History of the journalism

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A history of the press (and journalism): wondering through research paths

A history of the press (and journalism): wondering through research paths

Another more general consideration which can be done about these works is the way the authors transit through temporalities: in all cases the past does not serve only to illuminate the present and nor does it exist in essence. The researches transit from the past to the present and from the present back to the past establishing a stream of continuities — which presupposes ruptures that are also fundamental – in a peculiar history in which what is contemporary figures explicitly in the scene. There is no demarcation of time or, when it appears, is defined as the time of durations: the century and the hiatuses of modernity (MATHEUS, 2010), the long-lived experience of journalists in the world of labor (REIMBERG, 2015), the historical trajectory in the construction of a specific professional identity (LOPES, 2012) or the long duration of structural constitution of the Brazilian media empires (MOREIRA, 2015). Even those researches that focus more clearly in a period, the 1950’s (JÁCOME, 2017), or following the “communicational crossings” of a forgotten typographer from the countryside of Bahia (SANTOS, 2016), establish a transit between the “times already passed” and the contemporary times reflecting on the construction of rhetorics of modernity around moments or figures that were not emblematic, but that can become synthesis-characters of a broader movement.
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The contradictions of journalism in Germany

The contradictions of journalism in Germany

The technology of printing quickly spread across Europe. Again in German speaking countries the periodical publication of printed papers began quite early. Newspapers started to appear at the beginning of the 17th century, first in places like Straßburg, Wolfenbüttel, Frankfurt, Berlin and Hamburg. Early publishers often wrote for their own paper, acted as their own journalists. All these publications had to be licensed by the sovereign of the country, meaning that these ‘priviledged’ papers could only be distributed after passing heavy censorship. In the early years, quite a few of the writers for these papers were so-called correspondents, meaning people who had a full-time position as diplomats, secretaries or merchants who were working freelance and offered their reports to those involved in publication. The printers on the other hand were quite often postmasters. In the 18th century, the profession of the journalist emerged, many of them entered history as prominent figures of literature, in fact many authors of books also worked as journalists. Their contributions often reached high literary quality, whereas the political message was hidden or even missing, as all publications suffered under the authorities’ censorship.
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Good journalism or peace journalism? – Counterplea by David Loyn

Good journalism or peace journalism? – Counterplea by David Loyn

There had been a significant amount of reporting in previous years about the arming of Saddam Hussein, in particular lead- ing to the ‘Supergun’ affair, when Conservative government ministers in the early 90s were found to be encouraging British businesses to sell arms parts to Saddam Hussein against UN sanctions. But by 2002/3 the story was the war; the how/ when/where questions were paramount. Other views were widely reported – the biggest rally in British history, matched in anti-war marches across the world, the polls showing strong opposition to the war, the reservations of some in the mil- itary – but the story was the war. The peace/truth/people/solution narrative demanded by Lynch was the business of those trying to stop the war. But reporting demanded other priorities. I have already conceded that British journalism should have carried out more searching inquiries into uncritical reporting of the WMD reports, but this is a small concern compared to the demands made by Lynch.
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Intercom, Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Comun.  vol.40 número2

Intercom, Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Comun. vol.40 número2

from private sphere to public scene, from the presentation and open use of World Wide Web in 1991, as evidenced by some episodes in the history of journalism and numerous arrhythmic efforts of citizen participation. For this reason, different authors may set different dates of their birth. Among three factors (journalism, technology and citizenship) that make up citizen journalism, the history of radio (popular, educational, communal and citizen), which presents a parallel development in the now called “traditional” media (radio, print and television). This point is pertinent because academic literature frequently takes citizen journalism starting point as the deinition made by Bowman and Willis (2003), in which citizen journalism occurs in digital environment through blogs, social networks, forums etc. However, this deinition creates a gray zone in which antecedents of similar exercises in the way of inding and constructing legitimate and independent expression spaces are excluded because they have grown on a different platform. For example, between 1975 and 1998, Davis Merritt was editor of the Wichita Eagle newspaper 1 , one of three journals, along with
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Global Journalism Ethics: Widening the Conceptual Base

Global Journalism Ethics: Widening the Conceptual Base

One trend was the development of media studies and criticism which made journalism, and media in general, an object of serious academic study. The past half-century has seen an unprecedented rise in the study of media and culture, and in the channels available for public discussion of journalism, from new books, journals, and web sites to new institutes for the study of journalism ethics and practice. Scholars, working in academic departments of sociology or political science, or in expanding schools of journalism and communication, pursue vigorous lines of research such as the agenda-setting role of media (McCombs, Shaw & Weaver, 1997), audience theory (McQuail, 1997), media economics and sociology (Picard, 1989; Albarran & Chan-Olmsted, 1998; McQuail, 1969), moral development among journalists (Wilkins & Coleman, 2005), and the history of journalism ethics (Spencer, 2007; Ward, 2005). Journals and magazines publish ever new case studies and surveys using content analysis and other quantitative and qualitative methods of social science.
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Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

In order to evaluate the susceptibility to hot cracking in the high-temperature brittleness range, we have determined the changes of temperature of individual points when the alloy was cooled down from the solidus temperature. The tests were performed on the cylindrical Ø 10 x 120 mm specimens, using the Gleeble 3800 simulator, at Iron Metallurgy Institute in Gliwice. Four S-type thermocouples were pressure welded to the specimens: in the specimen axis and 2, 5 and 8 mm away from the axis. The specimens were fixed in copper holders, keeping a constant distance of 33 mm, and then were heated in the argon atmosphere at the 20 0 C/s rate to the temperature of liquid phase appearance, and were afterwards freely cooled. Changes in
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Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

The above mentioned alloys were fabricated from the following starting materials (Table 1): aluminium in grade AR1 (99,96% Al), silicon of 98,5% purity (rest Fe and other elements), copper (99, 98% Cu), nickel (99, 98% Ni) and cast AG10 alloy (about 10 wt.% Mg). Melts were conducted in a Leybold-Heraeus IS5/III induction furnace with crucible of 0,7kg capacity made from magnesite refractory material. A protective coating of 2NaF and KCl was used. When the furnace temperature of ~ 820 o C had been reached, the melt was subjected to refining treatment with Rafglin-3 in an amount of 0,3 wt.%, followed by modification with Cu-P (~9,95%P). The temperature of pouring was controlled by a NiCr-NiAl TP-202K-800-1 thermocouple immersed in the bath of molten metal.
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

While the political aspect, the border region is classified as vulnerable to political conflicts with neighboring countries due to the intersection of territorial and jurisdictional boundaries, especially in the segment of border that have not been agreed. The issue of border actually starts to rise along with the emergence of waters and fisheries department in 2000 as it continued to release the border policy through the Decree of President (Perpres) No. 78 of 2005 concern the Management of the Outermost Small Islands. As we know there are 11 (eleven) cases in both borders sea and land, as follow: First, the case of Sipadan and Ligitan islands (two our leading islands) by the International Court has decided to belong to Malaysia since 2002. Secondly, the case of Ambalat as an effort of Malaysia to claim the waters territory called Ambalat block occur vagueness in maritime boundary so that this neighboring country tries to take advantage of this vagueness and at last Indonesia set a new base point from Karang Ungaran, until now negotiation has not been completed. Third, Jemur island in Riau province were ever claimed by Malaysia but actually the island is behind our leading island in the area. Fourth, the hostage of supervisory personnel of marine and fishery resources of our borders by Malaysia in response to the arrest of Malaysian fishermen that entering Indonesian waters illegally. These facts indicate that almost each year occur borderline cases experienced by Indonesia. Certainly, it has been a restriction on the importance of the Indonesia sovereignty as a maritime country to be developed and considered as one of the forms of the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia relating to the international sea, archipelagic and deepness waters as well as the air space over the territorial sea, archipelagic waters and inland as well seabed and land including natural resources contained therein. Given the importance of maritime areas handling related to the waters, islands and fisheries, it is necessary for specially the management of area with regard to the coastal areas and small islands which are also regulated in Act No. 1 of 2014 concern the Amendment of Act No. 27 of 2007 concern the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. In the Act is understood that the coastal areas and small islands are vulnerable damaged by the activities of people in the use of resources or due to natural disasters and exploitation, so that the need for security measures in the area. Based on this case, it is needed a strategic policies that _________________________
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How to Rewrite the History of Historiography? Prolegomena for a History of the Truth in History

How to Rewrite the History of Historiography? Prolegomena for a History of the Truth in History

If we consider this binomial (production of knowledge/evolution of mass media communication) it is possible to show that the dualist model absolute/ relative, explanatory/comprehensive, exact/hermeneutical, would correspond to the growing impact of the invention of printing in the calligraphic culture. One of the most original contributions of Mendiola’s investigation, beginning with the analysis of the chronicles of the of the conquest, consists in showing the relation that exists between some of the principles that regulate modern scientific production and the installation of the culture of the written word as a dominant form of communication in the establishing of the social agreements. In a later essay, Mendiola will go deeper into a fundamental distinction to understand such installation and its repercussions as the way of reaching a consensus about what is false and the truth: what exists between the oral and written forms of communication. While in the first case the production of what is real emerges from the distinction between speech (the sound) and the thing simultaneously with the moment in which it happens, the step of writing – as taking notes – to writing – as a form of communication, implied the possibility of separating the representation from the thing being referred to (LUHMANN 2002, p. 3-21; MENDIOLA 2002, p. 11-38). In that way, instead of writing disappearing to delve into reality, writings (thanks to their spreading through printing presses) turn into a condition of possibility and warranty of all truth and, at the same time, in the regulating instrument of the relation between what is real and what is unreal. The act of writing and its diffusion turned gradually into the referent of that referred to, indicating with it the possibility of distinguishing between what was written and the observed reality, natural or cultural (DE CERTEAU 1975). Under the mandate of observing with our own eyes, without intermediaries, scripture would function as the mirror in which reality is to be reflected. A mirror in constant perfectioning due to the mistakes glimpsed or to new findings. In that sense, especially since the 17 th Century,
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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

products (Kim & Chung, 2011:40), so it’s important to recognize consumer purchasing behavior. Many companies use marketing strategies by analyzing consumer behavior in order to study the effect on purchase decision (Jalalkamali & Nikbin, 2010:235). The purchase decision is also influenced by the perceived quality which is also an aspect of brand value that makes consumers pay for certain products or services (Yaseen et al., 2011:833). It confirms that the consumer purchase decision on products or services is strongly influenced by customer perception of quality of value brand. Decision making is a way of choosing between two or more possible options when a person has a choice between purchasing or not (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007). In the assessment stages of different choices, the consumers classify different brands and the purchase intention is created in his mind. Shareef et al. (2008) revealed purchase decision is a continuous process, which refers to thoughtful, consistent action undertaken to bring about need satisfaction. Choubtarash et al. (2013) confirmed that purchase decision is a person in the mind who is carefully analyzing the features of products, trademarks or services and tries, by using logical methods, to choose a choice that can satisfy the recognized need with the least expenses. Consumers perceived organic as a healthier alternative to conventional foods in that they contain more nutrients which enhance personal well-being organic produce is also considered safer and better in taste and more enjoyable than conventional products (Shaharudin et al., 2010:72). Last organic purchasing is defined as purchasing goods and services which have less harmful for environmental and human health (Othman & Rahman, 2014:93). Purchasing decisions can be measured through several dimensions, including recommend, purchase frequency, overall satisfaction and purchase intention (Shareef et al., 2008:101). The measure is not different from the study by Liu et al. (2009:72) which provide specifications for purchasing decisions by some measures, including product selection, brand selection, object selection, purchase opportunity, and purchase quantity. Consumer purchasing decisions on products had relationship with consumer perceptions of quality and risk products (Yee et al., 2011:47). Consumer interest in the products can be improved by an increase in the quality of products (Kwak & Kang, 2009:85). And previous research has argued that a consumer perception of quality has a positive impact on consumer buying behavior (Wang & Tsai, 2014:27). Based on these studies, next hypothesis as follows:
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Mcdonaldization in journalism, the spectacularization of the news

Mcdonaldization in journalism, the spectacularization of the news

Paralelamente, tecemos o argumento de que a espetacularização seria um recurso que en- contra no jornalismo digital (mcdonaldizado) as condições para sua inserção no mundo das notícia[r]

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	Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers of the oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers of the oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance of the oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias of the oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, and the head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
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The influence of the arc plasma treatment on the structure and microhardness C120U carbon tool steel

The influence of the arc plasma treatment on the structure and microhardness C120U carbon tool steel

Carbon steel C120U grade is largely used on the tools for cutting, for dies and knives, for stamping and drawing tools, hobs, thread rolling tools and in many other applications due to her typical properties - high hardness, good toughness and compressive strength. The surface of the steel can be modified by using surface engineering's techniques. Remelting of the surface layer by the source of concentrated energy is promising technique to improve properties of the materials [1-6]. Laser or electron beam use to melting of the surface of tool steels aims to obtain a modified layer with increased microhardness and abrasion resistance [7,8]. The surface remelted layer has usually a finer and more homogenous structure than its original base material. The remelting with the arc plasma (TIG- tungsten inert gas or GTAW - gas tungsten arc welding) used as an economical and easily
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Hist. cienc. saudeManguinhos  vol.14 número1

Hist. cienc. saudeManguinhos vol.14 número1

Our considerations in this article also bring subsidies for those professionals evaluating the literature produced in the history of sciences and health, or even in the wider human sciences arena. We have in mind mainly the evaluation committees in sponsoring agencies, SciELO and other indexers and databases of scientific journals. Perhaps its main contribution is to show that as they examine journals and consider the convenience of supporting them or not, they must consider their pollinating role in emerging fields of knowledge, and also their value for the dissemination of quality works coming from regions in the country and the continent that still strive to be visible in the already occupied knowledge territories. The reflections we made here are important for the editors of História, Ciências, Saúde – Manguinhos and also for editors of other periodicals; they will certainly help them to see more clearly the editorial policy to follow as well as the problems that demand solutions, particularly those concerning the transition or coexistence of the printed and the electronic versions. We believe that the reading of this work will be rewarding for our readers and collaborators because they will find an intimate picture of a journal they are used to leaf as a finished and non-problematic product.
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Modeling of Two-Stage Solidification: Part II Computational Verification of the Model

Modeling of Two-Stage Solidification: Part II Computational Verification of the Model

The above equation is one way to introduce the impingement into growth model. Another way would be to decrease the growth rate of eutectic growth by multiplying the growth velocity (Equation 3 from Part I) by factor 1 f . The later procedure is applied in models that describe solidification of alloys, with dominant eutectic structure. When grains nucleate at the boundary of other grains, the correcting factor must be changed as in [18]. Different forms of correcting factor should be also utilized when grains can move during growth process, as it was shown in [19]. For hypoeutecitc alloys preexisting dendritic structure may also delay the growth process of eutectic grains, and correcting factor is also required, as stated in [12,15]. Various types of this factor have been used for hypoeutectic alloys [12, 15, 17, 18]. For comparison purposes we have chosen the following factors: 1 f , 1 f , 1 f .
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Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

In polycrystalline blades of aircraft engine turbines, the size and shape of the grain constitutes one of the most significant quality control criteria of the casts made. In industrial practice, the macrostructure of the airfoil and the blade root is evaluated in terms of the presence of equiaxed, columnar and frozen grains. The grain size has a significant influence on the mechanical properties, creep resistance as well as heat- and high-temperature creep resistance of the blades [10-14].
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Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

This model, preached by any teacher of electrical engineering to his students on the various levels, was given like postulate. This article proposes an analytical justification to the equivalent diagram elements of single-phase transformer current, particularly to those of the central branch. The article is organized in three main sections. Section II begins by the calculation of active power consumed in a parallelepiped electromagnetic domain subjected to a variable flow. The result is applied to a shell form single-phase transformer. With open load test, the power consumption linked to the leakage inductance and resistance of the transformer winding is neglected in front of the consumption of the central branch [11]. But it is not the case for a loaded transformer. The methods to determine resistances of the reels are indisputable. This article gives the expressions of the elements of the central branch in the model of Steinmetz starting from the powers and their site. It studies also the variation relation of the iron resistance and the iron reactance compared to the computed values with 220 V. Section 2 is dedicated to this calculation. Discussions and a comparison of results are described in Section 3. The final section is devoted to the article conclusion.
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Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

This article examines the effect of prolonged time of holding at the temperature of 620 0 C on the processes of secondary phase precipitation and mechanical properties of low-alloy cast steel with an addition of vanadium subjected to two variants of heat treatment, i.e. U:1150 0 C+H:950 0 C+O:620 0 C and H:950 0 C+O:620 0 C. To determine an impact of the applied heat treatment operations, testing of mechanical properties and microstructural examinations of the cast steel with 0,21 and 0,27%C were carried out.
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THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION

THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION

different stamp. In 1071 they had defeated the Eastern Emperor, captured all Asia Minor, and had taken possession of the fortress of Nicaea (Map, p. 183), near Constantinople. The Eastern Emperor now appealed to Rome for help. In 1077 the Turks captured Jerusalem, and returning pilgrims soon began to report having experienced great hardships. In 1095 Pope Urban, in a stirring address to the Council of Clermont (France), issued a call to the lords, knights, and foot soldiers of western Christendom to cease destroying their fellow Christians in private warfare, and to turn their strength of arms against the infidel and rescue the Holy Land. The journey was to take the place of penance for sin, many special privileges were extended to those who went, and those who died on the journey or in battle with the infidels were promised entrance into heaven. [26] nobles and peasants, filled with a desire for adventure and a sense of personal sin, no surer way of satisfying either was to be found than the long pilgrimage to the Saviour's tomb. In France and England the call met with instant response. Unfortunately for the future of civilization, the call met with but small response from the nobles of German lands.
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Epilogue: Peace Journalism – The State of the Art

Epilogue: Peace Journalism – The State of the Art

If these arguments are valid indeed, then scholars such as Hanitzsch (2004a, b), Bläsi (2004), Hackett (2006), and others are right in demanding that Peace Journalism translate its normative concerns, rooted in the discipline of peace research, into a strategy based on a theoretical and practical analysis of news production logics and constraints. Peace Journalism supporters, they argue, need to review the lessons of research on the factors affecting news production. Such a review would help identify barriers, blockages and opportunities for the practice of Peace Journalism, and clarify questions such as: Do media organizations have sufficient autonomy vis-à-vis other institutions, or journalists vis-à-vis media organiza- tions, to put Peace Journalism into practice? Is structural reform a prerequisite for the successful implementation of Peace Journalism? If there is to be such a reform, a number of questions should be asked: Does such a reform entail taking over the media economy, as argued by Enzensberger (1970), or should it follow Baudrillard's logic (1981), that taking over would make the reformists similar to the owners they ousted? Are there other options to develop the ethics of Peace Journalism in accordance with contemporary media realities?
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