Initial dataset (individuals isolated as eggs). A total of 27 females were isolated from the stock cultures over three consecutive, replicate time periods: 15 in the first period, 6 in the sec- ond and 6 in the third. These females were allowed to lay eggs for 3–8 days. A total of 132 eggs were collected over the three replicates time periods: replicate one, 51 eggs collected over 7 days; replicate two, 54 eggs collected over 8 days; and replicate three, 27 eggs collected over 3 days. Eggs were collected daily from each female, and individually isolated into single tubes with ad libitum oats. The tubes were kept in an unlit incubator at 24°C and >70% relative humidity. Until maturation, each individual was photographed daily using a Lumenera Infinity 3.1 camera (Lumenera Corporation, Ottawa, 22 Ontario, Canada) connected to a Meiji 20 EMZ-8TRD (10–45x) stereomicroscope and its length (without mouthparts) measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using Infinity Analyze Imaging Software (Lumenera Corp.). Henceforth body length is referred to as size. Some individuals died before reaching maturity (replicate time period 1, n = 25; replicate time period 2, n = 33; replicate time period 3, n = 14), and ofthe 132 eggs only 3 subsequently developed into deutonymphs. Mature females were mated with randomly chosen virgin males (from either morph), which were placed in the same tube for the duration ofthe female’s lifetime. Eggs were counted daily until the female died.
My prenatal breastfeeding really helped me, in the second place I did, right? For the first, where I started doing was awful, the woman did not even look at my face, I was very sad, but then a friend [...]. spoke of a place there Realengo, the Birth Center, [...] but it was the opposite [...] People are lovely the place, the people are one loves, the doctor nurse who did my prenatal was an angel looked like she was reading my thoughts, helped me a lot, so it was there that I learned what had to say .. as she spoke, I could because I was not forced to do anything against my will, I could do with my chest to strengthen finally care, right? [...] So after he was born, I had no difficulties with breastfeeding, [...] love breastfeeding. (Orquídea)
A two-state lifehistory model governed by ODEs is formulated to elucidate the population dynamics of jellyfish and to illuminate the triggering mechanism of its blooms. The polyp- medusa model admits trichotomous global dynamic scenarios: extinction, polyps survival only, and both survival. The population dynamics sensitively depend on several biotic and abiotic limiting factors such as substrate, temperature, and predation. The combination of temperature increase, substrate expansion, and predator diminishment acts synergistically to create a habitat that is more favorable for jellyfishes. Reducing artificial marine construc- tions, aiding predator populations, and directly controlling the jellyfish population would help to manage the jellyfish blooms. The theoretical analyses and numerical experiments yield several insights into the nature underlying the model and shed some new light on the gener- al control strategy for jellyfish.
the most comprehensive one. We therefore largely followed them but evaluated several more recent name changes by using original publications. We agree with Speybroeck et al. (2010) that the scientiic name of a species should only be changed if there is strong evidence of it being necessary to relect evolutionary history and if data are supported by sound evidence. On the other hand, further taxon splitting is a necessary conse- quence of advances in systematics. Strong evidence for us means that a name change is backed by suiciently comprehensive sampling, by consistent evidence from more than one character set analysed with appropriate statistical methods, and by sound bio- geographic scenarios. For inclusion in the database, an additional criterion had to be fulilled: the distribution ofthe taxa involved must have been worked out suiciently to allow allocation oflife-history data to a particular taxon without uncertainty. his resulted in 144 recognized species belonging to 59 genera (named current taxonomy in the database; Suppl. material 1: Table S1). Deviations from Speybroeck et al. (2010) and Sillero et al. (2014) are listed and justiied in Suppl. material 2: Table S2. he da- tabase is designed in such a way that taxa (European or non-European) can be added without a need to change the structure ofthe database. he database can be searched using both the original names as in Gasc et al. (2004) as well as the updated names. We allocated data that were published before species complexes were split to the relevant new taxa if this allocation could be made with certainty.
When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phe- notype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto opti- mality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes—phe- notypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphol- ogy and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to lifehistory traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry oflifehistory trait space, we analyze a dataset oflifehistory traits of 2105 endo- thermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, lifehistory traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices ofthe triangle suggest three archetypal strate- gies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and gener- alists in the middle ofthe triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto opti- mality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objec- tive optimization principles to understand lifehistory traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.
All snails raised in pairs lasted longer than seven weeks (the first snail died during week 8). Besides, in only three pairs one ofthe partners died before the other previous to week 20, all other snails ei- ther survived until week 22 (after which no repro- duction was observed) or both partners died in the same week. The fact that the death of a partner might affect the mating system is accepted, how- ever we do not consider that it significantly affected thelife-history traits ofthe group since all deaths occurred when snails were either not reproducing at all or (in fewer cases) laying few eggs. There- fore, calculations still hold significant since all paired snails grew up actually in pairs pass their reproductive peak and just a few of them lost their partners when contribution to the population growth was not significant (Fig. 1C)
This qualitative study aimed to get to know the relationship between the experiences of families of children with a life-threatening disease and their religion, illness and life histories. The methodological framework was based on Oral History. The data were collected through interviews and the participants were nine families from six different religions who had lived the experience of having a child with a life-threatening disease. The interviews, held with one or two family members, were transcribed, textualized and, through their analysis, the Vital Tone was elaborated, representing the moral synthesis of each narrative. Three dimensions of spirituality were related to illness and death in their life histories: a Higher Being with a healing power; Development and Maintenance of a Connection with God and Faith Encouraging Optimism. The narratives demonstrated the family’s search to attribute meanings to their experiences, based on their religious beliefs.
From these principles, proponents of LHS-based personality theory have formulated the following arguments. First, a slow LHS will be associated with longer-term planning (less future discounting—e.g., Wilson and Daly, 1997) than a fast LHS (Figueredo et al., 2006). Because humans are “ultrasocial” and dependent on culturally transmitted knowledge (Hill, Barton, and Hurtado, 2009), and because the reproductive payoffs to cooperative social relationships are often delayed over multi-year periods (e.g., Gurven, Allen-Arave, Hill, and Hurtado, 2000), a slow LHS in H. sapiens is expected to be associated with personality traits that prioritize sociality, altruism (both kin-selected and reciprocal), and adherence to social norms (Rushton, 1985). Individuals pursuing a slow LHS are expected to form stable, long-term mating relationships. Higher investment in somatic effort should lead to improved psychological health, including greater positive emotionality, less negative emotionality, and greater capacity for, and enjoyment of, intellectual effort. In contrast, a fast LHS will be associated with a focus on short-term gains (including short-term mating strategies), an antagonistic social orientation, and poorer physical and psychological health.
Group living and parasites. Group living, even if temporary, has disadvantages - notably the increased transmission of dis- eases and parasites (Trivers, 1985). A large proportion (14%) of discus from the Uxi Bay was infested with the isopod B. cichlae. This parasite not only appears to retard discus growth, but appears also to limit the development of bright colors (see ‘color’ in Results). Braga cichlae devours gill lamellae, causing reduced oxygen uptake and presumably therefore hindering normal growth and development. In a separate paper, data will be presented to show that discus are infested far more frequently by B. cichlae than other syntopic cichlids, despite the generalist nature of this parasite (Thatcher, 1991); this lack of host specificity can be demonstrated by provid- ing free-swimming B. cichlae with a choice of Symphysodon versus other cichlid hosts. Because discus develop bright color as a secondary sexual ornament (see ‘color’ in Results), and because parasites both diminish color and stunt growth, a case will be made for bright color serving as an index of parasite load in mate choice. There is a strong theoretical basis for color serving as an index of mate quality, includ- ing general health and parasite load (e.g. Maynard-Smith & Harper, 2003). As such, there may be a parasite-mediated link between the formation of extremely large aggregations, and the possession of bright color extending over much ofthe body surface - both features unique to Symphysodon among South American cichlids.
ABSTRACT - Background - Heartburn and regurgitation frequently occur in the third trimester of pregnancy, but their impact on quality oflife has not been thoroughly investigated. Objective - To measure health-related quality oflifeof third-trimester pregnant women with heartburn and regurgitation. Methods - Data on obstetric history, heartburn and regurgitation frequency and intensi- ty, historyof heartburn and regurgitation and health-related quality oflife were collected of 82 third-trimester pregnant women. Results - Sixty-two (76%) women had heartburn, and 58 (71%), regurgitation; 20 were asymptomatic. Mean gestational age was 33.8±3.7 weeks; 35 (43%) women had a family historyof heartburn and/or regurgitation, and 57 (70%) were asymptomatic before pregnancy. The following quality oflife concepts were signiicantly reduced: physical problems and social functioning for heartburn; physical problems and emotional functioning for regurgitation. There was agreement between heartburn in present and previous pregnancies. Conclusion - Heartburn and/or regurgitation affected health-related quality oflifeof third trimester pregnant women. HEADINGS - Heartburn. Gastroesophageal relux. Pregnancy. Quality oflife.
The European conger eel, Conger conger L. (Osteichthyes, Congridae) is a benthic specie living in rocky and sandy bottoms between 10 and 1000 m (Culurgioni et al., 2006). It is widely distributed in the Eastern Atlantic, in the Western Black Sea and it is very common in all the Mediterranean Sea (Relini et al., 1999). The specie constitutes an important commercial and recreational fishery resource that is caught by bottom trawl, hook and line (Figueiredo et al. 1996). Despite being a geographically widespread species and an important fisheries resource, little is presently known about thelifehistory traits of this species, namely its reproductive biology, spawning area(s) and migratory patterns (Correia et al. 2012). In the Western Mediterranean Sea of Algeria, it is the most exploited Congridea. Mazouz et al. (2014) and Abi-Ayad et al (2011) described the histological oogenesis and spermatogenesis respectively ofthe C.conger from the Western Algerian coasts. However, no studies on growth and reproduction parameters of this important benthic species from South shore of Mediterranean Sea have been published (Mazouz et al. 2014., Abi-Ayad et al. 2011). In this paper, we provide the first
Obviously, the complexity of integrating strate- gies should not be an obstacle to their own adop- tion, but an invitation to change the traditional way of teaching, mediated by the teacher. For such, it is necessary that teacher trainings incorporate the interdisciplinar approach, facilitating to teachers the understanding of processes that occur in the evolution oflife and historical transformation of terrestrial environments. What we propose is not different from what is acknowledged as important in official documents. However, it requires the exiting ofthe “comfort zone” of such approaches based on strict scholarly disciplines. It also requires that teachers start to acknowledge and be aware ofthe teaching resources they have at their disposal, in order to provide knowledge contextualized with the student’s reality. For Morin (2005) there is not a guide but a challenge, which incorporates a “motivation to think”, reflect and approach the complexity from an interdisciplinary treatment ofthe contents of Nature Science.
By analogy, individuals with disordered eating behaviors might be unable to eat in moderation due to insufficient competencies in behavioral regulation, as in the cyclical binging of bulimics, who rely on purging afterwards to control their weight. Anorexics instead restrict their food intake to unhealthy and even life-threatening levels, possibly as a paradoxical overreaction to tendencies towards overeating. These adverse health consequences may be seen as unintended side-effects of these alternative weight-control strategies in girls who perceive themselves to be under high degrees of competitive pressure from other girls. Although the reproductive suppression hypothesis considers amenorrhea and infertility as the ultimate function of anorexic behavior, the present results indicate that they might also represent unintended and fitness-reducing consequences of disordered eating behavior. The present results indirectly associate disordered eating behaviors with faster lifehistory strategies, instead ofthe slower ones that might be expected to correlate with adaptive reproductive suppression. The present results are therefore inconsistent with the reproductive suppression hypothesis, because sacrificing present reproduction in favor of potential future reproduction is a tactic more aligned with slow lifehistory strategy (Ellis, Figueredo, Brumbach, and Schlomer, 2009).
Abstract: The study covers thehistoryofthe Publisher UFPB from individual memories of your servers and former employees who witnessed a trajectory marked by a large and significant number of didactic, literary and scientific publications, as well as its introduction, appreciation and failure. Methodologically, the research was based on the qualitative approach of documentary type associated with oral history from the perspective of thematic oral history and lifeof older servers ofthe publisher, some of which are in full activity. It is understood by one set of memory events, facts, characters that, through their existence in the past, have consistent experiences to establish a relationship of today and their past, either immediately or remote. This relationship is always mediated by the experience. The narratives reveal the subjects' ears wide historyof an institution allowing emerge emotionality of servers that witnessed a promising structure and experienced a decline in successive administrations ofthe university.
Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers ofthe upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers ofthe oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers ofthe oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance ofthe oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias ofthe oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, and the head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
conceptual tools and research sources, thus expanding historiography at a “vertiginous rate”, as said by Burke (1992, p.8; see also Le Goff, Nora, 1976a, 1976b e 1976c). Concomitantly, the domain set by Rosen was flooded with numerous monographs and articles by and large produced by historians with no medical background and aligned with the trends in historiography and in the social sciences. Elizabeth Fee (1993; Fee, Morman, 1993) points out the ideological cleavages between the generation of historians modelled by the 1960s contestation movements and of historian- physicians belonging to Rosen’s generation, who were illuministically optimists as far as the progress of science and the capacity ofthe medical establishment to solve humanity’s health problems, as long as they used the stored knowledge on behalf of a preventive and social medicine. The new generations of historians critically studied the control mechanisms implicit in medical discourse and institutions, were interested in the knowledge and practices that were alternatives to academic medicine or that came from territories subjugated to colonial empires as well as to capitals in the Third World. The critique to euro-centrism was translated into a renewed interest in thehistoryof medical systems that did not originate from the Greek-Roman matrix or did not follow European medicine. Race and gender issues, a more refined approach to social classes and categories, the attention paid to actors and local particularities came to inform the studies on health politics, institutions and professions. Thehistoryof medicine was no longer thehistoryof physicians only to also become thehistoryof patients, and thehistoryof diseases had its real boom of monographic studies. The body, childhood, the sensibilities, the environment and other issues attenuated the frontiers between the science ofhistory and other human and natural sciences.
Surface of C120 steel after arc plasma treatment showed tracks have multizone microstructure composed ofthe remelted zone, heat affected zone and substrate, which can have diversified microhardness. Structure (particularly precipitation of martensite, bainite retained austenite and secondary cementite) in the remelted zone is dependent on the arc plasma treatment parameters. The cooling rate obtained during the treatment by arc plasma ofthe steels is compared to the cooling rate ofthe steels during conventional heat treatment. This cooling rate can be estimated on the basis ofthe standard CCT diagram for C120 steel. Increased ofthe current intensity of arc plasma lead to of grater areas of materials remelting and it decreases ofthe cooling
While the political aspect, the border region is classified as vulnerable to political conflicts with neighboring countries due to the intersection of territorial and jurisdictional boundaries, especially in the segment of border that have not been agreed. The issue of border actually starts to rise along with the emergence of waters and fisheries department in 2000 as it continued to release the border policy through the Decree of President (Perpres) No. 78 of 2005 concern the Management ofthe Outermost Small Islands. As we know there are 11 (eleven) cases in both borders sea and land, as follow: First, the case of Sipadan and Ligitan islands (two our leading islands) by the International Court has decided to belong to Malaysia since 2002. Secondly, the case of Ambalat as an effort of Malaysia to claim the waters territory called Ambalat block occur vagueness in maritime boundary so that this neighboring country tries to take advantage of this vagueness and at last Indonesia set a new base point from Karang Ungaran, until now negotiation has not been completed. Third, Jemur island in Riau province were ever claimed by Malaysia but actually the island is behind our leading island in the area. Fourth, the hostage of supervisory personnel of marine and fishery resources of our borders by Malaysia in response to the arrest of Malaysian fishermen that entering Indonesian waters illegally. These facts indicate that almost each year occur borderline cases experienced by Indonesia. Certainly, it has been a restriction on the importance ofthe Indonesia sovereignty as a maritime country to be developed and considered as one ofthe forms ofthe sovereignty ofthe Republic of Indonesia relating to the international sea, archipelagic and deepness waters as well as the air space over the territorial sea, archipelagic waters and inland as well seabed and land including natural resources contained therein. Given the importance of maritime areas handling related to the waters, islands and fisheries, it is necessary for specially the management of area with regard to the coastal areas and small islands which are also regulated in Act No. 1 of 2014 concern the Amendment of Act No. 27 of 2007 concern the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. In the Act is understood that the coastal areas and small islands are vulnerable damaged by the activities of people in the use of resources or due to natural disasters and exploitation, so that the need for security measures in the area. Based on this case, it is needed a strategic policies that _________________________
The above mentioned alloys were fabricated from the following starting materials (Table 1): aluminium in grade AR1 (99,96% Al), silicon of 98,5% purity (rest Fe and other elements), copper (99, 98% Cu), nickel (99, 98% Ni) and cast AG10 alloy (about 10 wt.% Mg). Melts were conducted in a Leybold-Heraeus IS5/III induction furnace with crucible of 0,7kg capacity made from magnesite refractory material. A protective coating of 2NaF and KCl was used. When the furnace temperature of ~ 820 o C had been reached, the melt was subjected to refining treatment with Rafglin-3 in an amount of 0,3 wt.%, followed by modification with Cu-P (~9,95%P). The temperature of pouring was controlled by a NiCr-NiAl TP-202K-800-1 thermocouple immersed in the bath of molten metal.