This study aims to analyze how school calendar impacts students’ effort when studying for end of year exams and how it impacts score in the Brazilian HighSchoolNationalExam (Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio – ENEM). It was verified that cities with more holidays have less students studying during these dates. When the ENEM approaches, this effect is even greater. Cities with more holidays close to the exam are associated with lower scores. Using two-sample instrumental variable and considering the hypothesis that holidays impact the ENEM score exclusively by students’ effort, it can be inferred that more studying effort prior to the exam can lead to a higher score.
This paper aims to analyse understanding of the concept of contextualization in Science teaching implicit in questions for the ENEM, from the perspective of those involved in creating theoretical and methodological texts for this exam, and with the intention of drawing attention to support frameworks for teaching practice and pedagogical and curricular considerations in Science teaching and evaluative processes. To this end, five semi-structured interviews on the theme were conducted with educators connected with the field of the Natural Sciences and Mathematics and involved with the ENEM, and were analysed guided by the precepts of Text Discourse Analysis. Based on this analysis there appears to be a need to go beyond perspectives that reduce the context to a pretext of purely conceptual approaches and ideas that limit the context merely to aspects of the students’ environs. However, there are also possibilities that emerge for a contextualized approach connected to using historical perspectives and a multiplicity of contexts.
This work had as main objective to observe the existing differences between the performance of Brazilian public and private schools in the main program of access to higher education in the country, the ENEM, based on the sociology developed by Pierre Bourdieu. Qualitative (Deslauriers, 1991) and quantitative (Fonseca, 2002) research were adopted as methodology, and data were collected based on information presented by INEP regarding the results of schools at ENEM, specifically in 2017. As contributions theorists use the sociology presented by Bourdieu in the book Reproduction (1970), which in general states that the school is an institution that legitimizes inequalities by disregarding factors such as family and cultural heritage in the analysis of educational problems. The results of the survey reinforce the gap between public and private schools, with nine out of ten schools with the best performance of a private nature. Another relevant fact is that 90% of the best schools in terms of income are concentrated in the southeast region. The gap between income increases the influence of economic, social and cultural issues on the good academic performance of students, dialoguing in such a way with Bourdieu's thinking.
Aiming at checking the sensibility of our results we perform two additional exercises. The first is based on the construction of a different panel with more observations. As detailed in section 3, we can only link individuals in ENEM through their unique student identification, and this student ID is absent for at least 30% of the individuals in ENEM’s dataset. We can use an alternative strategy that avoids this specific losing data mechanism. In ENEM’s registration, students may inform the school they belong and also their status: such as completing or not completing highschool at the end of the year. With this information we can use ENEM’s information in the last year of each intervention (2012 and 2010) and track senior highschool students that belong to the schools participating in the experiment. This procedure allows us to identify more than 27,000 students, among which 19,675 (or 72.2%) are selected. We are increasing the number of observations but losing the initial treatment list in the freshman years in highschool. The results are qualitatively the same and are displayed in the appendix D. It is worth to highlight how the overall effect in college attendance is very similar: 3.4 pp instead of 3.5 pp in the benchmarking dataset.
Abstract The application of the Late Acceptance Hill- Climbing (LAHC) to solve the HighSchool Timetabling Problem is the subject of this manuscript. The original algo- rithm and two variants proposed here are tested jointly with other state-of-art methods to solve the instances proposed in the Third International Timetabling Competition. Following the same rules of the competition, the LAHC-based algo- rithms noticeably outperformed the winning methods. These results, and reports from the literature, suggest that the LAHC is a reliable method that can compete with the most employed local search algorithms.
Results: There were significant differences in the proportion of candidates coming from each National Medical School attending the Exame Nacional de Seriação, and minor but significant discrepancies in their classification. The percentage of international medical graduates increased to 15% in the last two years. Candidates’ gender, nationality (Portuguese or other), year of exam, graduating medi- cal school and final graduating classification had a significant relation with ENS score, explaining 39% of Exame Nacional de Seriação’ variance. Final graduating classification was the single most predictive variable, which correlation with Exame Nacional de Seriação’ score varied between .679 and .586 across Portuguese Medical Schools, but was weak among candidates graduated abroad. Conclusion: Pregraduate training (Final Graduating Classification and Medical School) is related to Exame Nacional de Seriação’ score, particularly among national graduates. This data might be relevant to understand the impact of the changes on Exame Nacional de Seriação about to be implemented.
Within the limits of the institutionalization of the National Program for the Strengthening of Family Agriculture (PRONAF) and the NationalSchool Feeding Program (PNAE) in Camboriú, the main objective of this work was to identify the possible causes that made public calls annually in that municipality "Desert act" by local farmers or cooperatives. The methodology applied in the present research consists of a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical research, in order to obtain the necessary data for the accomplishment of the objectives of the same one, where interviews were realized with different social actors that work directly with the institutionalization of the PNAE and PRONAF, as well as agencies that are directly linked to farmers. The interviews reveal that the agents linked to the functioning of the PNAE and the PRONAF are knowledgeable about the subject and execute the legislation pertinent to each of these programs. On the other hand, the agents directly linked to the farmers showed to know the subject and problematization of this research, however they did not reveal to develop any action that could reverse the picture of the absence of farmers in the public calls.
The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans document (www.health.gov/paguidelines/pdf/paguide.pdf) by the US federal authorities contains developed and systematized guidelines on the types and amounts of physical activity, which might significantly improve the health of the American citizens aged 6 and more. The main assumption of the publication is that regular physical activity stretching over months and years will bring significant health benefits to society. Key Guidelines for Children and Adolescents contained in the document point to the necessity of doing at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day. The proposed activities increasing oxygen uptake include swimming. Because of their advantages for the health, swimming lessons take place as compulsory physical education classes in almost all European countries. It has been established that swimming lessons are marked by higher intensity compared to typical PE classes . What is more, the physical properties of water are conducive to exercises correcting posture. Doing those exercises seems to be necessary during physical education at school, as increasing numbers of children and teenagers suffer from posture defects [8,9]. But due to the limited number of appropriate facilities, PE classes at the swimming pool cannot be as widespread and accessible as for example lessons at the gym or the school’s sports field. That is why students attending lessons of this sort are privileged in a way, because apart from traditional PE classes containing elements of gymnastics, athletics and team sports, they are provided with the possibility of movement in water.
However it is surprising that in the case of concepts related to matter components, this approach usually stops at the end of the 19th century or, luckily, at the beginning of the 20th century, ignoring the current picture provided by the Standard Model of Particle Physics [2, 3]. Moreover, modern concepts, when not ignored, appear disaggregated from the teaching sequence, isolated and incomplete, which brings even more confusion . The aim of a second- ary school level cannot be to provide a deep understanding of all complex new physics ideas, but to introduce some of them. There is no curricular or educational argument against it. On the contrary, studies suggest that presenting updated physics concepts improves learning and increases the interest towards science [4–9]. The Spanish P&Ch Curriculum includes concepts a11111
This work presents the application of Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) based algorithms to the HighSchool Timetabling Problem. The addressed model of the problem was proposed by the Third International Timetabling Competition (ITC 2011), which released many instances from educational institutions around the world and attracted 17 competitors. Some of the VNS algorithm variants were able to outperform the winner of Third ITC solver, which proposed a Simulated Annealing – Iterated local Search approach. This result coupled with another reports in the literature points that VNS based algorithms are a practical solution method for providing high quality solutions for some hard timetabling problems. Moreover they are easy to implement with few parameters to adjust.
The population of the study consisted of all students enrolled in the school, making a total of 358 individuals. The sample consisted of 200 highschool students from that school, aged 13 to 24 years old and belonging to the male and female gender. It should be noted that the total number of individuals that composed the sample was selected from the criteria for inclusion and exclusion of the present study.
. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dL, glycated hemoglo- bin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%, or current treatment with oral antidiabetes drugs or insulin . Prediabetes was defined as FPG between 100 and 125 mg/dL or an HbA1c of 5.7% to 6.4% and no diag- nosis of diabetes . Hyperglycemia was diagnosed if the pa- tient had diabetes, used hypoglycemic agents, or had a FPG ≥ 100 mg/dL or an HbA1c level ≥5.7%. Hypertension was diag- nosed according to a systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg, dia- stolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg, or the use of antihyperten- sive medications . Dyslipidemia was defined as a serum to- tal cholesterol level ≥240 mg/dL, triglyceride level ≥150 mg/dL, low serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (<40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women), or the use of lipid-lowering agents .
This study was designated the Adere Study in order to facilitate communication among the researchers. The present study was approved by the Ethics in Research Committee of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, pursuant to the National Health Council Resolution 345/05. The collaborating physicians were selected because they were considered compliant with the Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice. (17-18) All patients gave
яe la Peña гнллнд demonstrated that плйр % of the students at the Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM), are not competent in mathematicsц In that same senseз Velázquez (2008), remarks that in a mean average of the Management students at the Autonomous University of Chihuahua (76 %) counted with the abilities to solve mathematics problems. On the other hand, Sosa (2009), expressed that a high percentage (90 %) of the students at the Faculty of ьccounting and Management of the ьutonomous University of san Luis Potosíз UьSLPз showed a lack of basic knowledge on mathematics and Gómez гнллфдз explained that the students of the Universidad Veracruzana, Coatzacoalcos Campus, also showed failures in this field.
18 A first objection to the Dutch proposal was the fear that a HCNM would stir up tensions: minorities would be “rewarded” by international attention if they would use more drastic or even violent means to have their problems addressed. As a matter of fact, this objection was very serious, as its proponents were of the opinion that the creation of a HCNM would result in the opposite effect, i.e. escalation instead of de- escalation of tensions. This objection finally was addressed in the mandate by the so- called “confidentiality” clause 4 as well as in the provision that HCNM should get involved in minority problems “at the earliest possible stage”. 5 Although practice over the past twenty years has shown that this fear was largely ungrounded, the argument is still being used sometimes as criticism of HCNM involvement. In 2012, for instance, some members of the Ukrainian parliament accused the HCNM of stirring up problems in the country through his recommendations on the language law. 6 Second, in Helsinki the CSCE participating States again did not succeed in finding consensus on a definition of what constitutes a “(national) minority”. This had kept parties divided already in 1991, when a CSCE expert meeting on national minorities took place in Geneva. The result was that the CSCE participating States decided to establish a High Commissioner on National Minorities without even the semblance of a definition. The differences between participating States were (and are) too large for a compromise. In this regard the C/OSCE is no exception in comparison with all other international organizations that are involved in national minority issues and none of which was able to achieve a legally-binding definition. Having no definition, however, allows the High Commissioner to act more flexibly than he would have been able to with a definition which would have been characterized by some serious limitations. So, from a point of view of conflict prevention, the lack of a definition is not necessarily a negative issue.
pedagogical work and interventions considered by them as innovators. However, in these narratives, the perception appears that perhaps “in the school itself, it is not possible to do so”. The difficulties demonstrated by both the experienced teacher and the beginner, lead us to defend a radical reform in schools, deconstructing spaces and times. Curriculum policymakers need to take into account that narratives that oscillate between interdisciplinarity and polyvalence are not promising for the production of this powerful knowledge in school. The specificities of the academic fields, be they scientific, literary or artistic, are the elements that will bring young people the re-reading of their daily life. Teachers will always play a significant role in producing this knowledge. On the other hand, even considering the importance of teaching disciplinary training, it is necessary to break with a highly classified and framed curriculum. HighSchool, as well as the final years of Elementary School, are traditionally instituted in the daily life of the school with classes lasting between 45 and 50 minutes, assigned to different school subjects. This disciplinary organisation is the most powerful symbolic mark of the curriculum blending because, from time to time, classes from different school subjects are developed.
In contrast with the fact that federal resources must be used only for food purchasing, the school resources are not used to fund any part of the schools’ food bill. If needed, the counterpart transfer must complement the federal resources to afford the food expenses, but it is also commonly used for other costs related to the entire process of student feeding, such as food transportation, food preparation, human resources with food production and managerial staff, among others. Thus, for the sake of illustration, dividing the PNAE cost structure roughly into two major parts, namely Food and Infra-Structure & Other Inputs, Figure 3 below illustrated the distribution of each resource type among the two cost categories.