Gestation and Lactation

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Origanum vulgare essential oil during mating, gestation and lactation

Origanum vulgare essential oil during mating, gestation and lactation

ABSTRACT: Despite the increasing use of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil for therapeutic purposes, pre- and postnatal development of animals offspring exposed to this oil has not yet been evaluated. In line with previous concerns of genotoxicity, in this study adult rats were exposed to different doses of oregano essential oil (3, 9 and 27% vol/vol) during pre-mating, mating, gestation and lactation. Prenatal screening included fetal development and uterine inspection, where the reproductive rate of females such as breeding, pregnancy, delivery, viability and post-implantation loss rate were measured. Postnatal evaluation of rat offspring included motor development, neuroendocrine and behavioral assessment. Body weight of rat dams and signs of dystocia were evaluated daily. Development of physic characteristics and reflex tests of puppies were also assessed. Additionally, these rats, when adults, were submitted to sexual and open field behavioral tests. The main differences among the groups were observed in the indices of mating, pregnancy and post-implantation loss (P<0.01). Results demonstrated that the treatment of parental generation with oregano essential oil has the potential to affect the developing fetuses at the highest dose used, but without causing maternal toxicity and changes in general behavior and development of the progeny.
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Oxidative state of ewes with different number of parity during gestation and lactation

Oxidative state of ewes with different number of parity during gestation and lactation

This study assessed four indicators of status oxidative. The first was Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), the main enzymatic antioxidant that catalyzes reduction of hydro- gen peroxide, helping to prevent oxidative damage (Ar- thur 2000). The second was vitamin C, which was assessed since it is believed that vitamin C synthesis in ruminants is sufficient to satisfy requirements, and for this reason, supplementation is not a common practice in sheep pro- duction systems. However, in camels, it has been found that this vitamin undergoes changes in concentration during gestation and lactation (Mohamed et al. 2011). The third and fourth indicators evaluated were the total antioxidant capacity and lipoperoxidation, which measure the antioxi- dant potential and oxidation of blood plasma, which reflect the oxidative status of the animal. It is therefore necessary to determine these changes during lactation and gestation and their relationship with other indicators of the animal’s oxidative status. Because ewes that have had different numbers of parturitions are found in a flock at different physiological states, it is necessary to determine whether the changes in oxidative state are also different. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to determine the changes in oxidative status during gestation and lactation of ewes with different number of parturitions and thus determine when sheep need to be supplemented with antioxidants.
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Adaptive changes in thyroid function of female rats fed a high-fat and low-protein diet during gestation and lactation

Adaptive changes in thyroid function of female rats fed a high-fat and low-protein diet during gestation and lactation

Many experimental studies with high-fat diets have been used to study the effects of their consumption during gestation and lac- tation on nutrient intake, growth and sur- vival of the pups. For the dams, the data are contradictory. The ingestion of a high- fat diet during gestation leads to a higher body weight gain by the mothers (14,16, 17). However, when this diet is given throughout gestation and lactation, the dams only maintain the body weight gained during pregnancy (14,17) or even suffer a large body weight loss (16). A high-fat diet seems to cause an increase in plasma triiodo- thyronine (T 3 ) levels in adult animals, sug-
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Lipid Overload During Gestation And Lactation Can Independently Alter Lipid Homeostasis In Offspring And Promote Metabolic Impairment After New Challenge To High-fat Diet

Lipid Overload During Gestation And Lactation Can Independently Alter Lipid Homeostasis In Offspring And Promote Metabolic Impairment After New Challenge To High-fat Diet

Given that we showed that excess maternal lipids at both gestational and lactation periods are independently able to alter hepatic miRNAs in newborn and recently weaned offspring, respectively, that may lead to impaired lipid metabolism, the next step was to investigate whether these modulation would persist into adult life. As shown here and previously, offspring exposed to ma- ternal HFD at gestation and lactation still present, at d82, increased body weight, adiposity, fasting glucose and fat accumulation within the liver. Interestingly, adult offspring from HFD-fed dam still shows decreased miR- 122 and increased miR-370 expression in the liver. These findings suggest that epigenetic modifications at pre and recent post-natal life are persistent. Thorn and col- leagues (2014) also showed that, in non-human primates, maternal insulin resistance induced by HFD consumption at developmental stages negatively and irreversible affects hepatic immune system and development of de novo lipo- genic pathways [60]. For these reasons, authors believes that exposure to excess maternal lipids at critical develop- ment periods may be considered the "first hit" for the pathogenesis of liver diseases [60, 61].
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Spectral changes of brain activity in rat offspring exposed to aluminium during gestation and lactation

Spectral changes of brain activity in rat offspring exposed to aluminium during gestation and lactation

Research, University of Belgrade. All animals were maintained in a 12 h light-dark cycle and a tem- perature-controlled (22-25°C) animal room. Female rats were placed in cages for time mating with males. After two days, during the gestation and lactation periods, each female rat (at the time – with offspring) was housed in a separate cage. There were two feeding regimens of the female rats: the control and with aluminium. Thus, the control animals were exposed ad libitum to food and drinking water while the aluminium-treated rats were exposed ad libitum to the usual food and a solution of 0.5% aluminium- chloride (AlCl 3 ·6H 2 O) in their drinking water. The
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Effects of feeding Bt maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and fate of transgenic material.

Effects of feeding Bt maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and fate of transgenic material.

An inflammatory response is also characterised by an increased white blood cell count and increased granulocytes and monocytes (which are both white blood cell types), representing the innate immune response. This is then followed by an increase in lymphocytes during the development of the adaptive immune response [36]. On the contrary, in the present study, the proportion of monocytes within the PBMC decreased on day 28 of lactation in response to feeding Bt maize, although this was not reflected in the findings for monocytes within whole blood. In fact, an increase in monocytes was observed during haematological analysis of Bt maize-fed sows during gestation. This could be explained by the higher body weight observed in these sows in the second half of gestation [34], as monocyte recruitment and increased cytokine production are known to be associated with an increase in body weight [47]. However, no differences in fat deposition or cytokine production were observed between treatments. Furthermore, monocyte counts remained within the normal range for pigs and this difference did not persist up to day 28 of lactation. While an increase in granulocyte percentage could be indicative of inflammation, in the present study we observed only a decrease in granulocyte percentage in whole blood for Bt maize-fed sows on day 110 of gestation, which was mirrored in the blood of offspring at birth. A lower abundance of the potentially pathogenic Proteobacteria observed in faeces of Bt maize-fed sows (Buzoianu et al., unpublished) may be the cause of the lower granulocytes and tendencies towards lower IL-8 and TNF-a observed in these sows, as Proteobacteria have been positively correlated with increased blood granulocytes and cytokine production [48,49]. Illness was not the reason for the treatment differences in immune cell populations observed in sows, as all animals were in good health, except for one sow in which immune parameters were unaffected (as outlined above). Likewise, the variability between animals on the same treatment was small, as evidenced by the confidence intervals. While no differences were observed for total white blood cell counts in sows fed Bt maize, a lower WBC# was observed in their offspring at birth. Only an increase in WBC# is associated with an allergic or inflammatory response. However, a higher LY% was observed at birth in the blood of offspring of Bt maize-fed sows and lymphocytes are a subset of white blood cells, but this was not mirrored in sows. The absence of the Cry1Ab protein in sow or foetal blood indicates that there was no contact between the Cry1Ab and the foetal immune
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The effects of maternal obesity during gestation and lactation and orange juice intake on the metabolic profile of male offspring exposed to control and obesogenic diets and breast cancer risk of female offspring

The effects of maternal obesity during gestation and lactation and orange juice intake on the metabolic profile of male offspring exposed to control and obesogenic diets and breast cancer risk of female offspring

Obesity is a worldwide public health problem and the main risk factor for a number of chronic diseases. Breast cancer is another worrisome disease: it is the leading cause of cancer amongst women and has an elevated mortality rate. Approximately 30 years ago, Barker and Trichopoulos suggested that cardiovascular disease and breast cancer, respectively, may be originated in utero. In subsequent years, studies proved both hypotheses correct. Understanding how in-utero environment can affect development of obesity and breast cancer in adulthood is key for preventing these diseases. Nutrition during gestation and lactation is considered a modifiable factor to impact in-utero environment. Orange juice (OJ) is an excellent source of bioactive compounds, including vitamin C and flavonoids, and reports suggests that intake of orange juice minimizes damaging effects of obesity. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the effects of maternal obesity during gestation and lactation and OJ intake on (a) metabolic profile of male offspring exposed to control and obesogenic diets and (b) breast cancer risk of female offspring. Four-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were assigned into three groups: control– fed a control diet and water ad libitum, obese– fed obesogenic diet and water ad libitum and obese+OJ– fed obesogenic diet and OJ. After three weeks on the diet, females were mated to control males. Male offspring from each group were weaned into control or obesogenic diets for 21 weeks. Female offspring was either euthanized for evaluation of mammary gland development or submitted to a chemically induced breast carcinogenesis protocol. Parameters to assess metabolism (as body composition and adipose tissue expression of obesity-related genes), breast cancer risk (as epithelial elongation and number of terminal end buds) and tumorigenesis (incidence, latency
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Association between gestation length and lactation performance, lactation curve, calf birth weight and dystocia in Holstein dairy cows in Iran

Association between gestation length and lactation performance, lactation curve, calf birth weight and dystocia in Holstein dairy cows in Iran

Factors affecting the parameters of lactation curve have been extensively investigated in dairy cattle (Hansen et al., 2006; Atashi et al., 2012). However, to our knowledge, this is the first report to document the association of gestation length and the parameters of the lactation curve in dairy cows. The cows with SGL had a lower yield at the beginning of lactation and higher inclining and declining slopes of the lactation curve than those with AGL or LGL. Within multiparous cows, peak yield in cows with SGL was lower than that in cows with AGL or LGL. In multiparous cows, there was a direct relationship between GL and the peak yield; longer the gestation length, more the peak yield. The average milk yield persistency in both primiparous and multiparous cows with SGL was higher than in those with AGL or LGL. Multiparous cows with a longer GL may have a longer dry period, which can result in a different lactation curve shape. Atashi et al. (2013) reported that shorter dry period (≤50 d) is associated with lower initial and peak yield, steeper inclining and declining slopes of the lactation curve, and higher milk persistency compared with a standard dry period (51-60 d).
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Induction of lactation in dairy heifers: milk production, inflammatory and metabolic aspects

Induction of lactation in dairy heifers: milk production, inflammatory and metabolic aspects

The acute phase proteins (APP) have been used as important inflammatory biomarkers in dairy cows during the transition period (Huzzey et al., 2011). In this study, induced heifers had higher (P< 0.05) PON1 activity compared to control in both moments (Figure 3). Pregnancy and parturition in dairy cows have a huge influence in the lipid metabolism and liver function, which increase the vulnerability to oxidative stress. Thereby, alterations in PON1 serum activity (involved in oxidative protection) could be used as a marker to detect diseases in cows during peripartum (Kulka et al., 2014). Higher PON1 levels in induced heifers, at pre-lactation period, indicated that the protocol did not induce an inflammatory condition in the animals. Low levels of PON1 activity for calving heifers during the prepartum period indicate that the gestation is more challenging for animals regarding the inflammatory status, than the lactation induction, and may be an indicator that pregnant animals are more likely to be affected by diseases than induced.
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High fat diet alters lactation outcomes: possible involvement of inflammatory and serotonergic pathways.

High fat diet alters lactation outcomes: possible involvement of inflammatory and serotonergic pathways.

myoepithelial cells in the mammary gland and its presence in breast cancer epithelial cells is typical of triple-negative breast tumors [36]. While animals consuming the HFD had greatly reduced milk yield on d 1 post-partum, they regain the ability to lactate for the remaining three days we measured milk volumes. Our results confirm studies in humans that demonstrate a delay in the onset of lactogenesis in obese women, but not a complete loss of the ability to lactate for the entire lactation cycle [6]. The fact that pups did not decrease in body weight on the first day of lactation is indicative of studies that demonstrate an increased body weight at birth in obese mothers [6,26–27]. Had dams not recovered their milk production after this date, we would have expected pup weights to decrease. This indicates that feeding of HFD is responsible for the deterioration of the alveolar units necessary for milk synthesis.
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Milk instability associated with milk composition and seasonal lactation in grazing dairy cows

Milk instability associated with milk composition and seasonal lactation in grazing dairy cows

Abstract – The aim of this work was to characterize dairy herds which presented positive result for alcohol test in milk showing no acidity; and to compare them to a dairy herd with negative result for same test, considering the seasonal effect. Four dairy milk herds were studied (three positives to alcohol test and one with negative result). Milk samples were collected during 3 months in winter season (season 1) and 3 months in summer lactation (season 2) for 2 years. A subsample of the diets were prepared and submitted to proximal analysis for ME content, Ca, P, Mg and K. Milk subsamples were analyzed for protein, lactose, Ca, Mg, P, pH, alcohol test, titratable acidity and proteasic activity. In cases negative to alcohol test, a high correlation index with milk crude protein, diet crude protein, milk phosphorus and lactose were observed. Dairy herds positive to alcohol test were highly correlated with lower dry matter content and a high content of crude fiber, besides these herds presented lower milk protein concentration. It was possible to notice an effect of feeding management in the instability of the milk. Summer’s lactations under feeding stress condition would present milk instability.
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Gestation diagnostic in Capra hircus, through histological and cytological analysis of the vaginal epithelium

Gestation diagnostic in Capra hircus, through histological and cytological analysis of the vaginal epithelium

The present research was developed in order to try a method of pregnancy diagnosis in goats, through the differentiable characteristics of the vaginal epithelium. A total of 55 goats were used. Materials for histologic and cytologic examination were taken from the anterior region of the vagina with a 10-day interval, initiating by day 20 until day 90 after mating. Biopsies were processed using standard techniques and stained with H.E. and PAS. Vaginal smears were stained by PAPANICOLAOU’s technique. During pregnancy, the epithelium was recorded as immature, being composed of 4 to 5-cell layers, with parabasal or low intermediate cells on the surface. The non-pregnant epithelium was composed of 8 to 10 cell-layers, showing high intermediate or superficial cells on the surface. This difference allowed to diagnose pregnancy and non- pregnancy status. Vaginal smears showed low intermediate, parabasal and cuboidal cells for both pregnant and non-pregnant groups.
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Milk composition and blood metabolic profile from holstein cows at different calving orders and lactation stages

Milk composition and blood metabolic profile from holstein cows at different calving orders and lactation stages

ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate milk composition and metabolic profile of Holstein cows at different calving orders in the beginning, middle, and end of lactation. One hundred ten Holstein cows were housed in a free stall system receiving the same diet and were grouped according to calving order (first, second, third, and fourth calving) and days in milk (DIM): early (1-90 DIM), middle (91-180 DIM), and end of lactation (over 181 DIM) for comparing milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolic profile between the calving orders within the same lactation period. These parameters were also evaluated between lactation periods of the cows in different calving orders. The calving order, in any lactation stage, had no influence on milk yield per day and blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows receiving the same diet. However, calving order in all stages of lactation influenced milk composition. The first, second, third, and fourth calving order had no effect on the blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows, in any lactation stage. On the other hand, the different stages of lactation influenced milk yield and milk composition of Holstein cows. Keywords: biochemical profile, lactation period, milk quality.
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Growth and energy and protein intake of preterm newborns in the first year of gestation-corrected age

Growth and energy and protein intake of preterm newborns in the first year of gestation-corrected age

percentiles towards lower ranges with increas- ing age. However, at 12 months of gestation- corrected age, the median percentiles for the brachial perimeter, triceps skinfolds and sub- scapular skinfold showed that there was an improvement in muscle mass and less fat depo- sition. Similar results have been reported, and two hypotheses have been suggested in order to explain this type of result. The first is that the lack of fat deposition may be due to the high energy cost for the accretion of this nutri- ent. The second is that these children may not be able to ingest caloric quantities beyond their basal needs for maintenance, which is an in- take insufficient to allow fat deposition. For this, their maintenance needs would be increased or there would be excessive caloric loss in feces. 38
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Estimates of correction factors for lactation length and genetic parameters for milk yield in buffaloes

Estimates of correction factors for lactation length and genetic parameters for milk yield in buffaloes

The multiplicative correction factors for the different classes of lactation lengths were efficient for the adjustment of milk yield at 90, 240, 270 and 305 days of lactation. The heritability estimates for the four corrected productions were low, indicating that the perspectives of genetic gain by selection are low. The genetic correlations between productions were high; thus, by selecting for any period of production, the breeder will be selecting for all the remaining ones. The repeatability estimates were medium to high, indicating that the future performance of cows can be predicted from past performance.
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Composition of milk and mammary gland health in Criollo breed mares during lactation

Composition of milk and mammary gland health in Criollo breed mares during lactation

The aim of this study was to evaluate the components of milk and mammary gland health of Criollo mares. A total of 12 mares coming from a farm in southern Brazil were used. Samples of milk were taken from each mare every two weeks up to 180 days of lactation. The characteristics analyzed were fat, protein, lactose, total solids, somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC). In relation to the health of the udder and the milk of the mares, the SCC was 24.1 x 10 3 cells / ml and TBC was 44 x 10 3 CFU / ml, while the average of milk components was 0.57% fat, 1.95% protein, 6.71% lactose and 9.24% total solids. Stage of lactation and individual characteristics may influence the level of milk components. The low SCC and TBC found in the Criollo breed mares’ milk ensure the quality of their milk compared to other species.
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Milk instability associated with milk composition and seasonal lactation in grazing dairy cows

Milk instability associated with milk composition and seasonal lactation in grazing dairy cows

Abstract – The aim of this work was to characterize dairy herds which presented positive result for alcohol test in milk showing no acidity; and to compare them to a dairy herd with negative result for same test, considering the seasonal effect. Four dairy milk herds were studied (three positives to alcohol test and one with negative result). Milk samples were collected during 3 months in winter season (season 1) and 3 months in summer lactation (season 2) for 2 years. A subsample of the diets were prepared and submitted to proximal analysis for ME content, Ca, P, Mg and K. Milk subsamples were analyzed for protein, lactose, Ca, Mg, P, pH, alcohol test, titratable acidity and proteasic activity. In cases negative to alcohol test, a high correlation index with milk crude protein, diet crude protein, milk phosphorus and lactose were observed. Dairy herds positive to alcohol test were highly correlated with lower dry matter content and a high content of crude fiber, besides these herds presented lower milk protein concentration. It was possible to notice an effect of feeding management in the instability of the milk. Summer’s lactations under feeding stress condition would present milk instability.
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Effect of Gestation and Maternal Copper on the Fetal Fluids and Tissues Copper Concentrations in Sheep

Effect of Gestation and Maternal Copper on the Fetal Fluids and Tissues Copper Concentrations in Sheep

Pregnancy is a period of rapid growth and cell differentiation for both the mother and fetus. Consequently, it is a period when both are vulnerable to changes in dietary supply, especially of those nutrients that are marginal under normal circumstances (Gambling and McArdle, 2004). Each fetus is completely dependent on its dam via the placenta for its supply of essential trace elements (Abdelrahman and Kincaid, 1993). Copper is often one of the most limiting trace elements for the fetus and neonate for normal development. Deficiency of this element impairs fetal growth and can cause death (Mertz and Underwood, 1987). Calves normally are born with liver
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Pairs seen by lactation consultants and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month

Pairs seen by lactation consultants and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month

There may have been some recall bias regarding the introduction of other fluids and pacifiers, as well as infor- mation bias, since the use of formula during hospitalization was informed by the mothers in the first telephone contact after discharge, in the fifteenth day of the child’s life, that is, the information was not collected directly from the medical record. The fact that the variable skin color was presented in the collection form as “white” and “nonwhite” is also a limitation of the study, since women with non-white skin color were not adequately characterized.
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DISSERTAÇÃO_Effect of lactation stage on quantitative aspects of digestion and physiology of beef cows

DISSERTAÇÃO_Effect of lactation stage on quantitative aspects of digestion and physiology of beef cows

However, increases in passage rate are related to decreasing in the digestion rate (Okine and Mathison, 1991). The observed greater digesta passage rate and lower digestion rate in LA group than NLA group between DIM10 to DIM35 explain in part, the increase (from 28% to 56%) in DMI difference by LA compared to NLA group, respectively. Increased digesta passage rates and shorter digesta residence times in the gut are characteristic of high DMI and are associated with low digesta digestibility (Moe et al., 1965; Colucci et al., 1982; Edionwe and Owen, 1989). Higher digesta passage observed for LA group compared to NLA group at early lactation is associated with also higher digesta outflow in these animals (Table 7). This can be a mechanism used to increase intake given that restricted flow may result in distention of one or more segments of the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in decreased intake (Allen, 1996). Means by which changes in digesta digestibility and passage rate in lactating cows occur are still lacking, however, seem to be associated with eating behavior (Aikman et al., 2008). Deswysen et al. (1987) suggested that mastication and rumination time per kg of DM decrease with increased intake and may contribute to decreased DM digestibility (DMD). Thus, in early lactation the increase in digesta passage rate showed be part of homeostatic mechanisms to compensate for intake limitations in this period, despite relative loss of digestibility.
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