A self-report questionnaire was developed to measure fruit and vegetable intake, and possible correlates. The develop- ment of the questionnaire was based on theoretical models, a literature review, focus group interviews with children, individual interviews with parents and school staff and thorough pretesting (De Bourdeaudhuij et al., 2005; Wind et al., 2005). A rigorous translation – back translation protocol was used to make sure that the questions were well understood in each country and measured the same constructs. The questionnaire included 15 constructs that were analogous for fruit and for vegetable intake: (1) personal factors: knowledge (how much fruit/vegetables you should eat), attitudes (feel good, gives energy), liking (like to eat, tastes good), general self-efficacy (difficult to me, I can do it), preferences (12 fruits/vegetables like/dislike) and perceived barriers (time, hungry, squeezed, so ony), (2) perceived social–environmental factors: modeling (mother/ father/best friend eats fruit/vegetables), active parental encouragement (mother/father encourages), family rules – demands (parents demand to eat fruit/vegetables) and allowances (allowed to eat as much fruit/vegetables as you like) – parental facilitation (cut fruit/vegetables for you) and bringing fruit/vegetables to school, (3) perceived physical– environmental factors: availability at home (different fruits/ vegetables, fruit/vegetables that you like, if you like it will be bought), availability at school (can you get fruit/vegetables at school) and availability at friends’ home (can you get fruit/ vegetables at friends’ home). These constructs were assessed with 1–12 items, and for each construct a composite score was calculated as the mean of the relevant item scores. Responses were given on 5-point scales ranging from (�2) fully disagree/never to ( þ 2) fully agree/always. An overview Predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in children
Hence, male gender and high BMI and WC were observed to be risk factors for high TG values; whereas normal BMI, WC and %BF, as well as adequate intakes of fruit, vegetables and grains, were protective factors against hypertriglyceridemia. As for hypercholesterolemia, the risk factors were older age and greater ingestion of meat. Abnor- mal nHDL-C concentration presented the following risk fac- tors: male gender, age <60 years, and high BMI and WC val- ues. No significant influences from diet on nHDL-C or HDL- C variations were observed. The risk factors for HDL-C were age <60 years, and higher BMI and WC values whereas, only normal anthropometric values (BMI, WC and %BF) were found to be protective factors.
Our findings, however, should be taken with some reserve due to the following limitations: our participants took the FFQ only once and may have under- or over- reported food intake. Fibre intake may also have been underestimated in calculations, as current conversion factors and nutrition databases may not include all fibre sources and analytical results for whole grain, fruit, and vegetables consumed in Croatia.
The endothelium is fundamental for the regulation of vascular tone and structure. Under disease conditions, including the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, the endothelium loses its protective role and becomes a proatherosclerotic structure. In this article we searched for strategies from PUBMED and Science Direct databases using the following key words: endothelium, natural bioactive compounds, polyphenols and cardiovascular diseases. The search was restricted to english language papers. Studies have identified the contribution of diet to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In this context, high intakes of fruit and vegetables are associated with the decrease of cardiovascular diseases. Thus the most important fruit/vegetables and bioactive compounds to prevent endothelial diseases are berries, apples, virgin olive oil, tomatoes, soybeans, and polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The bioactive compounds from fruit and vegetables provide endothelial protection through the following mechanisms: improved eNOS/NO bioavailability, attenuates oxidative stress, inhibited NF- κB pathway and decreased cell adhesion molecules expression. In this article natural bioactive compound mechanisms of endothelium protection are thoroughly reviewed.
Dietary patterns in Eastern and Northern European countries are distinct from those of the Southern European countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea (Naska et al., 2006). The concept of the Mediterranean diet has been around since the mid 1940s and it is now well accepted that a dietary pattern based on fruit and vegetables, bread and other cereals, olive oil and fish is good for health (Martinez-Gonzalez et al., 2002; Schroder et al., 2002). The trends reported in most industrialised countries include increases in the consumption of fruit and a decrease in the consumption of fat-containing foods. However, in Southern European countries, traditionally characterized by a ‘Mediterranean diet’, opposite and less favourable trends have been reported (Marques-Vidal et al., 2006). In Portugal trends indicate that it is moving away from the traditional Mediterranean diet (Rodrigues and de Almeida, 2001). Dietary intakes have changed dramatically over a decade in Portugal, for example, among adults under 65 years. The average number of daily meals and the consumption of soup and fish have decreased, the consumption of meat, vegetables and milk has increased, the consumption of pasta, potatoes and rice has remained approximately constant and the consumption of fruit has decreased slightly between 1995 and 1999 (Marques-Vidal et al., 2006).
According to Hingley et al. (2008), fruit and vegetables offer retailers a wide range of opportunities to increase product variety and consequently can be the main category that differentiates supermarkets in the competitive arena. The structure of the fresh produce sector easily allows retailers to take leadership of the channel and therefore impose transaction forms to reach the following objectives: maximize the channel profit, give them power to appropriate the largest portion of profitability, and direct the suppliers to conform to the retail differentiation strategies without a formal vertical contractual integration, as required by the economy of transaction costs (Williamson, 1996).
A number of methods exist to identify the attributes of preference structure of consumer of food products. These include literature reviews, focus group discus- sions, and individual interviews. In this study, a focus group session was used to identify the appropriate attributes and their relevant levels. The advantages of a focus group research include an increased interaction between all participants and the researcher, visual aids and tangible products can be circulated, and areas of specific interest can be covered in greater depth. Thirty three adult respondents participated in the focus group session, which are in various age, gender, ethnic, and education level in order to reflect the actual Malaysian population. Initially, seven potential attributes (fresh- ness, texture, appearance, packaging, safety, and price) were identified in the consumption of vegetables. From focus group discussions, five attributes were finally selected as the most important attributes for each leafy, root and fruitvegetables. Selected attributes for leafy vegetables were freshness, texture, appearance, safety, and price; and for both root and fruitvegetables are freshness, texture, packaging, safety, and price. The attribute levels that were also established from the focus session are presented in Table 1.
Statistical analysis showed that the data were randomized between fruit/vegetables and different supermarkets, thus, relation between higher counts of a kind of vegetable and a supermarket could not be established in the present study. The counts of samples from a specific brand also could not be related with problems in GMP of the company. On view of this study, we highlight that many factors can influence the final quality of minimally processed vegetables and deserve attention. Among these are the cultivation and postharvest conditions; processing conditions; time and temperature at which the product is maintained throughout the production chain until its commercialization, in order to provide the consumer with a microbiologically safe product (Santos et al., 2010).
Samples of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba), camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia), plum (Prunus salicina), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), strawberry (Fragaria sp,), red pitaya (Hylocereus undatus), jussara (Euterpe edulis), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), blackberry (Morus nigra), red globe grape (Vitis vinífera), eggplant (Solanum melongena) and purple cabbage (Brassica oleracea) were obtained from the Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, retailer from January to June 2016. Açaí fruits (Euterpe oleracea) were obtained in Belém, Pará, Brazil. After collection, the fruits were immediately evaluated, except the açaí fruit, which was frozen and transported by air to the analysis laboratory.
Machine-aided harvest was performed with the mobile platfo rm, with and without use of an accessory, a lateral harvest enclosure – a picking station (Figure 6). Initia lly, tria ls were performed without this accessory to verify mach ine mobility and, following that, one was attached. In both situations (with and without the picking station), three pickers wa lked behind the machine, and a fourth one was placed on the upper part. Picke rs on the ground used the canvas bag, and after it was filled, dumped it in the plastic boxes. The picker on the upper part did not use canvas bags and fruits were put directly in the plastic boxes. Harvesting was done on one side of the row that consisted of 10 plants, with a spacing of 4 meters between plants, for a total of 39 meters (including 1.5 meters of canopy). After harvesting with use of the mobile platform, a second harvest was performed to pick the left over fruit. Two harvest trials were performed without the picking station accessory, and one with it. Four replicat ions were made fo r each trial.
Reeve (1943) and Crafts (1944) reported pioneer studies of shrinkage at microscopic level, related to dehydration processes of carrots, potatoes and several fruits. Lozano et al. (1980) expressed shrinkage on the basis of the ratio between the bulk volume of the product and the initial bulk volume (bulk shrinkage coefficient). General empirical shrinkage models have been proposed for fruits and vegetables during drying (Suzuki et al., 1976; Vagenas et al., 1990; Madamba et al., 1994; Zogzas et al., 1994) as a function of water content of products. Ramos et al. (2002) studied grape microscopic shrinkage, quantifying several parameters directlyrelated to cellular dimensions.The parameters of cellular area, perimeter, major axis, minor axis and Feret diameter were fitted as a function of time and temperature (Figure 2). A first order model and the Arrhenius equation for the temperature effect were used to fit experimental data, aiming the estimation of activation energyand reference dry ing rate. Relating microscopic with macroscopic shrinkage, and generally, microstructure with texture and physical properties, is an interesting field of research.
VALIDATION OF METHODOLOGY FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF SYNTHETIC ANTIOXIDANTS IN VEGETABLES OILS, MARGARINE AND VEGETABLES HYDROGENATED FATS BY HPLC/UV. The use of antioxidants either to prevent or retard food’s lipids oxidation was approved after inquires that verified their security within a daily intake limit. In this study, the methodology was developed and validated for the analysis of synthetic antioxidants: propylgallate (PG), tert- butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), octylgallate (OG) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) in vegetables oils, margarine and hydrogenated fats by high performance liquid chromatographic. The methodology revealed itself efficient, with recovery rates above 90% for all antioxidant substances, besides good linearity in concentration range of 40-240 mg kg -1 (r = 0,999),
duced into glass beakers of 1 L volume (Labbox Labware) closed with foil. 10 μg of 2-octanol (Aldrich, purity ≥99.5%) was added as internal standard. After 1 h of equilibration at room temperature, a 100 μm fiber coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, Supelco, USA), previously conditioned in the GC injector as indicated by the manufacturer, and was inserted into the glass and exposed for 40 min. The adsorbed volatiles were injected to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) by desorption at 250 °C during 1 min in splitless mode in the injection port of a 6890 N gas chromatograph (Agilent Technologies). Volatile compounds were separated on an Agilent J&W DB-5 ms GC Column (60 m × 0.25 mm × 1.00 μm) coupled to a Termo-DSQ mass spectrom- eter. The GC interface and MS source temperatures were 260 °C and 230 °C, respectively. Oven programming conditions were 40 °C for 2 min, 5 °C/min ramp until 250 °C, and a final hold at 250 °C for 5 min. Helium was the carrier gas at 1.5 mL/min in the splitless mode. Data was recorded in a 5975B mass spectrometer (Agilent Technologies) in the 35–250 m/z range at 7 scans, with electronic impact ionization at 70 eV. Chromatograms were processed by means of the Enhanced ChemStation E.02.02 software (Agilent Technologies). Compounds in HS-SPME extractions were identified by matching the acquired mass spectra with those stored in the refer- ence library (National Institute of Standards and Technology) and/or by comparison with authentic standard compounds when available. The relative emission rate of every compound in each sample was calculated as its corrected peak area (by fruit weight) divided by the recovery rate of the internal standard. The results are reported as the mean values of peak area percent ± SE. Infested fruits showed comparable VOC profiles independently of the day of sampling after Penicillium infection and thus data were pooled. All identified volatile compounds were grouped into five main types (ethers, alcohols, ketones, hydrocarbons, and esters). The results in Fig. 3 are reported as the mean values of peak area percent. For individual volatiles, the results (Supplementary Table S4) are reported as the mean values of peak area ± standard error and the correspondent peak area percent. GC-MS was performed at the Metabolomics Service in Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (Spain).
The chemical senses (taste and olfaction) play a key role in determining which food sources animals approach and consume across species (de Graaf and Boesveldt, 2017). In the wild, flies are faced with a vast array of potential sites in which to find food substrates. For a generalist such as Drosophila melanogaster, a broad range of substrates could serve as food sources, and flies must select among these based on their sensory profiles. Flies rely heavily on their olfactory system to navigate towards food sources, integrating odour information with wind and visual inputs to fly upwind and towards visual features following odour encounters (Bhandawat et al., 2010; Budick and Dickinson, 2006; Duistermars and Frye, 2010; Saxena et al., 2017; van Breugel and Dickinson, 2014). Upon landing on a rotting fruit, however, flies may encounter an uneven distribution of nutrient sources, including sugars and yeasts, and use their gustatory system to select the optimal locations to initiate feeding (Corrales-Carvajal et al., 2016). Thereafter, gustatory inputs also play an important role in sustaining feeding after its initiation (LeDue et al., 2015; Yapici et al., 2016), limiting food intake (Joseph et al., 2017), and initiating local search behaviour after food is lost (Kim and Dickinson, 2017; Murata et al., 2017). Therefore, chemosensory systems are key to the regulation of food choice. The following sections give an overview of the organisation of the Drosophila chemosensory systems, as well as the role of specific chemosensory neurons in diverse ethologically relevant behaviours. Since the olfactory system has been more thoroughly characterised than the gustatory system in this species, this serves as a useful point of comparison for understanding both general and specialised principles of chemosensory processing, as well as how differing demands are reflected in different mechanisms for assigning valence to sensory inputs.
As mentioned before , ‘’Fruta com Cheiro’’ is a new brand for fruit and it will offers consumers a variety of fruits under the premise of having the intrinsic smell of fruit. This is the factor differentiates the product from its competitors and explore an unique opportunity that comprises the fact that, in Portugal, there are few brand of fruits and none of them differentiates themselves by the smell. As mentioned before, it would be an plus in the sense that it would allow ‘’Fruta com Cheiro’’ to have the first move advantage and be the first brand of fruit, offering a variety of types with the same characteristic – smell – combined with high quality standards.
Frutaformas can leverage its fruit origin stamp to take advantage of the Portuguese fruit recognition abroad (S3-O2) as well as the healthy and nutritious value of its products to bundle it with other natural-based products, taking advantage of the superfoods’ growing popularity (S1-O1). To target consumers seeking low-caloric snacks, a dehydration process may be revised to reduce the caloric content of Frutaformas’ products (W3-O3). The company should also adopt strategies to face potential threats: backwards integration is suggested to mitigate the fruit seasonality’s impact on costs (S3-T1), while the leverage of the obtained awards is recommended to compete on quality (S4-T2). In addition, to cope with the current and potential competitors, Frutaformas should consider increasing its production scale to reduce the unit cost (W1-T2/T3) and to register a patent for its fruit bars (W2-T2/T3).
decontamination procedures than the indigenous microbiota, and by removing this group of microorganisms, a natural barrier for pathogenic growth is also removed. As a result, disinfection may provide conditions which favour survival and growth of the pathogens. Furthermore, reduction of the natural microbiota could be risky if further hurdles are not applied to the produce, especially if the produce is contaminated with a pathogen after processing (Allende et al., 2008). Due to the pathogen mechanisms to survive, and the increasing consumption of minimally processed and ready to eat vegetables, outbreaks associated with produced are still frequent (Gandhi and Chikindas, 2007, Naghmouchi et al., 2007, Ramos et al., 2014, Ramos et al., 2013). Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Shigella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are amongst the major pathogens associated to outbreaks caused by the consumption of contaminated vegetables. The produce most associated with outbreaks is salad, since it has all kind of mixed vegetables (Ramos et al., 2013). In addition, WHO categorized lettuce and salads (all varieties), leafy vegetables (spinach, cabbage, raw watercress) and fresh herbs of highest priority in terms of fresh produce safety from a global perspective (FAO/WHO, 2008, Goodburn and Wallace, 2013).