The presence of enterotoxin SEB of S. aureus in milk and fruitjuices is a major problem of public health and the local food industry. The food poison- ing due to S. aureus toxin occurs in children and adults depending on the sources that help in the sur- vival of S. aureus. At the moment, there is no effec- tive test available to early check the SEB contamina- tion of food. Generally, biochemical tests are used to check S. aureus contamination/presence of SEB. The expertise for other methods for routine checking of SEB or S. aureus (PCR, immune-PCR) is not avail- able locally. There is a need to devise a simple and reliable method to check the SEB in food and clini- cally important samples.
52 Soil conditions, pesticides, additives, water, processing and storage steps are potential sources of metal contamination. Although most of the obtained values are within the ranges observed in other studies, the wide variation range of reported data in literature could be explained both by the variability of used raw materials in the fruitjuices production and by different manufacturing processes applied. Because studies, and consequently fruitjuices, are from different countries and with a great time gap between them, the metal content reflects differences in soil composition where the fruits were grown as well as atmospheric conditions and agricultural practices during its growing time. When elements are less mobile in the soil-plant system, such as lead, sources of contamination in fruitjuices are most probably originated from processing steps, such as sugar addition or fruit juice reconstruction with water. In addition, packing quality is another factor that influences metal content in fruitjuices. The analyzed samples in this study were all contained in the same type of packaging, which is not the case for the other studies referred (Garcia et al. 1999; Harmankaya et al. 2012; Dehelean and Magdas 2013; Kıhç et al. 2015).
Fruits are a source of key nutrients, fibres and protective substances providing general well-being, satiety, maintenance of a balanced diet and highest energy intake. Besides this, fruit is associated to prevention of many diseases because it contains compounds (vitamins, minerals and antioxidants) known as nutraceuticals capable to have simultaneously nutritional and therapeutical activity (Bach-Faig et al., 2011; Kalt et al., 1999; Renuka et al., 2009). In fruits a high water content is also present which makes them very interesting to consume in the form of juice (Kalt et al., 1999; Mayer, 1997). Fruit and fruit products also have in their composition natural sugars such as glucose (monosaccharide), fructose (monosaccharide) and sucrose (disaccharide). However, the relative sugar composition of juice varies according to the fruit type and species, with maturity and as a result of environmental and climatic conditions of the growing season (Llamas et al., 2011; Sanz et al., 2004). In Table 1.5 the variation of fructose, glucose and sucrose content in different fruitjuices is represented. Carbohydrates presence along with ascorbic acid, also present in a large variety of commercial fruitjuices, can influence for example the pH, total acidity and sweetness, modifying chemical and sensory features of the product. Hence it is always necessary an adequate control to infer about authenticity and quality of the fruits used in food manufacturing (Llamas et al., 2011).
The pH value of the fruitjuices used in this study did not show correlation with dentin permeability (Table 2). All tested fruitjuices were in a similar pH range (Table 1). However, other factors such as type of acid, buffering capacity, total acidity and C vitamin content might have influenced the results (19). All acid juices increased dentin permeability after topical application. However, acerolla juice produced significantly higher values of permeability compared with the other fruitjuices (kiwifruit, starfruit, green apple, and pineapple) (p<0.05) (Table 1). This result may be associated with the higher C vitamin content in acerolla juice.
The preference-ranking test was carried out with fifty nine assessors who are consumers of Amazonian fruitjuices, in Belém, PA, Brazil. The assessors received the samples simultaneously at 6 ± 2 °C, in balanced order and were asked to order them from most preferred to least preferred. The data analysis was performed by Friedman’s test at 5% critical value using data from Newell and MacFarlane’s (1987) table (ASSOCIAÇÃO..., 1994; DUTCOSKY, 2007). The preference data were classified into different clusters using the Euclidean distances and Ward’s aggregation method in order to separate the assessors. Non-adjusted data were used to report average liking scores for resulting in the preference segments. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on the correlation matrix of the consumer preference data means (ROCHA et al., 2010).
In a general way, sugars may be classiied as reducing or non-reducing based on their reactivity with Fehling’s reagents. Sugars that contain aldehyde groups that are oxidized to carboxylic acids are classiied as reducing sugars (e.g. glucose, fructose, maltose, lactose) (5,9). Those that are unable to reduce the above oxidizing agents are called non- reducing sugars (e.g.: sucrose). Fruitjuices are examples of foods that contain a mixture of these three soluble sugars (fructose, sucrose and glucose) (5,10), with the concentration varying according to the type and maturation status of the fruit. Once more, such sugariness, coupled with an acidic nature, has caused fruit juice to be cited as a risk factor to dental decay (5).
The culture of passion fruit has grown over the last 30 years on the tropical fruit market, on account of the fast economic return and distribution throughout the year (MELETTI, 2011). The most cultivated species in the world is the yellow passion fruit species (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa). Brazil is the world’s largest producer and consumer of this fruit, accounting for 50-60% of the total world production (OLIVEIRA et al., 2016). In 2013, the world apple production was approximately 80 million tons according to FAOSTAT (2016), and the productivity of the apple in Brazil is around 15-30 tons/ha (SEBRAE, 2016). Apples and passion fruits are rich sources of pectin. Apple pulp contains from 0.6 to 1.5% pectin while passion fruit pulp contains 0.5% pectin (CANTERI, 2011). Thus the application of polygalacturonases to viscous and jellied fruitjuices is an alternative to make them more transparent and homogeneous (SIN et al., 2006; ONGARATTO; VIOTTO, 2016), since these enzymes can break down the pectin present in the cell wall, resulting in a reduction in the solids content, facilitating filtration and increasing the overall juice production. The aim of this work was to describe the production of PG by Neosartorya glabra with fruit peel as the carbon source, and analyse the effect of crude PG on the apple and passion fruitjuices from the viscosity and light absorbance.
increase in the dilution factor (1:15) of some of the tested products produced a statistically signiicant reduction in in vitro enamel erosion. The addition of water to an acceptable consumption level (1:3) did not diminish the beverages’ erosive potential. Dilu- table fruitjuices are generally considered safer, as the consumer can control their composition; how- ever, dilution should not be viewed as an advantage of powdered juices.
consequently does not fall in the category of juices and nectars. Possibly, this brand was one of the most cited due to frequent advertising in television media. An interesting fact was that approximately 7.7% of the participants interviewed did not remember any brand because what mattered was only the price of the product. The same was observed by Lee et al. (2015a), who reported that price was the main factor that influenced the intention to purchase fruitjuices in the Chinese market. However, it was observed that only 24.5% of the interviewed participants were in fact buying the brand they had cited as the most remembered. Brand A, the one most remembered by consumers, also invests massively in television commercials and other advertising. In the present study, the authors also noted that consumers who do not have a specific assessment of a product usually rely on the brand as a quality indicator.
Both methods used for pomegranate juice extraction did not aﬀect the evaluated characteristics of juice qual- ity; namely, the anthocyanins content, the juice colour, the organic acids and sugars composition, as well as the pH values. Squeezing unpeeled fruit halves is the most eco- nomical and easy method to use. The juice obtained by that method was more stable over time as indicated by the titrable acidity and ◦ Brix determinations. The main dis- advantage of the squeezing method is the production of juice with bitter taste if additional treatments are applied. Besides, the bitterness could be overcome because the ac- tual trend in juice production is the blending of several fruitjuices. Additionally, the use of Assaria pomegranate in fruit juice mixtures will be beneficial for human health in reducing the risk from oxalic acid consumption .
The XENDOS study aimed to evaluate the effect of orlistat with lifestyle modifications or placebo with lifestyle modifications on reducing progression of T2D in obese subjects. The obese prediabetic individuals who took the drug reduced the incidence of T2D in 45%, indicating that orlistat reduces progression to T2D in prediabetic subjects (Togerson et al., 2004). However, in a similar way to acarbose, the patients taking orlistat as a therapeutic to lose weight present gastrointestinal side effects suggesting that new alternatives to reduce fat digestion and absorption are required (Miles et al., 2002). Our results in vitro showed that flavonoids are stronger inhibitors of pancreatic lipase than orlistat, whereas tannins had a relatively weak effect compared to orlistat. In a previous study reported by our group, tannins were not the best inhibitors of pancreatic lipase whereas quercetin derivates had a good dose-dependent inhibitory ability (Donado-Pestana et al., 2015; Li et al., 2011). 3.1. Effect of cagaita fruitjuices on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia.
consequently does not fall in the category of juices and nectars. Possibly, this brand was one of the most cited due to frequent advertising in television media. An interesting fact was that approximately 7.7% of the participants interviewed did not remember any brand because what mattered was only the price of the product. The same was observed by Lee et al. (2015a), who reported that price was the main factor that influenced the intention to purchase fruitjuices in the Chinese market. However, it was observed that only 24.5% of the interviewed participants were in fact buying the brand they had cited as the most remembered. Brand A, the one most remembered by consumers, also invests massively in television commercials and other advertising. On the present study, the authors also noted that consumers who do not have a specific assessment of a product usually rely on the brand as a quality indicator.
Pectic polymers (chain of 1,4-linked- α -D- galacturonic acid and methoxylated derivatives) are the major structural constituents of middle lamellae in plant cell wall. They play an important role in adhesion of adjacent cells together and have a great impact on the viscosity and turbidity of fruitjuices (Lozano et al. 1990; Sandri et al. 2013). Pectinases are the group of enzymes involved in depolymerisation of the pectic polymers. The group of enzymes, which are involved in the degradation of ‘‘smooth region’’ (homogalacturonan) include deesterifying enzymes, i.e., pectin methyl esterases (PME, E.C. 184.108.40.206) and pectin acetyl esterase (PAE, E.C. 220.127.116.11) which remove methoxyl and acetyl
The time of fruit formation was 53 and 65 days after blooming respectively for the first and second year. The fruit was harvested when it presented the charac- teristic orange color and dry peduncle. When no visits by insects occurred on the flowers, there was no pro- duction of fruits (Table 2). With free visitation, fruit pro- duction was 38 and 42% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. In Cucurbita pepo, there is no production of fruits with- out visitation of flowers by insects (Couto et al., 1990). With a greater number of visits by A. mellifera on the flowers, fruit set was increased, up to 16 visits per female flower. In the first year, the width of the fruits was greater in those from flowers that received a greater number of visits by A. mellifera, but there was no difference for the other observed parameters (Table 3). In the second year, there was a difference for length, width, number of seeds and mainly weight of the fruits (r = 0.85), where such characteristics ben- efited from the greater number of visits by A. mellifera. The resultant fruits of flowers that received 16 visits had double the weight of fruits resulting from flow- ers that were visited twice. Apparently, not only the number of visits is important for fruit production but also the time and type of harvest, because the longer the visit, the greater the chance of the insect coming in contact with the stigma of the flower.
Canesin & Buzetti (2007) studied B and Zn leaf fertilization, for Japanese pear and pine tree crops, and did not observe increase in fruit yield, as it happened in the present study. Swietlik (2002) worked with apple trees, citrus trees, and grapevines, and concluded that an essential prerequisite for plant responses to Zn leaf fertilization seemed to be the presence of Zn deficiency symptoms.
Repeatability estimates for seed number and weight were the lowest ones and the most variable in both populations, ranging from 0.02 to 0.49, for the number of seed per fruit, and from 0.04 to 0.39, for seed weight per fruit, reflecting a high dependence on the environmental conditions. The low magnitude of the repeatability coefficient indicates that there was no regularity on repeating the characteristic from one fruit to another. These low-repeatability coefficients may reflect closely the real low-heritability values of both seed characteristics. The environmental effect on them may be linked to the availability of pollinating insects. Any factor affecting the natural dynamics of these insects may strongly affect the number and weight of seed per fruit, as well. H. speciosa pollination. A study on fruit production of the savannas of the National Reserve of Guaribas, in Paraíba State, northeastern Brazil, confirmed that flowers of H. speciosa attract nocturnal and diurnal flower visitors of various species, mainly Lepidoptera ones (Darrault & Schlindwein, 2005). They reported a low-seed setting, ranging from 1 to 25 per fruit, for 76 ovules on average. They concluded that fruit set may vary with oscillations of pollinator richness and abundance, and that the development of small fruit with only one or few seed emphasizes the pollinator limitation in H. speciosa at that study site.
ABSTRACT - Changes to the amounts of certain proteins have resulted in several studies, among them the so-called heat shock proteins (HSP), which take many forms, most of them constitutive. However, other forms may be inducible by a particular stress factor. The ‘Micro-Tom’ tomato is considered a model for experimental studies due to having suitable characteristics, such as reduced size, short generation time, and ease of transformation. Growth and production components were therefore evaluated in ‘Micro-Tom’ tomato plants transformed for different levels of mitochondrial HSP (MT-sHSP23.6). Plants from genotypes of the ‘Micro-Tom’ tomato (untransformed, and transformed with overexpression and with expression silencing) were grown under controlled conditions of temperature, photoperiod and photon flux density. To obtain the data, successive collections were carried out at regular intervals (21 days) throughout the development cycle of the plants, starting from the 21st day after transplanting (DAT). Total dry matter, leaf area, dry-weight partitioning between the plant organs, and production components were determined in the three genotypes. From interpretation of the results, it was found that plants transformed with overexpression of MT-sHSP23.6 displayed greater production capacity, considering the fresh weight of the fruit; but in general, the data showed that genetic transformation did not bring about major changes in growth, since the three genotypes displayed similar behaviour.