There are clear signals of the influence of the market in the highereducation sector (Dill, 2003; Kwiek, 2003; McGuiness, 1997). McGuiness (1997, 341), in a comparison study between Europe and the USA, defends that there are clear trends for the “[…] increased reliance on market forces to direct the system.” This holds true in the USA, as well as Europe. Other authors consider that, at least in Europe, the situation is still a far cry from a real highereducation market. For instance, Trow (1996, 310) declares, “[...] an element of market links can be found in most American institutions, though concealed or obscured by other kinds of linkages. Markets are still a relatively minor factor in Europe, which on the whole does not provide a market for highereducation, and whose governments rather dislike the idea of a market for highereducation and its potential effects on quality and status.” Even in the case of the UK where Margaret Thatcher has introduced ingredients of “market” rhetoric – value for money, efficiency gains, students as customers – Trow (ibid) considers that: “[...] government in the UK employs the rhetoric of the market in connection with highereducation, but since government controls the price universities can place on their services, and the amount and variety of services they can sell, universities currently operate not in a market but in something like a command economy.”
ABSTRACT: This paper looks into distance highereducation (DHE) in Portugal and aims to devise an alternative strategy for its development. The proposed strategy results from a thorough analysis of DHE, preceded by a general appraisal of highereducation (HE) and of the country itself, through which the following key conclusions were reached: as a consequence of timid or unsuccessful initiatives led by traditional universities, DHE in Portugal almost coincides with Universidade Aberta (UAb, the open university); amongst the challenges that HE faces, DHE represents a window of opportunities; by repeatedly putting off structural reforms, the country is currently experiencing one of the most dramatic moments in its history. As an alternative to continuity, namely HE institutions following independent paths, coopetition stands out as a more beneficial route as it would be able to bring alignment and to gener- ate synergies. A disruptive strategy in which UAb plays a central role is thus pro- posed.
Nowadays, entrepreneurship becomes a buzzword present in all contexts, from politicians to media and from academia do business people. Despite fashionable trend, we cannot ignore the relevance of entrepreneurship for economic development, including economic growth job creation, innovation (Acs and Armigton, 2003; Autio et al, 2007; Carree and Thurik, 1998) as well as for social inclusion, allowing marginal groups to become active economic actors and promoting equal opportunities for women (Volkmann et al, 2009). The relationship of entrepreneurship and economic development it is complex and implies strong and diverse connections and linkages across several institutional players (Bosma et al, 2009). In this vein, the promotion of entrepreneurship demands an entrepreneurial ecosystem where HigherEducation Institutions (HEI) plays a crucial position in collaboration with other stakeholders, namely governments (central and local), business associations, entrepreneurs, NGO, service providers, financial institutions, incubators, and several others.
The dropout or evasion rates in highereducation are now a social and institutional concern, justifying the implementation of public policies to prevent this phenomenon. These policies need studies on the most determinant variables of the risk of dropout. The main objective of this study is to analyze the student’s persistence in undergraduate courses, and the relationship with the student’s previous school trajectory and with the conditions of entrance into highereducation, controlling for students’ sociodemographic characteristics, such as gender and age. We applied multilevel logistic regression models to data of 2.697 freshmen enrolled in a Portuguese public university in the academic year 2015/16. The results suggest that failure in basic education (ISCED 2) has a long-term effect. According to the estimates obtained, students who declare not having failed in basic education have odds ratio of persistence 2.7 times higher than students who declare having failed in basic education. The conditions of student’s admission to the course he/she attends are relevant variables to persistence in HigherEducation, for example, whether s/he was admitted to her/his first option course and the student’s university entrance score. The results also show that older and male students have lower probability of persistence.
It is evident that the works, presented in Table 2, refer specifi- cally to the evaluation of highereducation access policies, geared to gov- ernment programs, focusing on specific realities, courses and institutions or social groups, not allowing the extension of the conclusions to the real- ity of the country. This is a common situation in research on the subject, already mentioned by Souza (2003), which refers to the abundance of sec- torial studies, and many of these case studies. Another aspect to highlight is that most studies are dissertations that have a very limited research period, preventing large-scale studies.
Nevertheless, currently it is not known the state of art of the utilization of these systems in HigherEducation. According to TDWI (2007), a large number of universities do not embrace BI concepts, due to scope barriers and the complexity of the initiative to make possible to manage so many different needs. There was a great need to conduct a study to comprehend at what level of maturity they are. In order to answer this question, a survey was led in the context of an international project done by the Business Intelligence Task Force (BI Task Force) of EUNIS – the European University Information Systems organization. This organization aims to improve the cooperation and exchange of good practices between BI practitioners in HigherEducation all over Europe. The BI Task Force wanted to collect a big picture of BI systems in institutions, so it decided to start a project in order to make an initial assessment of the maturity of BI systems in European HEIs, including Portugal. A survey was created and it was active during 2013. The initial results were presented at the Terena Networking Conference 2014, in Dublin (Ireland). Across the different countries (including Portugal), there seems to be a lack of understanding about the used concepts, and consequently the conditions required to develop a successful BI solution might be insufficient. A BI program is a challenging effort that requires a strong level of commitment from the executive management, continuous funding, and other critical success factors that need to be in place in the organization. Clarifying the subjacent concepts is crucial to start a successful BI journey.
Consequently, traditional HEIs are under pressure and need to adapt and change to become hosts and catalysts of adequate higher learning in this century. All this being said, new models of HESPs are called for, building on, reorganising, extending and transcending current structures and practices of highereducation, models that embrace dialogical, plural and integrative practices regarding the worldwide quest for knowledge, wisdom and appropriate practice in midst of turmoil, breakdowns and difficult to track new emergent patterns. HESPs inspired by ILAs can and should play a substantial role in this transformation. Until today, however, the (although limited) institutionalised offers in the USA are not equalled by anything comparable in the upcoming European HigherEducation Area (EHEA). Both areas of highereducation show up with a comparable number of students and HEIs. They are the two largest ones in the world, 7 and the hosts for the largest proportions of all international students worldwide. Given that many of the historical lead figures of ILAs are Europeans or learned from Europeans there is one more good reason to push the development of HESPs inspired by ILAs in the EHEA. The goal then is to reach levels of program implementation corresponding to the existing potential in terms of academic teachers and students already now inspired by or interested in ILAs, but lacking academic contexts resonating with their aspirations and vocations. For this to happen the pervasive strategies of curriculum design and organisational set-up of new HESPs need to be rethought and refocused. As a requirement, the new conditions for running HESPs, generalising with the realisation of the EHEA, have to be considered thoroughly as they are partly a barrier and partly a potential vector for creating more integral approaches to HigherEducation in Europe. On this basis innovative models can emerge in the interstices of the long-standing and inert structures and practices of highereducation, hopefully anticipating and exemplifying a more general transformation.
HigherEducation Institutions are complex organizations. Although being autonomous, they have to perform an amount of functions and develop a variety of procedures, so as to ensure the fulfillment of its duties, which inevitably raise constant challenges. The amount of functions they perform and the variety of procedures they develop under its autonomy to ensure the fulfillment of its duties, raise constant challenges to management and administration at different levels. The difficulties on the procedure systematization and on the analysis, evaluation, and optimization of workflows bring problems not only to management itself, but also to information systems design.
Regarding Integration Policies between Health, Education, Science and Technology there was a significant number of publications addressing the education geared to health policies. In Brazil, it happens due to the fact the changes - starting with the context of Brazilian Sanitary Reform (1988), reformulation of the National Educational Guidelines and Framework Law (LDB) (1996), debates and development of the National Curriculum Guidelines (DCN) (2001) - led to a growing movement of re- formulating and restructuring curriculum of highereducation courses in health and nursing. So, the HigherEducation Institu- tions (HEI) started concerning to know if the nurse education was in accordance with the DCNs and the policies of SUS, as well as with real situations, imposed by the population’s needs and the health management.
This general aim was implemented through youth-related sub-programmes (Comenius), highereducation (Erasmus), vocational training (Leonardo da Vinci) and adult learning (Grundtvig). Today, the EU has incorporated all these sub-programmes into the Erasmus+ programme (EC, 2014). In terms of adult learning, the main aims of this program include the modernisation and improvement of adult learning through cooperation with other sectors, the recognition of non-formal and informal education, and quality assurance. To achieve these aims, the following three key actions were defined: staff mobility; strategic partnership and policy reform. Key activities were also established for each of these major actions, among which:
Chapter I refers only to the 1 st round of the National Competition for University Admissions. First, we present the data on the public highereducation university institutions, aiming at rating the University of Porto in the national context. Our analysis – with the numbers shown first in a table and then in a chart – focuses on:
The use of games for learning in highereducation aims to make complex theoretical knowledge more accessible, providing the means for students to repeat and simulate situations that may lead to a more in-depth learning. Based on the possibility of fantasy, challenge and curiosity that characterizes games, the online game Internal Force Master (IFM) is an educational game software specifically designed and developed for the study of Civil Engineering . It was developed in Macromedia Flash and made available to master level students. The authors concluded that the learning result of the playing group is at least equivalent to the group who learned using the traditional method. Moreover, they also state that gambling can be a new, modern and also useful learning method.
service priorities, since it is essential to focus on learning at the time when contraceptive routines are established in order to avoid discontinuation and prevent sexual risk behaviors. SRH policies should include the implementation of universal prevention campaigns for highereducation students address- ing topics such as responsible sexuality, contraception and safe sex practices. Sexual education strategies, in turn, should be complemented by the dissemination and availability of SRH services, which should appropriate to the real needs of this group and to both genders. Nurses, because of their proximity to the communities and the type of competencies they have, can play a fundamental role in the design and implementation of these strategies.
The concepts of “market segmentation”, “targeting” and “positioning” are major functions of marketing and market research, and if applied properly, could significantly contribute to the achievement of institutional goals. Progressively, marketing has become an instrumental managerial function to the survival of a university in an increasing competitive environment, given that it is no longer enough for a highereducation institution to be effective, it needs to also have an effective image for parents and other stakeholders (Oplatka, Foskett and Hemsley-Brown, 2002). As Kotler, Kartajaya and Setiawan (2010) show, marketing has witnessed a transition from a product-centric vertical view (Marketing 1.0) to being consumer-centric (Marketing 2.0), and is now entering a new stage of “human-centricity” (Marketing 3.0), trying to reach all stakeholders, by cultivating the values they consider to be important, like public service or sustainability.
he second suspect provision of the Rules is Article 2(2). his provision speciies that, in order to establish a private HEE, a bank collateral must be en- sured. he purpose of the collateral is to compensate students in the case of the discontinuation of activities. he beneiciary of the collateral is the HEE with whom the accreditation-seeking HEE has entered into a contract. It is impos- sible to overlook the fact that a similar provision of Greek law prompted the European Commission to address a formal notice to Greece, seeking repeal of the rule. he Croatian norm does not specify the amount of the collateral, but it is clear that the amount must be agreed upon with the “already accred- ited HEE”, that is, with a direct competitor on the market of highereducation services. Furthermore, the formal notice addressed to Greece reveals the Com- mission’s position that mandatory minimum academic requirements for pro- fessors teaching at the HEE established in other Member States, as well as their obligation to register in the registry of HE professors, is in breach of EU law. he Croatian Drat HigherEducation Act also provides for minimum require- ments, and is applicable without making a distinction between public and pri- vate HEEs. Similar to Greek legislation, the Croatian Drat Act does not take into account conditions that such professors have already fulilled in another Member State. 29
According to Eurostat, in 2015 women were representing 54,1% of all highereducation students in the EU-28. This percentage was slightly higher in the master degree (57,1%) and a little lower in the bachelor degree (53,2%) and in the short duration programmes (52,1%). However, the majority of PhD students are men (52,2%). Almost a third (32,2%) of all the highereducation students were enrolled in social sciences, journalism, information, management, administration or law. There were more women than men in these programmes (57,6%). The second most common study area was engineering, industry and construction, representing 15,8% of all students in highereducation. In this area, 74% of the students were men. Health and social studies represented a percentage of 13,1% of all students, of which 71,9% were women. Also, education had 77,8% of women.
according to Schachter (1959, quoted by Ellsworth, 2004), in a stressful situation, an individual often seeks the company of others. It is likely that the hazee would bind ties with his companions who have gone through the same ordeal. Since veterans were once newcomers, and veterans always remind newcomer hazing is not personal (Cimino, 2013a), it is slightly possible that after getting their memberships, individuals feel closer to their former tormentors. Some other confusing and stressful situations with strong authority figures met similar ends. As an example we could point the training of a pet, or even the relationship between parents and their childen. Indeed, as stated by Keating, Pomerantz, Pommer, Ritt, Miller, McCormick (2005), when punishment and reward come from the same source, it facilitates social dependency. The authors gave examples, such as situations where fear and relief are involved, which tends to promote social compliance from the target (Dolinski, Ciszek, Godlewski, and Zawadzki, 2002), and to enhance conformity, because acceptance relieves from distress (Galanter, 1999). From another perspective, the situation might explain the fact that a newcomer does not act against hazing practices. We know that in any given situation, social cues are crucial for an individual's behavior (Conger, Conger, Costanzo, Wright, and Matter, 1980). During a hazing activity, not noticing any rebellions from their social environment could induce a passive behavior among newcomers. Further, in the context of highereducation, the newcomer does not only face a group but the history and traditions of said group (Ellsworth, 2004). If we refer to authority theories, the status of veteran and the – sometimes long – story of a group may cause compliance within the newcomer. Previous researches such as Milgram's (1974) remind us how eager to obey humans can be. As a reminder, Milgram proved that
Taking this scenario, this paper has three main purposes. Primarily, we want to characterize the courses dealing with entrepreneurship in Portuguese HigherEducation system. To accomplish this goal, an internet search was performed to identify all possible courses related with entrepreneurship in Management Degrees available at Public Universities. Additionally, Post-Graduated degrees devoted to Entrepreneurship will deserve same attention. Besides this characterization, it is crucial to look at expectations that authorities have about entrepreneurship education in Universities. This was done through a content analysis of Public Reports produced by External Committees of HigherEducation Performance Assessment. Secondly, and shifting from a macro to a micro level, latent entrepreneurship in highereducation students was assessed, as well as their main determinants and constraints, based on a survey, and complemented with suggestions from a focus group. Finally, some recommendations are made.
Abstract: The majority of current disciplines in Brazilian HigherEducation is still rooted in the content-based-tradition concept, not being adapted to the expectations of interdisciplinary fields. The aim of this article is to deepen the reflection about the necessary education in contemporaneity, and to offer a real example analysis of the kind of education we understand as such. The approach’s main characteristics were dialogicity, the procedural construction of content, the inclusion of the dimensions of research and extension in education, and the formative assessment. The application of the proposed approach in a socio-environmental discipline made it possible to verify the relevance of its foundations, as well as the possibility to act in real terms. We have concluded that the use of what we called “learning-research-action didactical approach” is possible in individual disciplines - these owning the potential to transform university courses’ curricula gradually.
Companies providing knowledge-intensive services are called knowledge- intensive firms (KIFs) by some authors, and are fundamentally companies which sustain their competitive advantage through processes of knowledge creation , and do this “by solving their clients’ problems through the direct application of knowledge” . Thus, in knowledge-intensive firms knowledge has more importance than other inputs, and human capital, compared to other kinds of capital: to physical or financial capital, dominates  . The performance of organizations which provide knowledge-intensive services has an effect on the performance of their clients. While at most organizations knowledge is embodied in processes or products, at knowledge-intensive service organizations it resides in the experts and its application is mostly customized, based on the clients’ needs . In case of a highereducation institution this expert – client relationship also exists, we can find it in accordance with lecturer – student relations.