood that during the experience of the diagnostic and therapeutic itinerary, people with cancer experience negative feelings and many difficulties. However, some factors make possible the resignification of the disease and need to be considered by health professionals and managers to minimize the impact of the disease during this journey.
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Individuals, biography and cultural spaces: new figurations

Individuals, biography and cultural spaces: new figurations

How can the sociology of individuals with, in particular, the accent on singularity, be reconciled with the sociology of our transculture, i.e. cross-cutting dimensions that dim or reconstitute the mark of the difference(s), borders and autochthonies in contemporary societies? This question and reflexive ambivalence from two directions in sociology, raised in a previous text, is picked up again here in an essay ―in dialogue‖ with the legacy of Norbert Elias. A key reference for non-dichotomous thinking on individuals, power and society, though this text seeks to re-contextualise some of his concepts. Or ways of using them in the contemporary situation, with conceptual proposals for situating individuals in henceforth trans/local cultural spaces with new, or transformed, figurations and mediations. The first part returns to the concept of habitus, introduced by Elias in The Civilising Process well before Pierre Bourdieu's framework, and now inserts it in a broader interference matrix for the individual's dispositions. Including those that are actually biographical and are considered here from a more up-to-date perspective of the ways of perceiving life and its narratives. The second part is based on figurations (a conceptual pillar of Elias' sociology, also constitutive of the habitus), though it crosses its chain of interdependencies with the other notion of mediations. Various kinds of mediation, from broad to specific, that today redefine cultural spaces, especially the artistic ones as an example here, by means of translocal processes and a complex chess- game of powers. Interferences and interdependencies are thus two issues that, associated with Elias and exploited in this way, contribute to the drafting of a framework for individuals, their lives and cartographies.
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Achievement Emotions in Technology Enhanced Learning: Development and Validation of Self-Report Instruments in the Italian Context

Achievement Emotions in Technology Enhanced Learning: Development and Validation of Self-Report Instruments in the Italian Context

Nowadays, the role of TEL is assuming an increasing relevance within the educational field, where the mutual links between cognitive, motivational, and affective processes have been only partially documented [14]. However, unlike initial expectations, learning within technological environments is frequently associated with negative emotions such as boredom, frustration, and confusion, usually negatively correlated to performance and implying disengagement [14]. Therefore, in order to promote positive emotions and diminish negative emotions, there is a need for further theoretical and empirical knowledge concerning salience of emotions and nature of causal antecedents [14]. To reach this goal, there is a need for the development of methodologies designed to measure emotions, taking into account the constraints and the resources typical of technological environments.
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Aesthetic trials: taking care of oneself, of the other and of the environment in which we live Experimentações estéticas: o cuidado de si, do outro e do ambiente em que vivemos

Aesthetic trials: taking care of oneself, of the other and of the environment in which we live Experimentações estéticas: o cuidado de si, do outro e do ambiente em que vivemos

The workshop helped me to find out what are my inner fears, my vanities and concerns, to reflect on what I have achieved in my life and what I did to win, as well as that I did not yet conquered and why couldn’t I achieve these yet!!! I visualized my challenges and my potential; I could reflect and know me better. (...) I was born with wings ... To uncover new grounds, empowering those around me, my family and becoming someone who is able to face new constant challenges, to achieve new goals for happiness! These were some of the answers I found ... but I need to remember to take care of myself and learn every day to say no, thinking about my family, my life and what I still want to win and I can also conduct myself as a person and as a professional, helping young people, children, families, friends and other things that I will meet and stumble through this life! This, I believe, is my mission ... because I’ll get to be a musical articulator which, metaphorically, besides showing that it is still an internal will in me, that I really have to learn to play a musical instrument, I also must become more political, linking new work and life projects!!! (Notes from the Field Journal)
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Mirroring and recognizing emotions through facial expressions for a Robokind platform

Mirroring and recognizing emotions through facial expressions for a Robokind platform

The work developed by (Mazzei et al., 2011) consisted of a first stage in developing the humanoid robot FACE to allow children with ASD to deal with expressive and emotional information. FACE is a female android that is actuated by 32 servo motors moving the artificial skin. This allows human facial expressions to be re-created. Posteriorly, the system was tested with five children with ASD and fifteen typically developing children. The evaluated emotions were the six basic emotions. The results demonstrated that happiness, sadness and anger were correctly labelled with high accuracy for both children with ASD and typically developing children. Conversely, fear disgust, and surprise had not been labelled correctly, particularly by participants with ASD. The overall recognition rate for FACE with children with ASD was 60.0%, and the recognition results for each emotion were the following: anger – 100%, disgust – 20%, fear – 0%, happiness – 100%, sadness 100%, surprise – 40%. The results for FACE’s recognition rates with typically developing children were: anger – 93%, disgust – 20%, fear – 46.7%, happiness – 93.3%, sadness – 86.7%, surprise – 40%, and the average of all emotions was 61.1%. In (Sosnowski, Kuehnlenz, & Buss, 2006) it is presented EDDIE, a robotic head with 23 DoF, where actuators are assigned to the particular action units of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). The system was evaluated by twenty-four participants: eight children from five to eight years old and sixteen adults from twenty-five to forty-eight years old. The study consisted of a multiple-choice test in which people should build a correspondence between six shown facial expressions to ten given answers. The average recognition rate for all emotions was 57.0%, and the recognition rates for each emotion were the following: anger – 54.0%, disgust – 58.0%, fear – 42.0%, happiness – 58.0%, sadness – 58.0%, surprise – 75.0%.
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Time perception and dynamics of facial expressions of emotions.

Time perception and dynamics of facial expressions of emotions.

equality, that is the stimulus duration for which subjects respond long as often as short, p(long) = .50. The WR is the difference limen - (D(p(long) = .75) - D(p(long) = .25)) /2 - divided by the BP. This is an index of time sensitivity: The lower the WR, the steeper the psychophysical function and the higher the temporal sensitivity. These two parameters were derived from the significant fit of the individual data with the pseudo-logistic function (mean R 2 = .95, ES = .005, p,.05), which provided good fits for the bisection data in different conditions, [34], [35]. For 4 out of 104 participants, this pseudo-logistic fit was not significant because their bisection curves were too flat or not orderly. The results for these 4 participants were thus excluded from the subsequent statistical analyses. The ANOVA on the WR did not show any significant results (all p..05), thus suggesting that time sensitivity did not change with the type of emotional expression and associated presentation modality (static vs. dynamic). In contrast, the ANOVA on the BP revealed a significant main effect of emotion, F(1, 96) = 40.72, p = .0001, and a significant interaction between emotion and group, F(3, 96) = 6.34, p = .001, while the effect of group did not reach significance, F(3, 96) = .65, p = .58. As Table 1 indicates, when the presentation of facial expressions was static, the BP was lower for the angry than for the neutral expressions (Bonferroni, p,.05), whereas it was similar for the sad and the neutral expressions (p..05). In line with the results of previous studies, this confirms that a lengthening effect occurred when the participants were presented with high-arousing facial expressions (anger). When the facial emotional expressions were presented dynamically, a temporal lengthening effect was observed for all emotional expressions (high- or low-arousing) compared to the neutral expression with no facial movement. Indeed, the BP was lower for the emotional expressions (anger or sadness) than for the neutral expressions (Bonferroni, both p,.05). However, contrary to what is suggested in Figure 2, the difference in the contrast between the BP values for the neutral and angry expressions, on the one hand, and the neutral and sad expressions, on the other, did not reach significance (p..05). This indicates that facial movements have a major influence on time judgment, independently of the nature of the emotions perceived. This important effect of facial movements on time perception (with the dynamic faces associated with the emotional expressions and the no-dynamic faces associated with the neutral expression) have probably masked the effects of emotions per se on time perception. Therefore, a second experiment was carried out using 2 emotional expressions (anger and sadness) presented dynamically in the same bisection task (group 1). The same emotional faces were also presented in the static condition for comparison (group 2).
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How can stimuli and emotions help increase brand advocacy

How can stimuli and emotions help increase brand advocacy

This study considers three online stimuli of experience that can be considered site features that influence client involvement: information/content, interactive features and design/visual appeal. According to Loureiro (2015), there is no standard method for website evaluation, with other authors arguing that "researchers should choose the most appropriate approach to their research goals, target markets and stakeholders" (Law, Qi, & Buhalis, 2010: 310). Therefore, this study adopts the three stimuli mentioned, following Loureiro (2015) and considered suitable for consumer-generated media (CGM) of websites such as Booking.com or TripAdvisor.com. These websites provide consumer-generated content, such as online consumer ratings and reviews, which allow consumers to search and identify hotels, restaurants and attractions that best match their interests, influencing their decisions (Filieri, 2015; Sparks, Perkins, & Buckley, 2013).
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Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem  vol.16 número1

Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem vol.16 número1

Although it seems to be paradoxical those mothers of both groups have verbalized about feelings and negative and positive feelings and reactions, these data suggest that mothers of premature infants may experience ambiguous feelings. The behavior of persons in a psychological crisis comprehends oscillations and ambivalences of feelings and reactions, triggered by unexpected situations, like preterm birth and the infants’ early hospitalization at the NICU (1) . In order to restructure the mother’s emotional equilibrium and minimize the unfavorable consequences of the presence of the mother’s emotional indicators, it is relevant to supply psychological support to mothers, in the neonatal period. Support and protection are offered to the mother, so that she can develop better conditions to cope with the infant’s NICU hospitalization (5). Then, it can contribute to a significant reduction of the mother’s clinical symptoms of anxiety and depression (2) .
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Intergroup Emotions, Perceived Threats and Hostility against Foreigners: Comparing Brazil, Portugal, and Spain

Intergroup Emotions, Perceived Threats and Hostility against Foreigners: Comparing Brazil, Portugal, and Spain

Accordingly, intergroup hostility is more likely to occur when two groups want to achieve the same goal, and where only one group can succeed (e.g., negative interdependence con- text). These hypotheses were tested in three fi eld experiments conducted by Sherif et al. (1961). In these studies, the structure of relations be- tween groups (competition vs. cooperation) was manipulated, resulting in greater discrimination in the contexts of competition (i.e., negative in- terdependence). In the contexts of cooperation (i.e., positive interdependence, or superordinate goals), on the contrary, there was a decrease in aggressiveness and, overall, reduced hostility against members of the “outgroup”. These re- sults were seen in other fi eld experiments (e.g., Ageev, 1990 cited in Platow & Hunter, 2001) and in the laboratory (Blake & Mouton, 1961). They have also received empirical support and ecological validity in studies conducted with representative population samples from various European countries, as exemplifi ed in the study by Quillian (1995), which used the Eurobarom- eter Survey database, and more recently, the study by Bello (2013) using data from the Euro- pean Social Survey.
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