Genetic and phenotypic parameters

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Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for reproductive traits in Iranian native Kordi sheep

Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for reproductive traits in Iranian native Kordi sheep

ABSTRACT. The data set for estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters of reproductive traits in Kordi sheep were collected from 1996 to 2013. The reproductive traits included age at first lambing (AFL), number of lambs born (NLB/EL) and weaned (NLW/EL) per ewe in each lambing, total weight of lambs born (TWLB/EL) and weaned (TWLW/EL) per ewe in each lambing, total number of lambs born (TNLB) and weaned (TNLW) per ewe, total weight of lambs born (TWLB) and weaned (TWLW) per ewe. The genetic parameters were estimated through restricted maximum likelihood method using WOMBAT. The effects of environmental factors (year of lambing, type of birth, maternal age at lambing) on all reproductive traits were significant (p < 0.01). Direct heritability, maternal heritability and the ratio of maternal permanent environmental variance to phenotypic variance for reproductive traits were estimated in the range from 0.07 to 0.18, 0.03 to 0.08 and 0.01 to 0.03, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between reproductive traits were estimated to be positive and within the range of 0.09 to 0.96 and 0.02 to 0.29, respectively. The results suggest that selection based on number of lambs born per ewe can be more effective than other traits in improving reproductive performance in Kordi ewes.
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Estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters for production traits in Holstein and Jersey from Colombia

Estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters for production traits in Holstein and Jersey from Colombia

Objective. Determine the genetic and phenotypic parameters for milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score. Materials and methods. 18134 lactation records were used to Holstein and 1377 lactations for Jersey in different herds. The (co) variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using the software Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood MTDFREML. Results. The Holstein and Jersey heritability’s (and standard error) for milk yield were: 0.16 (0.082) and 0.15 (0.306), 0.30 (0.079) and 0.37 (0.319) for protein percentage, 0.32 (0.076) and 0.46 (0.313) for fat percentage and for somatic cell score were: 0.01 (0.054) and 0.01 (0.233), respectively. The largest genetic correlations were found between the percentage of fat and percentage of protein, with values of 0.82 (0.126) and 0.98 (0.852) for Holstein and Jersey respectively. The lowest correlations were between fat percentage and somatic cell score with -0.01 (1.147) and -0.01 (1. 734). Phenotypic correlations were generally found low and repeatability showed a signiicant effect of permanent environment on milk production per lactation. Conclusions. It is important to emphasize the development of research to help guide breeding programs in the tropics, using selection indices of multi-traits.
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GENETIC AND PHENOTYPIC PARAMETERS OF PRODUCTIVITY TRAITS ON THE FIRST THREE LACTATIONS IN GYR CATTLE HERDS

GENETIC AND PHENOTYPIC PARAMETERS OF PRODUCTIVITY TRAITS ON THE FIRST THREE LACTATIONS IN GYR CATTLE HERDS

Since 1985, the progeny test of breed selection for milk production, coordinated by Embrapa, has played a relevant role, as reflected by the considerable increase in demand for this genetic material after the first test results. Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for milk yield and lactation length are important tools for the defi- nition and evaluation of selection programs. Although sev- eral studies have been conducted on Gyr cattle over the last years, research should be intensified to identify and utilize animals with greater productive potential. The trait milk yield is considerably affected by environmental fac- tors, which, in addition to genetic differences, are respon- sible for the marked variation between breeds and animals within the same breed, and between herds. Thus, it is fun- damentally important to quantify sources of variation that affect dairy cow productivity so that breeding programs may be conducted properly in order to obtain a better equilibrium between genetics and environment and, con-
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Early selection of parents and trees in Eucalyptus full-sib progeny tests

Early selection of parents and trees in Eucalyptus full-sib progeny tests

ABSTRACT - This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of early selection for parents and trees for cloning in full-sib progeny tests of Eucalyptus spp. The 61 hybrid progenies were evaluated in the north, northwest and central state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with three replications, in 2001. The trait circumference at breast height (CBH) was evaluated 30 and 84 months after planting in five-plant rows. The selection efficiency was assessed by the fluctuation of genetic and phenotypic parameters, coincidence index, genetic correlation, phenotypic correlation, Spearman rank correlation, correlated response, gain per year and repeatability of phenotypic values at the plant level. All methodologies indicated that early selection is effective both in the selection of parents and the selection of trees for cloning.
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Genetic variability during four cycles of recurrent selection in rice

Genetic variability during four cycles of recurrent selection in rice

The estimate of genetic and phenotypic parameters is one of the most important contributions of quantitative genetics, since they aid in decision-making regarding the selective strategies to be used and allow predicting the genetic gains of future selection cycles and evaluating the viability of the breeding program (Hallauer et al., 2010; Ramalho et al., 2012). Although several works have estimated the genetic parameters of autogamous species, such as rice (Bueno et al., 2012; Colombari Filho et al., 2013; Ahmad et al., 2015; Tuhina-Khatun et al., 2015), Falconer & Machay (1996) pointed out that the obtained results are only valid for the material of the researched population and for the environmental conditions in which the study was carried out. For this reason, the continuous study of the estimates of the variance components of a population is essential to guide genetic breeding in recurrent selection, in which the magnitude of genetic variability during the selection cycles may be affected by several different factors, such as, for example, the size of the sample for recombination, which, in turn, depends on the effective size of the recombination unit (Bernardo, 2010).
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REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency. Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC) at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450), age at first calving (AFC) and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow) and a calf trait (GLcalf). The (co)variance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450), positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL) may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.
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Genetic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium isolates from Southern Ecuador

Genetic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium isolates from Southern Ecuador

Rhizobium-legume symbioses play relevant roles in agriculture but have not been well studied in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium isolates associated with Phaseolus vulgaris from southern Ecuador. Morpho- cultural characterization, biochemical tests and physiological analyses were conducted to authenticate and determine the diversity of bacteria Rhizobium-like isolates. The genetic diversity of the isolates was determined by molecular techniques, which consisted of bacteria DNA extraction and amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The nodulation parameters and nitrogen fixation for P. vulgaris under greenhouse conditions were also assessed to determine the phenotypic diversity among isolates. Furthermore, bacteria indole-acetic-acid production was evaluated by the colorimetric method. Morpho-cultural and biochemical characteristic assessments demonstrated that Rhizobium-like bacteria was associated with the P. vulgaris nodules. The diversity among the isolates, as determined by physiological analyses, revealed the potential of several isolates to grow at different pH values, salinity conditions and temperatures. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified the Rhizobium genus in every sampling site. From a total of 20 aligned sequences, nine species of Rhizobium were identified. Nodule formation and biomass, as well as nitrogen fixation, showed an increase in plant phenotypic parameters, which could be influenced by IAA production, especially for the strains R. mesoamericanum NAM1 and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae COL6. These results demonstrated the efficiency of native symbiotic diazotrophic strains inoculants for legume production. This work can serve as the basis for additional studies of native Rhizobium strains and to help spread the use of biofertilizers in Ecuadorian fields.
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Agronomic characterization of high-yielding irrigated barley accessions in the Cerrado

Agronomic characterization of high-yielding irrigated barley accessions in the Cerrado

Abstract ‒ The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic, phenotypic, and environmental parameters of 113 barley accessions (Hordeum vulgare), previously selected based on high yield, in an irrigated production system in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna), for use in breeding programs in Brazil. The experiment was conducted in 2013 at two sites in the Federal District, using a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The evaluated traits were: grain yield, kernel plumpness, thousand grain weight, plant height, lodging, and days to heading. Significant differences were observed between environment and accessions for all studied traits, as well as genotype x environment interaction. The MCU 3832 PI 402310, MCU 3484 PI 401962, CI 08053 Custer, MCU 3634 PI 402112, and MCU 3816 PI 402294 accessions stood out regarding grain yield and kernel plumpness. It is possible to obtain high selection gains with high heritability values. However, indirect selection is not recommended in the experimental conditions due to the low genotypic and phenotypic correlations obtained. It is also possible to select barley accessions with high yield and early heading date simultaneously, an important factor in the genotype selection process for future experiments. The accessions from Colombia are the most adapted to the Cerrado conditions.
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Genetic Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

Genetic Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

There are many studies on Sahiwal cattle reporting similar genetic parameters for milk yield and related traits (Talbott et al., 1997; Dahlin et al., 1998; Javed et al., 2001; Bajwa, et al., 2004; Ilatsia et al; 2007; Kathiravan et al., 2009). The phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations of total milk yield with 305-d milk yield were 0.98, 0.73±0.001 and 0.87, respectively. For total milk yield, no additional bivariate or multivariate analyses with other traits were carried out as its association with 305-d milk yield was very high. As lactation length was much below 305-days both traits were expected to behave alike. Choice of lactation length other than 305-days has previously been debated in favour of 305-days (Khan and Iqbal, 1999) even when average is below a standard length of 305-days. Previous reports indicate that most of the herds have either same (Dahlin et al., 1998; Javed et al., 2001) or have negative genetic trend (Talbott et al., 1997) for traits like milk yield. For Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar (Okara), there was a decline of 61 kg every year in milk yield in the genetic ability for the period 1974-1989 (Talbott et al., 1997).
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Genetic parameters and phenotypic and genetic trends for weight at weaning and visual scores during this phase estimated for Angus-Nellore crossbred young bulls

Genetic parameters and phenotypic and genetic trends for weight at weaning and visual scores during this phase estimated for Angus-Nellore crossbred young bulls

High correlations, both phenotypic and genetic, were also observed among conformation, precocity and musculature, with amplitude from 0.85 to 0.90 (Table 4). These scores describe the potential for the production of meat from the animal as a whole, i.e., they are direct components of the body weight of the animal; one that proves itself to be easier to measure, with higher heritability and it is less influenced by the evaluator would be recommended as a selection criterion. On the other hand, the genetic correlation of the navel with weight at weaning (Table 4) was low (0.06), similar to the -0.04 observed by Koury Filho et al. (2003) for the Nellore breed, suggesting that these traits can be determined by genes from non- pleiotropic effect, indicating that selection for increase weight does not necessarily lead to higher scores for navel. Low correlations, both genetic and phenotypic, were also observed in relation to other visual scores, where the genetic correlation between navel and visual scores of conformation, precocity and muscles were -0.04, -0.07 and 0.18, respectively.
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ESTIMATE OF GENETIC PARAMETERS AND PREDICTED GAINS WITH EARLY SELECTION OF PHYSIC NUT FAMILIES

ESTIMATE OF GENETIC PARAMETERS AND PREDICTED GAINS WITH EARLY SELECTION OF PHYSIC NUT FAMILIES

The experiment was established using a randomized blocks design with two replicates and five plants (10 plants of a same family) per plot arranged in rows (4x2m spacing). Phenotypic evaluations of 175 accessions were performed considering reproductive and vegetative traits, according to the development of the plants (LAVIOLA et al., 2010). The present work presents the results of the second crop year (November 2009 to July 2010). The traits that were evaluated are (i) grain yield (Yield, g), (ii) 100 seeds weight (W 100 , g), (iii) number of seeds per fruit (NSF, n), (iv) ratio between endosperm and seed (E/S), (v) seeds length (SL, mm), (vi) seeds width (SW, mm), (vii) seeds thickness (ST, mm), (viii) total number of branches per plant at 0.5 meters (TNB 0.5 ), (ix) total number of branches per plant at 1 meter (TNB 1.0 ), (x) total number of branches per plant at 1.5 meters (TNB 1.5 ) (xi) plant height (height, m), (xii) stem diameter (SD, mm), (xiii) canopy projection on the row (CP R , m), (xiv) canopy projection between lines (CP BL , m), (xv) canopy volume (CV, m 3 ), (xvi) juvenility measured by the number of days to the
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Estimation of genetic parameters and SNPs based molecular diversity of Coffea canephora

Estimation of genetic parameters and SNPs based molecular diversity of Coffea canephora

The most important function of heritability in the genetic studies on the metric characters, according Falconer (1960), is its predictive capacity and the expression of the confidence of the phenotypic values as a guide for the genetic value. However, in this study the estimates of individual heritability in the broad sense (h 2 g) were of low magnitude, but were significant for all traits except yield (Sac/ha). Rodrigues W.P. et al (2013) also found similar results for Coffea arabica. The estimated repeatability for most of the traits was lowest indicating the irregularity of the superiority of the individuals among the measurements for these characters in the case of both groups of clones showing high irregularity of the performance across measurement, which demonstrate that genotype selection based on those traits is not reliable strategy. The progress expected with the selection depends on the heritability of the character, intensity of selection and phenotypic standard deviation of the character (Cruz and Carneiro, 2004). Thus, the values of heritability and repeatability achieved in this study allow the prediction of better possibilities of genetic gain (Table 1). This also implies that the selection process also provide satisfactory results for all traits (except yield and cercospora) which are economically important characters for Coffea canephora species.
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Estimation of genetic parameters and genetic trends for weight and body measurements at birth in sheep populations in Thailand

Estimation of genetic parameters and genetic trends for weight and body measurements at birth in sheep populations in Thailand

than Hall et al. (1995) in dual purpose crossbred breed (0.08). Meyer et al. (1994) and Tosh and Kemp (1994) supported that differences in the maternal additive genetic effects among breeds have been attributed to variations in milk production. It would be influenced on weaning weight and sequential weight. These maternal heritabilities of HG and BL in present study were similar to Mandal et al. (2008) who reported that low maternal heritabilities for both traits (0.15 and 0.13). It was suggested that maternal additive genetic effect was of lower importance for these traits. The relatively low productivity and poor nutritional environment resulted in lambs not expressing their genetic potential (Mandal et al., 2008). Both heritabilities for investigated traits from multivariate analysis were higher than univariate analysis because direct-maternal additive genetic correlations among traits and correlations of both genetic and phenotype were taken into account in multivari- ate analysis. The direct additive genetic, maternal additive genetic and phenotypic correlations between BW and two traits of body measurements at birth (HG and BL) were low to moderate and positive. The correlations between body measurement traits were strongly high and positive (0.97, 0.95 and 0.96, respectively). The results implied that the BW could be improved by selection high HG and BL. Many publi- cations reported that the positive and high genetic correla-
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Agronomic characterization of high-yielding irrigated barley accessions in the Cerrado

Agronomic characterization of high-yielding irrigated barley accessions in the Cerrado

Abstract ‒ The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic, phenotypic, and environmental parameters of 113 barley accessions (Hordeum vulgare), previously selected based on high yield, in an irrigated production system in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna), for use in breeding programs in Brazil. The experiment was conducted in 2013 at two sites in the Federal District, using a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The evaluated traits were: grain yield, kernel plumpness, thousand grain weight, plant height, lodging, and days to heading. Significant differences were observed between environment and accessions for all studied traits, as well as genotype x environment interaction. The MCU 3832 PI 402310, MCU 3484 PI 401962, CI 08053 Custer, MCU 3634 PI 402112, and MCU 3816 PI 402294 accessions stood out regarding grain yield and kernel plumpness. It is possible to obtain high selection gains with high heritability values. However, indirect selection is not recommended in the experimental conditions due to the low genotypic and phenotypic correlations obtained. It is also possible to select barley accessions with high yield and early heading date simultaneously, an important factor in the genotype selection process for future experiments. The accessions from Colombia are the most adapted to the Cerrado conditions.
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Adaptation, plasticity, and extinction in a changing environment: towards a predictive theory.

Adaptation, plasticity, and extinction in a changing environment: towards a predictive theory.

Many species are experiencing sus- tained environmental change mainly due to human activities. The unusual rate and extent of anthropogenic alterations of the environment may exceed the capacity of developmental, genetic, and demographic mechanisms that populations have evolved to deal with environmental change. To begin to understand the limits to popula- tion persistence, we present a simple evolutionary model for the critical rate of environmental change beyond which a population must decline and go extinct. We use this model to highlight the major determinants of extinction risk in a changing environment, and identify re- search needs for improved predictions based on projected changes in environ- mental variables. Two key parameters relating the environment to population biology have not yet received sufficient attention. Phenotypic plasticity, the direct influence of environment on the develop- ment of individual phenotypes, is increas- ingly considered an important component of phenotypic change in the wild and should be incorporated in models of population persistence. Environmental sensitivity of selection, the change in the optimum phenotype with the environ- ment, still crucially needs empirical assess- ment. We use environmental tolerance curves and other examples of ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change to illustrate how these mechanistic approaches can be developed for predic- tive purposes.
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Genetic parameters and estimated genetic gains in young rubber tree progenies

Genetic parameters and estimated genetic gains in young rubber tree progenies

According to Resende et al. (1999) the multi‑effect index (MEI) method is an excellent selection procedure, equivalent to the Blup (best linear unbiased prediction). MEI estimates uses the variances of the mixed linear model random effects when data are unbalanced or when survival is greater than 85%. The index is based on the multiplication of phenotypic values of individuals, plot means, family means, block means, and general means by the weighing coefficients of the indexes (heritability). These coefficients are calculated in order to maximize the correlation between heritability indexes and genetic values. This maximization is obtained from the regression between genetic values and phenotype values. The multiplication between these values and coefficients is made using a matrix system (Resende & Higa, 1994a). According to Resende & Higa (1994b), selection based on MEI maximizes the genetic progress of a trait, regardless of the experimental structure.
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Ellen Grippi Lira1 Renato Fernando Amabile2 Marcelo Fagioli1 Ana Paula Leite Montalvão3

Ellen Grippi Lira1 Renato Fernando Amabile2 Marcelo Fagioli1 Ana Paula Leite Montalvão3

ABSTRACT: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an annual crop that stands out for its production of high quality oil and for an efficient selection, being necessary to estimate the components of genetic and phenotypic variance. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters, phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations and genetic variability on sunflower in the Brazilian Savannah, evaluating the characters grain yield (YIELD), days to start flowering (DFL) based on flowering date in R5, chapter length (CL), weight of a thousand achenes (WTA), plant height (H) and oil content (OilC) of 16 sunflower genotypes. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, situated at 15º 35’ 30”S latitude, 47º 42’ 30”W longitude and 1.007m above sea level, in soil classified as dystroferric Oxisol. The experimental design used was a complete randomized block with four replicates. The nature for the effects of genotypes and blocks was fixed. Except for the character chapter length, genetic variance was the main component of the phenotypic variance among the genotypes, indicating high genetic variability and experimental efficiency with proper environmental control. In absolute terms, the genetic correlations were superior to phenotypic and environmental. The high values reported for heritability and selective accuracy indicated efficiency of phenotypic selection. Results showed high genetic variability among genotypes, which may contribute to the genetic improvement of sunflower.
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Genetic and environmental variance and covariance parameters for some reproductive traits of Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia)

Genetic and environmental variance and covariance parameters for some reproductive traits of Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia)

ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic, phenotypic and environmental parameters for calving interval (CI), days open (DO), number of services per conception (NSC) and conception rate (CR) in Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia). Variance and covariance component estimates were obtained by an animal model that was solved using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method. The means and standard deviations for CI, DO, NSC and CR were: 430.32±77.93 days, 127.15±76.96 days, 1.58±1.03 services per conception and 79.88±28.66% in Holstein cattle, and 409.33±86.48 days, 125.62±86.09 days, 1.48±0.98 services per conception and 84.08±27.23% in Jersey cattle, respectively. The heritability estimates (standard errors) were: 0.088(0.037), 0.082(0.037), 0.040(0.025) and 0.030(0.026) in Holstein cattle and 0.072(0.098), 0.090(0.104), 0.093(0.097) and 0.147(0.117) in Jersey cattle, respectively. The results show that the genetic, phenotypic and permanent environmental correlations in the two evaluated breeds were favorable for CI × DO, CI × NSC and DO × NSC, but not for CI × CR, DO × CR and NSC × CR. Genetic and permanent environmental correlations were high in most cases in Holstein cattle, whereas in Jersey cattle they were moderate. In contrast, phenotypic correlations were very low in both breeds, except for CI × DO and NSC × CR, which were high. Overall, the genetic component found was very low (≤8%) in both evaluated breeds and this implies that their selection would take long time and that a good practical management of the herd will be essential in order to improve the reproductive performance.
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Consistency of the results of path analysis among sugarcane experiments

Consistency of the results of path analysis among sugarcane experiments

In the present study, the values obtained from the genetic and phenotypic correlations in the experiments of half-sib families were identical. However, in the experiments of full-sib families, the genetic and phenotypic correlations exhibited differences, although the values of these cor- relations were consistent. The data of full-sib families are unbalanced because the participation of the parents in the biparental crosses was not equitable, as observed in the pedigree used in the analysis. This imbalance has led to different precisions in prediction of the genotypic values, even with the use of the REML/BLUP procedure (Barbosa et al. 2004). Nevertheless, pedigree information in full-sib families has shown more accurate estimates of genetic parameters (Nunes et al. 2008, Atkin et al. 2009), indicating that under these conditions, the genetic correla- tions estimated by mixed models (REML/BLUP) are more precise that the correlations estimated by analysis of variance (Durel et al. 1998). As the experiments of half-sib families are balanced, the genetic and phenotypic correlations did
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Flowering traits in tetraploid Brachiaria ruzizien-

Flowering traits in tetraploid Brachiaria ruzizien-

Abstract: Tetraploid Brachiaria ruziziensis genotypes which reproduce sexually are essential for the breeding of other species of the Brachiaria genus which reproduce by apomixis. Aiming at studying the available phenotypic and genetic variability in the breeding population of B. ruziziensis, it was estimated the parameters heritability and genetic and phenotypic correlations between the traits associated with flowering, and the traits responsible for forage yield and nutritional quality. Seventeen traits in 1180 individuals from 59 open pollinated families were studied, and the data were analyzed by mixed model methods. Individuals with sparse flowering presented higher breeding values for total dry matter, yield, and total number of panicles per plant than individuals with early or late flowering. Considering breeding population differences on flowering behavior, on individual narrow sense heritability and on genetic correlations between flowering, agronomic quality and nutritional quality traits have to be considered in intrapopulation breeding and in intrapopulational recurrent selection.
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