This study aimed to evaluate the amount of fiber in the diet that is able to promote better use of nutrients in the diet of dairy goats when foragepalm is the main source of roughage. Fifteen Alpine dairy goats were distributed in a 5 × 5 triple Latin square containing five treatments and five periods, and each treatment contained. We tested five diets composed of different contents of neutral detergent fiber from Tifton hay (NDFf) in the dry matter of rations containing foragepalm: D1: 11.98%; D2: 18.31%; D3: 23.68%; D4: 28.76% and D5: 32.12% NDFf. The intake of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, non-fiber carbohydrates and ether extract decreased linearly with the increase in NDFf content. There was a linear increase of milk production and milk protein with increasing dietary NDFf. The fat, dry extract, protein, pH and acidity of the evaluated milk were not affected by increasing the levels of NDFf in the diet. In situations where dairy goats are fed foragepalm and other types of forage are limited, 11.98% NDF from forage other than palm can be used as an effective source of NDF.
Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 6, n.4,p.20048-20057 apr. 2020. ISSN 2525-8761 situation, the objective of this work was the climatological evaluation for the production of foragepalm in the Apodí plateau, through data collected at the meteorological station of the Teaching, Research and Extension Unit (UEPE) of IFCE. The experiment was carried out at the research and extension teaching unit (EUPE), where data were collected from the meteorological station regarding the maximum and minimum temperature, and maximum and minimum relative humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed, of the years 2012 to 2016, thus evaluating the last five years of climate variables and calculating semiannual and annual averages, in addition to the standard deviation. Palm growth is favored at higher altitudes, due to the reduction in air temperature and the increase in relative humidity. At night, species of the genus Opuntia do not adapt to low-lying regions, high night temperatures are the main factor for lower productivity or even plant death and low thermal amplitude.
The objective was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients and energy of five cultivars of foragepalm (orelha de onça, miúda, gigante, IPA 20 and comum) for growing Nile tilapia (110.02±16.17 g). The study design was completely randomized with five treatments, three replicates of eight fish per experimental unit. The diets were composed of 300 g/kg of each cultivar of the palm and 700 g/kg of the basal diet. Masculinized fish were distributed in circular feed tanks (150 L) and kept in closed circulation of water and constant aeration. The digestibility was estimated by indirect method, using 1.0 g/kg chromic oxide as an indicator of the diet and the feces was collected the day after the last feed in digestibility aquariums. The cultivars comum and onça presented the best values for dry matter digestibility (53.5%). The lowest value for crude protein digestibility was obtained to cultivar gigante (60%) and all cultivars tested showed gross energy digestibility below 50%. Nile tilapia has limitation on the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude protein and amino acids of the cultivars of foragepalm IPA 20, miúda, gigante, comum and orelha de onça.
The spatial distribution of soil physical attributes related to feed production has a relevant impact on agricultural management techniques. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial variability of soil physical attributes in foragepalm cultivation area and its influence on crop development. The study was conducted in the Agreste Region of Pernambuco State. A mesh of 36 points and grid of 6x6 m was established in the 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers. The variables studied were penetration resistance, moisture, soil density, total porosity, plant height and number of plant rackets. According to the descriptive statistics showed low coefficient of variation for the variables soil density and total porosity in both layers. The degree of spatial dependence on soil density was strong for the 10-20 cm layer, for moderate penetration resistance in the first layer and strong in the second soil layer, having a marked influence on the number of rackets, with the highest values. resistance associated with low racket values. The areas with lower resistance to penetration and soil density and higher moisture and total porosity presented the highest number of foragepalm rackets.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the density and phenotypical diversity of diazotrophic endophytic bacteria from the foragepalm irrigated with different saline water depths. Opuntia stricta (IPA-200016) received five depths of saline water (L1: 80%. ETo; L2: 60%.ETo; L3: 40%; ETo; L4: 20%; ETo and, L5: 0% ETo, where ETo is the reference evapotranspiration). The roots were collected in the field, disinfected, grounded and serial diluted from 10-1 to 10-4. The total concentration of diazotrophic bacteria was determined by the most probable number method (MPN) and the isolated bacteria were characterized phenotipically. The concentration of bacteria found in foragepalm roots ranged from 0.36 x 104 to 109.89 104 cells per gram of root, with highest occurrence on the 60 and 80% ETo. In the dendrogram of similarity it was possible to observe the formation of 24 phenotypic groups with 100% similarity. All bacteria presented similarity superior to 40%. Among these groups, 14 are rare groups, formed by only a single bacterial isolate. In the Semi-Arid conditions, the foragepalm that receives the highest amount of saline water, presents a higher density of putative nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria with high phenotypic diversity.
One of the main obstacles to caprine dairy farming, as in any other livestock activity, is related to production costs (Alao, Falowo, Chulayo, & Muchenje, 2017), especially food related to the use of traditional ingredients that generally have high commercial value, such as soybean meal, which in the present study, whose food costs represented on average 74.71% of total productive expenses for the four diets. It is observed that the highest value with R$ 116.91 of GR was for animals fed the BHCF diet, which represents a difference of up to 13.91% of the other diets without foragepalm, a fact justified by the higher milk production, on average 68.77 kg (Table 8). In the present research, the diets containing foragepalm in their composition showed a higher GR of 9.37% in relation to the others (Table 8). All diets allowed a positive profit margin, which means that production is remunerated and survives, at least in the short term (Table 8). The results show that all the treatments made a profit, at least in the short term, considering the several other factors related to the production system that were not considered in this research, but as a function of the financial indicators the use of the SSCF diet it is still the most viable alternative.
high irradiance, there again is a delay to achieve the maximum photosynthetic rate. In this context, it is clear that the photosynthetic rate of leaves is impaired when the plant is shaded, but when irradiance levels increase the plant can recover and increase its photosynthetic rate. In addition, depending on light intensity and the time spent under shade, the photosynthetic rate does not appear to be greatly impaired by fluctuations in irradiance. However, according to these authors, plants shaded for longer durations require more time and will achieve lower levels of the maximum photosynthetic rate, resulting in an overall decrease in carbon gain throughout the day, and, consequently, a reduction in forage accumulation, directly affecting production when grown under shade in silvopastoral systems.
Many studies have attempted to spatially identify degraded land, although not necessarily in relation to agricultural expansion, including the Global Assessment of Soil Degradation (GLASOD) , the Assessment of the Status of human-induced soil degradation in South and South-East Asia (ASSOD) , and the Global Soil Degradation Assessment (GLADA) . These efforts coincided with the emergence of the idea to utilize degraded land as a land-use planning strategy to prevent further environmental degradation [13,38]. The extent to which the degraded land identification studies of GLASSOD, ASSOD and GLADA can support land-use planning at the local level is, however, limited due to their low spatial resolution. In addition, the GLASOD and ASSOD studies focused on soil degradation, due to wind and water erosion, nutrient depletion and pollution, and are therefore of limited use to the present discussion on land degradation and deforestation as a consequence of agricultural expansion . In GLADA, a different approach was used and degradation was assessed at the global scale in terms of changes in net productivity potential of biomass . Although the objective is closer to our aims, the application of these results for our purpose is limited, not only because of their low spatial resolution, but also due to the lack of information on the current vegetation cover. Although not entirely meeting our meeting our objectives, the focus on degradation of vegetation cover instead of soil degradation seemed a promising approach. Such an approach was also used in a study by World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), which focused on the drivers of degradation to identify degraded areas, and assessed the potential of degraded land for oil palm expansion from an agronomic point of view . The WWF definition of degraded land was; ‘land where the native vegetation has been altered by anthropogenic activity resulting in a reduction in tree canopy cover, standing biomass or species diversity from which the system cannot recover unaided within a defined time period’. The study concluded that degradation of vegetation does not necessarily affect the land productivity potential. This means that means that high agricultural yields can be obtained on such lands, including from oil palm cultivation .
ABSTRACT - Cultivars of the genus Nopalea are known in Brazil for being tolerant to cochineal carmine at- tacks, thus making the cultivation of this genus a promising alternative for mitigating the negative effects of this insect on the production of biomass. With the objectives of characterizing morphologically spineless forage cactus varieties and identify morphological characteristics that may be the focus in spineless forage cactus breeding programs, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with 11 treatments and four replications. The variety Alagoas showed the highest values of weight, area and volume of cladodes. The varieties Negro Michoacan F7 and V7, Tamazunchale V12 showed the highest values of the cladode area index, the total volume of cladodes and total fresh mass production. The varieties Negro Michoacan V7 and F7 presented the highest water use efficiency and dry mass yield. Cladode volume showed the highest correlation coefficients with the fresh weight of cladodes. Aiming the release of varieties for biomass production, varieties Negro Michoacan F7, V7 and Tamazunchale V12 may substitute the Miúda variety. The number and cladode area index may be used as criteria for selection of superior varieties in breeding programs.
Restart Algorithm (CGB) were selected since they have been found useful in pattern recognition problems (Al- Saqer and Hassan, 2011a; Beale et al., 2010; Johansson et al., 1991; Moller, 1993; Powell, 1977). At the end of simulations, the best 20 networks were selected for further analysis. Further, in all cases, an early stopping criterion was used to prevent over-fitting of the data by the neural network (Hagan et al., 2002). All the transfer functions used in the network were sigmoidal functions. The number of images used for training and testing were 419, which included 326 images of RPW and 93 images of other insects that are normally found in the habitat of palm trees. Three different training ratios of 25, 50 and 75% were used for training the neural networks while the remaining data were used for testing the network. Further, the training set was randomly divided 10 times for each of the 20 trials of the network. In this manner, a total of 200 networks was generated for further analysis. Three different scenarios were considered for the network inputs. The inputs to ANN were provided from the descriptors obtained by the Zernike Moments (ZM), Regional Properties (RP) and a combination of both RP and ZM (RPZM). Thus, the number of inputs in the networks were 3, 6 or a total of 9 image descriptors.
Two methods for palm vein authentication are proposed in  and  are also implemented for comparison. The method in Ref. is tested on the same database. Table 1 show the comparison of our method and all above methods. Figure 5 show the distance distribution of the impostor and genuine and figure 6 show the ROC curve of the proposed method. From the result illustrate in table 1 and figure 5 and 6, we can find that the propose method has better performance from the methods that describe in  and .
Effect of sample size and flow rate: The effect of sample size on the recovery of palm carotenoids (%) as a function of time (hour) is shown in Fig. 3. From Fig. 3, reduction of sample size from 20 g to 10 g reduced the extraction time to half from 17 hours to 9 hours. It was found that the sample size of CPO loaded into the extraction vessel was linearly proportional to the rate of carotenoids extraction. The solubility of carotenoids for the three sample sizes were in the range of 1.53 x 10 -3 to 1.58 x 10 -3 g kg 1 carbon dioxide (Table 2). It was observed that the solubility of carotenoids in SC-CO 2
Toda a informação recebida pelo PC das Boxes é armazenada em ficheiros com características em tudo semelhantes aos já referidos para o caso do Palm Computer. Desta forma assegura-se um elevado grau de redundância da informação armazenada. Por outro lado, uma apreciação à posteriori dos mesmos, em particular daqueles recolhidos em fase de treinos, permite fazer uma avaliação sobre as voltas padrão ideias, destinadas a serem enviadas para o veículo, em condições de prova, recorrendo ao formato já referido na figura 14.
Abstract – The Peach palm Active Germplasm Bank has abundant genetic diversity in its holdings. Because it is a live collection, maintenance, characterization and evaluation are expensive, restricting its use. One way to promote more efficient use is to create a Core Collection, a set of accessions with at least 70% of the genetic diversity of the full collection with minimal repetition. The available geographic, molecular marker (RAPD) and morphometric information was systematized and the populations were stratified into wild and domesticated. The Core Collection consists of 10% of the entire collection: 31 accessions of landraces, 5 accessions of non-designated populations and 4 accessions of wild populations. The Core has 92% of the molecular polymorphism and 95% of the heterozygosity of the full collection, with minimal divergence between them by molecular variance. The Core is already receiving priority maintenance, which will contribute to long term conservation.
The addition of urea to the silage decreased (P<0.05) efﬂuent losses (Table 3). The dry matter content of the sheaths of Alexander Palm was lower than what is usually recommended for ensilage and the fact that they were not subjected to pre-wilting might have contributed to the efﬂuent values observed in the control silage. In a similar study on the silage of sheath from Alexander Palm, Coitinho (2013) found efﬂuent losses of 34 kg t −1 of fresh mass,
Euterpe edulis is very important to the native frugivorous fauna because it is one of the few Atlantic Forest species that provide nutritious fruits for frugivorous fauna during the winter (Galetti & Aleixo 1998; Silva-Matos & Watkinson 1998; Mantovani & Morellato 2000). Within the forests it has invaded, Archontophoenix cunninghamiana fructifies during the same period (Mengardo & Pivello 2012). Both species are prolific, their fruits are of the same size, and the fruits of both are dispersed by generalist frugivorous birds (Galetti et al. 1999; Christianini 2006; Mengardo & Pivello 2012). Therefore, it is probable that the niches of A. cun- ninghamiana and E. edulis overlap to some extent (Dislich 2002). Forest fragments in which E. edulis is now extinct or has populations that are quite small could present favorable conditions for the establishment of A. cunninghamiana, given that their fruits are consumed and dispersed by the same animal assemblage that previously used the once abundant native palm as a primary resource.
Under intense shading (80%), Arachis pintoi showed a decrease of 40% (P<0.05) in DMY compared with full sun. However, under moderate shading (50%), this legume performance was not affected (Table 1). These results agreed with Gobbi et al. (2009), who reported a 28% reduction in the DMY of A. pintoi cv. Amarillo under 70% artificial shading. Andrade & Valentim (1999) also reported DMY differences in response to shading over the rainy and dry seasons in Central Brazil, for Arachis pintoi, access BRA – 031143. These authors reported a linear decrease on DMY with increasing levels of shade during the rainy season and a linear increase during the dry season. In the present study, A. pintoi did not show DMY differences in response to shade between the two evaluation cycles and this was contrasting with the results achieved by the three other forage species (Figure 1).
As a dicotyledonous, an alternative for the management of the weed community in the production of forage turnip may be the use of graminicides of the aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) and cyclohexanedione (CHD) classes (Belkebir & Benhassaine-Kesri et al., 2013), which both inhibit Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase (ACCase) (Kaundun, 2014). However, several species among the dicotyledons are susceptible to ACCase inhibitors, such as colza and crambe (Belkebir & Benhassaine-Kesri, 2013; Concenço et al., 2014). These species, as well as the forage turnip, belong to the Brassicaceae family. Studies with soybean plants (Belkebir et al., 2006), peanut (Fayez et al., 2014), melon and cucumber (Vidal et al., 2000), and some species of the family Geraniaceae also demonstrated the sensitivities of these species to this class of herbicides (Christopher & Holtum, 2000).