Despite these flavor compounds variations, storage time had no effect on the sensory characteristics of passion fruitjuice storage in glass bottles over 120 days storage, as shown by the two-way ANoVA (Table 2). As both sensory attributes (aroma and flavor) did not vary significantly between the beginning and the end of the storage period, the linear regressions were not calculated. This behavior can be explained by the predominance of ethyl butyrate in the sample (additional flavoring), which masked possible subtle sensory variations. Besides, although furfural did increase, it is known that its aroma threshold is rarely exceeded, even in juice that had suffered temperature abuse (Perez-CACHo; rouSeFF, 2008).
tubules opening. The effect of acids upon dentinal surface is not only exclusively dependent on the pH value, but also strongly inluenced by other factors such as the acid type and its concentration, titratable acidity, temperature, calcium- chelating properties, the presence of different types of sugar (7,9,10,20). According to the manufacturers, the main ingredients of the fruitjuice drinks were water, concentrated natural juice, sugar, acidulating substances (citric acid) and natural aroma. The dilution with water of drinks containing organic acids with high buffering capacity had very little effect on the measured pH values, but considerably reduced the titratable acidity (21). This fact could explain the results obtained in the present study. The presence of certain inorganic ions can have a protective role by maintaining a high level of saturation with respect to tooth mineral (4). Some studies showed that the erosive potential of drinks is associated with their calcium and phosphate concentrations (7,9,21). However, the tested fruitjuice drinks did not contain calcium and phosphate (according to the manufacturer’s description).
Mature fruits at optimal ripening stage , were collected in 2007 from trees of Powell Navel Late sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.), Clemenules (Citrus clementine Hort. ex Tan.), and two Citrus hybrids: Fortune (C. clementine x C. tangerine) and Chandler pummelo (C. grandis x C. grandis) varieties. All trees were grown in the same orchard and subjected to homogeneous cultural conditions, in order to reduce environmental effects on the volatile profile. The experimental orchard is located at the Experimental Station of Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Moncada, Valencia, Spain, under a mediterranean climate (averages rainfall of 515.8 mm and temperature of 15.2uC for 2007). In all cases, three biological replicate samples for each variety were obtained, each one representing at least four different fruits each. Fruitjuice was obtained using a hand extractor, in order to avoid squeezing of the flavedo and to prevent contamination of the juice with peel components. After that, 10 mL aliquots of each sample were placed in 22 mL crimp cap headspace vials and kept frozen at 220uC until analyzed. Two aliquots of 10 mL corresponding to technical replicates of each sample were analyzed. The total number of analysis was 24 (3 biological samples x 2 technical replicates for the 4 varieties).
According to Fang et al. (1986), 75ºC/40s was sufficient to ensure the microbiological quality of passion fruitjuice, whether stored at room temperature or refrigerated. However, when assessing the microbiological quality of the stored samples by the commercial sterility test, the 75 º C/60s treatment was enough to decrease the microbiological contamination. The bottles with this treatment, stored for 10 days in the BOD chamber, burst on the 7 th or 8 th days, or had an increase in acidity. By direct observation on microscope slides, yeasts and bacterial forms were observed in all the repetitions of the juice pasteurized at 75 º C/60s, which indicated that the binomial used was not sufficient to guarantee the microbiological quality of the juice and that probably the problem was not caused by recontamination after pasteurization as all the replications showed contamination.
products with both physiological functionality and sensory acceptance by the consumers, producers have developed a number of processed Yacon products, such as air-dried tuber slices (Grau and Rea, 1997), unrefined Yacon syrup, which is marketed as a dietetic sweetener (Herman, Freire and Pazos, 1999), sweet pastries, fermented vegetables, and ethanol (Lachman et al., 2003). Yacon juice treated with active carbon powder (Hondo et al., 2000a), Yacon vinegar (Hondo et al., 2000b), chocolate cake (Moscatto et al., 2004), and Yacon juice blended with peach (Silva, 2004), or lemon juice (Granato and Neves, 2005), are some other products that have been developed. In the same context, passion fruitjuice (PFJ) is a relevant species (Souza et al., 2008) that can also be a suitable ingredient to produce other Yacon- based products due to the fact it contains a large quantity of organic acids and carotenoids, recognized compounds that inhibit PPOs activity and confer taste, flavour and a good-looking aspect to the food. For this reason, the current work was aimed to study the influence of PFJ and/or sodium disulphite on the colour of Yacon pulp in order to inhibit the enzymatic browning, and evaluate the sensory attributes of Yacon non- sugar pastes.
The aim of this study was to use a factorial design approach for developing a palatable and stable soy-based dessert with the addition of Soy Protein (SP), oligofructose, and Passion FruitJuice (PFJ). Panelists (n = 50) used a seven-point hedonic scale to assess the overall liking, degree of liking of creaminess, taste, and color of the desserts. In addition, the samples were submitted to a preference ranking test in order to evaluate the products’ preference. Water Holding Capacity (WHC) and backscattering (BS) measures were also determined to assess the physical stability of the trials. Sample F3 (35% PFJ and 2% SP) was the only one that presented a WHC index of 94.8%; moreover, none of the developed samples had synerisis after 72 hours of storage indicating adequate physical stability of the emulsion process. Samples F2 (25% PFJ, and 3.0% SP), F4 (35% PFJ, and 3.0% SP), and F5 (30% PFJ, and 2.5% SP) presented mean hedonic scores above ‘slightly liked’ for all sensory attributes. The acceptance index of samples varied from 62.50 to 88% showing the great sensory potential of such products.
(Vera et al., 2003). Mexico has participated only occasionally in the international market selling 3 ton of concentrated juice to the United States (Schwentesius and Gómez-Cruz, 1998). Passion fruit cannot be stored for more than eight days at 25 °C, because decay will take place after that span (Flores-Novelo, 2000). A frequent solution to this problem is the processing and freezing of the fruit pulp and juice (either natural or concentrated) which can be later on used for flavouring various drinks or for blending with other kinds of the juices. In the literature, different methods of the concentration such as the membrane processes (Cardoso-Pereira et al., 2002), osmotic evaporation (Vaillant et al., 2001), and flash vacuum-expansion (Brat et al., 2001) have been proposed for processing the passion fruitjuice. The main problem during the spray-drying of the sugar-rich foods like the fruit juices is their thermoplastic and hygroscopic behavior (Truong et al., 2005; Goula and Adamopoulos, 2005). All the fruits contain the sugars of low glass transition temperature (T g ) (saccharose, glucose and
Passion fruit is widely cultivated and processed all over the world, and Brazil is the world’s largest producer and consumer of this fruit, with production of 492,000 tons in 2004 (IBGE, 2006). The principal variety explored commercially in Brazil is yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener) (LABOISSIÈRE et al., 2007), which is destined for in natura consumption and processing industries, and the juice is its major product Passion fruitjuice is the third most produced juice in
significant decrease in MDA after FV juice treatment. These results indicate that the FV juice was efficient in pro- tecting liver cells from oxidative damage. Liver is the pri- mary vital organ involved in the detoxification of xeno- biotics and is subjected to stress during the detoxification. ROS are well known and important risk factors for liver diseases (Muriel, 2009; Ha et al., 2010). Since membrane phospholipids are a major target of oxidative damage. MDA is considered an indicator of free radical damage through membrane lipid peroxidation (Changet al., 2000; Chenand Bakhiet, 2006). Numerous studies indicate that fruit- and vegetable-derived flavonoids, such as apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol, protect low-density lipoprotein from oxidation and inhibit carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced rat liver NADPH-dependent
In a previous report we have demonstrated that TNJ (25, 50, 75 and 100% v/v) has no genetic toxicity effects in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster (Franchi et al. 2008), indicating the absence of TNJ mutational and recombinational actions. Previous studies have also shown that TNJ did not induce gene mutations at the HPRT locus (in 0.003 to 3 μL/mL dose range), in presence and absence of S9 mix. In the same study, no mutagenic activity of ethyl-acetate extract from noni juice (100-fold concentrated) was observed in Chinese hamster V79-cell line (Westendorf et al. 2007). There was no increase in micronuclei nor any evidence of
As it was not feasible to obtain predictive models and contour curves for bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, the exact optimization of the best proportions of each fruit which has a higher sensory acceptance and concurrently is the most nutritious was not possible. But from the exploratory analysis of PCA it was found that the specific formulations containing 50% pineapple and 50% persimmon (F6) and 33% pineapple, 33% persimmon and 33% orange (F7) were those that stood out nutritionally (higher levels of phenols and antioxidant activity). As these formulations that have outstanding nutritionally presents persimmon in its composition, which may contribute to increase persimmon availability to consumer and even increase the value of this fruit, and at the same time these formulations are within the optimum sensory acceptance region (Figure 3) these are mixed juice combinations suggested herein.
In a general way, sugars may be classiied as reducing or non-reducing based on their reactivity with Fehling’s reagents. Sugars that contain aldehyde groups that are oxidized to carboxylic acids are classiied as reducing sugars (e.g. glucose, fructose, maltose, lactose) (5,9). Those that are unable to reduce the above oxidizing agents are called non- reducing sugars (e.g.: sucrose). Fruit juices are examples of foods that contain a mixture of these three soluble sugars (fructose, sucrose and glucose) (5,10), with the concentration varying according to the type and maturation status of the fruit. Once more, such sugariness, coupled with an acidic nature, has caused fruitjuice to be cited as a risk factor to dental decay (5).
characteristic of sulfurous note (CARASEK & PAWLISZYN, 2006). Notably, volatiles aroma of fruits are composed of a complex group of chemical substances, such as aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, esters, lactones and terpenes (JORDÁN et al., 2002). However, terpenes and esters are more related to the aroma of passion fruitjuice (MACORIS et al., 2011). Additionally, the major volatile compounds identified in yellow passion fruitjuice belong to the methyl and ethyl esters (WERKHOFF et al., 1998; CARASEK & PAWLISZYN, 2006). The levels of individual volatile compounds related to the aroma profile in food matrix are largely influenced by the extraction technique of the volatile fraction used in gas chromatograph analysis (BICCHI et al., 2008). Headspace sampling techniques are widely used for providing volatile profiles near the profiles experienced by humans. Based on the collection of the volatile compounds in the gaseous phase above, a sample under defined conditions is dependent on the volatility of the aromatic compounds (GUTH & GROSCH, 1993). Among the headspace techniques currently used for the extraction of aromatic volatiles, solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has been applied for isolation of volatile compounds from fruits (BARBONI et al., 2009; PONTES et al., 2009; FIGOLI et al., 2010, ALVAREZet al., 2012). This technique is based on a dynamic process of adsorption of volatiles on the vapor phase in the sample headspace in a silica fiber coated with an adsorbent polymer and has high sensitivity in the volatiles extraction with a wide range of polarity (BICCHI et al. 2008). In the static headspace sampling techniques (S-HS), the equilibrium between the sample and the headspace gas phase must be reached, and a gaseous fraction of the headspace is collected directly for analysis by gas chromatograph (SNOW & SLACK, 2002; WANG et al., 2008). The S-HS technique is simpler and faster and has been used in comparative analysis of the flavor profile of vegetable matrices (MILLER & STUART, 1999; VARMING et al., 2004; BYLAITE &MEYER, 2006; UBEDA et al. 2011). However, S-HS has not yet been used in the analysis of yellow passion fruitjuice volatiles. The S-HS procedure is free of solvents, demands little sample handling, and can be automated, but its sensitivity is considered low compared to SPME, being indicated for the analysis of compounds whose boiling points are low (MESTRES et al., 2002). Nevertheless, the S-HS sensitivity can be increased by salt addition, pH control or increasing the equilibrium temperature during sample heating (B’HYMER, 2003), which can improve the recovery of major volatile compounds of the aroma of passion
returned to baseline levels after star fruit intake was discontinued. The maximum recommended volu- me of star fruitjuice or amount of fruit one can in- gest safely has not been determined yet. The levels above which star fruit intake can cause acute oxalate nephropathy have to be defined and considered along with the individual risk factors that may incre- ase the chance of adverse events. 14,20 The literature
31 are the main reasons and product attributes that led them to consume Compal at this occasion of consumption. The following block was built by taking the insights gathered from the Second Qualitative Research performed about the fact that the so-called “healthy people” eat every three hours and check beverages’ labels: when coding the results, if consumers answered positively to the questions “in a regular day, do you eat from 3 to 3 hours?” and “do you usually check labels before buying or drinking a beverage?”, they were deemed to belong to the “healthy group”. The fourth block, called “characteristics of the perfect juice”, is the central part of the research: here the goal was to further understand what kind of attributes people look for when they consider a juice for main meals. Using likert scales (0-7), attributes such as texture (from very fluid to very thick), sweetness (from not sweet to very sweet), level of added sugar (from zero to a lot) and number of fruits that people like in a juice were measured in order to find what the perfect mealtime fruitjuice is for consumers. Lastly, the fifth block was comprised of demographic questions.
In the bivariate analysis, it was found that the place of residence was associated to inadequate intake of natural fruitjuice (p = 0.002) and soft drinks (p < 0.001), but it was not associated to fruit intake (p = 0.387) and vegetables (p = 0.565). It was observed that the prevalence of occasional consumption of natural fruitjuice was higher among teenagers living in rural areas when compared to those of the urban area. However, the proportion of adolescents exposed to inappropriate consumption of soft drinks was statistically lower among students who reported residing in rural areas in comparison to the ones from the urban side (Figure 1).
The current UFCSPA publication has significant strengths. Dietary data were collected prospectively from an early age, providing a relatively rare opportunity to examine patterns in child feeding habits in a community-based population over time. Daily servings of fruits and vegetables were calculated using 24-hour dietary recalls and excluded the consumption of potatoes and fruitjuice, foods relatively high in energy but not necessarily dense in nutrients. This study is not without limitations. Eight-seven participants, nearly 20% of the potential sample, were excluded due to the absence of at least one 24-hour recall, which reduced statistical power and could have added selection bias if the factors that contributed to missing data did not occur randomly. The principal outcomes of the study --- daily servings of fruits and vegetables --- allowed for any consumed fruit or vegetable in any form (potatoes and artificial juice aside) to count toward an accumulated serving. This is a perfectly reasonable way to conduct a dietary analysis, especially provided that most expert guidelines implore consumers to raise their intake of fruits and vegetables in terms of serving numbers. However, this raises a related question about how recommendations are communicated to the public. We might ask whether cer- tain foods, such as canned fruits and smoothies, which often deliver large amounts of refined sugar, should have equal standing with lower sugar, more nutrient dense options, when striving to reach serving-number benchmarks. 18
Additionally, our data corroborate previous studies using similar red grape fruitjuice (Bordo) were performed to evaluate the antioxi- dant effect in substantia nigra and striatum of brain rats chronically treated with organic or conventional purple grape juice and to correlate the results obtained with the polyphenol content (total polyphenolic content, resveratrol, and anthocyanins). In the grape juice-treated groups the authors observed a decrease of lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) and protein (carbonyl) peroxidation, as well as a signiicant antioxidant protection through the increase of enzyme activity. 30
Longer cooking times and the addition of smaller volumes of passion fruitjuice resulted in highly viscous syrups due to the considerable evaporation of water and consequent concentration of the sugars. Thus, there could have been impregnation of sugars into the surface of the albedo caused by the transfer of solute from the solution to the fruit, and the higher a* values of the albedo could therefore be associated with the presence of these sugars, due to caramelization during the cooking process, resulting in an increase in red color. Ponting et al. (1966) reported that the use of sucrose as a drying agent for pieces of fruit not only reduces the water content of the product but also
The current study aims to evaluate if a juice enriched with hydrolysate collagen can stimulate the production of PYY compared to the control group. This is an experimental, observational and analytical study conducted at the University of Ribeirão Preto (SP). They were eligible for the study 15 women who randomly were divided into two groups: intervention and control. At time zero, the selected women had blood samples taken for analysis of plasma concentrations of PYY. Following the blood collection, each woman received 1 cup of artificial fruitjuice, packed in a non- transparent glass so as not to allow the recognition of its contents. The control group received artificial fruitjuice and the intervention group received artificial fruitjuice with 10 g of collagen hydrolyzate. After ingestion of the juices, at times 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes, blood samples were again collected for plasma analysis of PYY concentrations. Results: It was observed that the PYY secretion was not influenced by collagen ingestion in the intervention group. In the control group, it was observed a maintaining the PYY concentration at all times. Comparing the two groups at each time, there was no difference. Conclusions: Collagen ingestion was not able to influence PYY secretion.