Holstein dairy cattle

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Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

Frequencies and direction of effect showed differences between haplotype blocks HTB6 and HTB7. In HTB7, located in the FTO gene, we observed higher frequencies of the high yield haplotypes, while in HTB6, which covers partially RPGRIP1L and the beginning of FTO, high frequencies were found for the low yield haplotypes. The opposite direction of effect of the major alleles was best demonstrated by SNP1 and SNP4, contributing to HTB6 and HTB7, respectively. The frequency of the high performing allele of SNP4 (0.75) was considerably higher than of SNP1 (0.45). Therefore, we suggest a causative mutation in the region linked to SNP4 in the middle of the FTO gene which has been under selection pressure for high yield traits and another mutation linked to SNP1. Since German Holstein cattle have been under selection for high milk production during the last decades, we would expect increased allele frequencies at loci that have positive effects on production traits like yield traits [20]. However, the neighboring upstream region of HTB6 shows more balanced frequencies of the high and low fat alleles. Thus, we conclude that the mutation at SNP1 occurred on the chromosomal strand of allele A of SNP4 before selecting for milk traits.
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Análise genética de traços de fertilidade em vacas leiteiras Holstein em climas quentes e temperados

Análise genética de traços de fertilidade em vacas leiteiras Holstein em climas quentes e temperados

(2011). For Holstein cows, the genetic correlation between DO and SF was estimated -0.48, which was lower than values obtained by González-Recio and Alenda (2005) and Ghiasi et al. (2011) (-0.94 and -0.83, respectively). The genetic correlation between CI and GL was -0.04 that higher value was reported by Eghbalsaied (2011) (-0.07). The genetic correlation between GL and NI (-0.09) was lower than obtained result by Eghbalsaied (2011) (-0.88). Also, the genetic correlation of GL and CBW was obtained low and near zero (0.007), which was lower than value reported by Johanson et al. (2011) (0.52). For Holstein cattle, the genetic correlation between CI and SF that we obtained was medium and negative (-0.55), similar to the finding obtained by González-Recio and Alenda (2005), who reported a correlation of -0.59 between these 2 traits. Likewise, the genetic correlation between NI and SF was middle and negative (-0.49) that higher value was reported by Kadarmideen et al. (2003) (-0.92). The genetic correlation between NI and IO obtained in this study was nearly high and negative (-0.77), similar to the result reported by Ghiasi et al. (2011) (-0.73). These results suggest that these traits (CI × SF, NI × SF and NI × IO) are not genetically favored, as could be logically expected. The genetic correlation of SF and IO was 0.36, whereas González-Recio and Alenda (2005) and Ghiasi et al. (2011) reported higher values (0.94 and 0.83, respectively). These results suggest that these 2 reproductive traits were essentially the same indicator of fertility and may be originally the same in terms of genetic source. The genetic correlation between CI and IO was -1. The result obtained in this study is similar to those obtained by González- Recio and Alenda (2005), Ghiasi et al. (2011), who both reported a correlation of -0.99 between CI and insemination outcome. Also, the genetic correlation obtained in this study between DO and IO was high and negative (-0.98). This is consistent with the results reported by González-Recio and Alenda (2005) and Ghiasi et al. (2011) (-0.99 in both reports). The estimated genetic correlations among CI × IO and DO × IO indicated that selection for cows with high insemination outcome could lead to shorten DO and CI. Therefore, they could be used as one of the best indicators for cow fertility. This would enable efficient selection for better reproductive performance. The phenotypic correlation between CI and DO in this study was high and positive, with value of 0.99. González- Recio and Alenda (2005), Ghiasi et al. (2011), Eghbalsaied (2011) and Zambrano and Echeverri (2014) reported similar estimates for Holstein dairy cattle (0.91, 0.95, 0.99 and 1 respectively). Likewise,
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Serological surveillance of bluetongue virus in cattle in central Iran

Serological surveillance of bluetongue virus in cattle in central Iran

The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and distribution of antibodies to the bluetongue virus (BTV) among dairy Holstein cattle of central Iran. From September 2010 to August 2011, 892 blood samples from Holstein dairy cattle were collected from healthy animals. Blood samples were divided according to type of farm (industrial and non-industrial), season (warm and cold), location (North, South, East, and West), cattle production groups (calf, heifer, dairy and dry) and age groups (under 6 months, 6 months-2 years and over 2 years). The sera were screened using a commercially competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) kit. Twenty-four sera (2.69 %) were found to be positive for BTV. Bluetongue virus seroprevalence was signiicantly higher (χ 2  = 8.29, df = 3, p < 0.05) in cattle in southern locations
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Japanese Dairy Cattle Productivity Analysis using Bayesian Network Model (BNM)

Japanese Dairy Cattle Productivity Analysis using Bayesian Network Model (BNM)

Abstract —Japanese Dairy Cattle Productivity Analysis is carried out based on Bayesian Network Model (BNM). Through the experiment with 280 Japanese anestrus Holstein dairy cow, it is found that the estimation for finding out the presence of estrous cycle using BNM represents almost 55% accuracy while considering all samples. On the contrary, almost 73% accurate estimation could be achieved while using suspended likelihood in sample datasets. Moreover, while the proposed BNM model has more confidence than the estimation accuracy lies in between 93 to 100%. In addition, this research also reveals the optimum factors to find out the presence of estrous cycle among the 270 individual dairy cows. The objective estimation methods using BNM definitely lead a unique idea to overcome the error of subjective estimation of having estrous cycle among these Japanese dairy cattle.
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Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle

Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle

In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-g and TNF-a genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW) cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was ana- lyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 gene expression was higher in the group of BW and Gyr cows with mastitis compared to animals free of infection from both breeds (p < 0.05). It was also higher in BW Holstein animals with clinical mastitis (p < 0.001), but it was not significant when Gyr cows with and without mastitis were compared (0.05 < p < 0.10). Among healthy cows, BW Holstein animals tended to present a higher expression of all genes studied, with a signifi- cant difference for the IL-2 and IFN-g genes (p < 0.001). For animals with mastitis no significant difference in gene ex- pression was observed between the two breeds. These findings suggest that animals with mastitis develop a preferentially cell-mediated immune response. Further studies including larger samples are necessary to better characterize the gene expression profile in cows with mastitis.
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Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle

Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle

In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-g and TNF-a genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW) cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was ana- lyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 gene expression was higher in the group of BW and Gyr cows with mastitis compared to animals free of infection from both breeds (p < 0.05). It was also higher in BW Holstein animals with clinical mastitis (p < 0.001), but it was not significant when Gyr cows with and without mastitis were compared (0.05 < p < 0.10). Among healthy cows, BW Holstein animals tended to present a higher expression of all genes studied, with a signifi- cant difference for the IL-2 and IFN-g genes (p < 0.001). For animals with mastitis no significant difference in gene ex- pression was observed between the two breeds. These findings suggest that animals with mastitis develop a preferentially cell-mediated immune response. Further studies including larger samples are necessary to better characterize the gene expression profile in cows with mastitis.
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Effect of pregnancy on the genetic evaluation of dairy cattle

Effect of pregnancy on the genetic evaluation of dairy cattle

Table 4 shows the number of cows per days open class in the Top 200 ranking (the 200 cows with the highest predicted breeding values) for 305-day cumulative milk yield and milk persistency. No significant difference between the models with and without the effect of pregnancy was observed for cumulative milk yield in either breed. On the other hand, significant differences between the two models were found for milk persistency, with the model including the effect of pregnancy showing larger numbers of cows with shorter days open and smaller numbers of cows with longer days open, when compared to the model without the effect of pregnancy. This result was significant for the Dairy Gyr breed, with the number of cows with days open longer than 270 days or of nonpregnant cows, being 38% lower for the model with the effect of pregnancy when compared to the model not including this effect, and with the number of cows with days open of 61 to 120 days being 50% higher. Therefore, the model including the effect of pregnancy overestimates the predicted breeding value for persistency of pregnant cows and underestimates breeding values of nonpregnant cows. These results agree with those reported by Bohmanova et al. (2009) for Canadian Holstein cows.
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Development and characterization of a high density SNP genotyping assay for cattle.

Development and characterization of a high density SNP genotyping assay for cattle.

In cattle, GWA can be used to localize the genomic regions that contribute to natural genetic variation in any phenotypic trait. The identified target regions can then be fine-mapped at higher marker density to allow the efficient identification of candidate genes. The density of markers required for efficient GWA scans in a species is dependent on the average length of chromosome ‘‘blocks’’ possessing a high level of linkage disequilibrium (LD). The extent of LD between two loci is usually measured with statistics such as r 2 , which is the squared correlation between alleles present at two loci, typically on the same chromosome. Thus, what varies among species and certain populations within a species is the average length of genomic segments for which the r 2 between terminal loci achieves a predetermined value, say r 2 = 0.6. Within such blocks, one or a few markers (i.e., tagSNP) may act as proxies for predicting all, or most, of the haplotypes which are present within the entire block. It has been estimated that the average length of LD blocks is longer for cattle than for humans, due to significant population bottlenecks that occurred during domestication and the establishment of modern cattle breeds [4] and the recent exponential expansion of human populations [5]. While individual estimates vary, it appears that an average block length of 100,000 bp in cattle achieves an r 2 = 0.25, and this block size is approximately three times greater than is found among human populations at the same value of r 2 . Thus, a target marker density for a cattle genotyping array of greater than one marker per 100 kb would position all quantitative trait loci, on average, within 50 kb of a marker for which the expected r 2 = 0.3 [4]. We consider this density to represent a practical starting point for GWA studies in Bos taurus, and at this density, a set of approximately 30,000 variable markers would be sufficient to represent the 3 billion bases of sequence in the bovine genome [6] at an average LD of r 2 $0.3. Since not all SNP appearing in an assay will be variable in all populations, this target number should be increased to achieve 30,000 variable SNP in each cattle population in which GWA studies are proposed. For comparison, only 80% of the tagSNP on the InfiniumH HumanHap550 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) are polymorphic in the African Yoruba population [7].
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Ermias Kebreab1 , Anders Strathe1 , James Fadel1 , Luis Moraes1 , James France2

Ermias Kebreab1 , Anders Strathe1 , James Fadel1 , Luis Moraes1 , James France2

Global demand for meat, particularly in countries with emerging economies such as Brazil, is expected to double by the year 2020 (Mooney et al., 2006), therefore, there is substantial pressure on producers to supply the market. At the same time, there has been a concerted effort to reduce nutrient pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, which has resulted in various international agreements such as the Kyoto protocol and the Copenhagen agreement. Agriculture contributes to nutrient and air pollution in several ways. The main pollutants of interest in relation to ruminant production systems are nitrogen (N) from nitrate leaching and ammonia emissions/deposition, minerals particularly phosphorus (P), greenhouse gases (GHG; carbon dioxide, CO 2 ; methane, CH 4 and nitrous oxide, N 2 O), particulate matter and volatile organic compounds. The scope of this paper will be limited to nutrient/mineral runoff and greenhouse gas emissions. Up to 75% of costs in livestock operations, especially dairy farming, are incurred in feeding animals, therefore, any reduction in feed prices as a result of either reduced N and P concentrations or changes of diet will help farmers increase income. This
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Thermal comfort index in lactating cows in an adapted free-stall facility

Thermal comfort index in lactating cows in an adapted free-stall facility

The low milk yield in tropical regions is a result of the hot climate, which prevents adequate animal performance, since increasing ambient temperatures lead to a decrease in productivity (AN- TUNES et al., 2009). According to Brito et al. (2009), the most adequate conditions for European cattle are an average monthly mean temperature below 20.0 ºC. Temperatures between 24.0 ºC and 26.0 ºC reduce feed intake and production, and the thermal comfort zone lies between 1.0 ºC and 21.0 ºC. For lactation cows, the temperature range between 7.0 ºC and 26.0 ºC is considered opti- mal; from 27.0 ºC to 34.0 ºC, regular; and, above 35.0 ºC, critical (MOTA, 2001). Therefore, high ambient temperatures will reduce the animal’s ability to irradiate body heat, thereby reducing thermal balance, which will result in body weight loss and a decrease in milk production. The Brazilian dairy cattle sector is in a worrisome temperature range, where feed intake might decrease, thus requiring care and monitoring for the Holstein cattle breed in question.
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Quantitative trait locus affecting birth weight on bovine chromosome 5 in a F2 Gyr x Holstein population

Quantitative trait locus affecting birth weight on bovine chromosome 5 in a F2 Gyr x Holstein population

Quantitative trait loci have been detected in experi- mental and commercial bovine, swine and ovine popula- tions (Davis and DeNise, 1998). There are several described bovine QTL affecting many characteristics. Da- vis et al. (1998) detected and mapped five QTL for birth weight on chromosomes 5, 6, 14, 18 and 21 in three fami- lies of paternal half-sib Charolais x Brahman (B. taurus x B. indicus) and Elo et al. (1999) detected a QTL for adult live weight on chromosome 23. Stone et al. (1999) reported sig- nificant evidence for the presence of QTL on chromosomes 1, 2, 5 and 13 and suggestive evidence for QTL on chromo- somes 7, 11, 14, 18 and 26 affecting carcass and growth traits in a family of paternal half-sib Brahman cattle. Casas et al. (2003) suggested the existence of QTL segregating on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 13, 14, 17, 19, 22, 27 and 29 for car- cass composition and growth in families of Piedmontese and Belgian Blue cattle, both breeds from the B. taurus group, while Kim et al. (2003) found a total of 35 QTL (five significant and 30 with evidence suggesting linkage) in 19 chromosomes of an experimental F 2 Angus x Brahman pop-
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Implications of Robotic Walkway Cleaning for Hoof Disorders in Dairy Cattle

Implications of Robotic Walkway Cleaning for Hoof Disorders in Dairy Cattle

Some rs et al. [11,12] in their study indicated that the risk for infect ious hoof disorders in dairy cows decreased, when walkways were c leaned with mechanica l manure scrapers. Several studies found that short cleaning intervals considerably reduce manure on wa lkways and improve the cleanliness of dairy cattle and the housing environment [13,14,15]. This is inconsistent with the observations of Cra mer et al. [16] indicating that there was a negative relationship between the frequency of alley scraping and the prevalence of digital dermatit is. A previous study addressed hoof trauma caused by manure removing equip ment that may harm skin and horn barriers of the bovine feet [10].
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Rev. Econ. Sociol. Rural  vol.54 número2

Rev. Econ. Sociol. Rural vol.54 número2

Abstract: This paper aims to develop new methodology for the Brazilian beef and dairy sectors incorporating different levels of productivities in the Brazilian Land Use Model (BLUM), analyzing land use dynamics. Several datasets combinations were used and supply and demand equations were re-estimated. Historical database developed in this paper shows that the livestock sector increased productivity levels per hectare (in both beef and dairy sectors), being an important land releaser for other agricultural uses. Even in frontier regions, the occupation process was followed by productivity increase. When technologies were implemented in BLUM, results show that there were significant differences on land use in 2030, reducing land for pasture compared to BLUM previous version. In this sense, the study concludes that: using average productivity levels on modeling can overestimate pastureland; migration between technologies (lower to higher levels) will continue in the future; and, finally, market and agents’ behavior changes might be incorporated in land use economic models, so they can reproduce empirical evidences.
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Milk and fat production of crossbred Holstein-Gir cows ( Bos taurus taurus-Bos taurus indicus) in the Agreste region of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco

Milk and fat production of crossbred Holstein-Gir cows ( Bos taurus taurus-Bos taurus indicus) in the Agreste region of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco

averages for MY, FY and FP, so, as expected, the maximum heterosis occurred in this genetic group and was probably determined by non-additive genetic effects. This was true even for FP, which normally presents high esti- mates of heritability. This result is supported by the work of Madalena et al. (1990) who worked with lactations of crossbred Holstein-Guzerá cows, particularly in farms with a low level of management, and also by McDowell et al. (1996), who suggested that in hot climates the first cross- bred generation, under optimum management and feeding conditions, can be used for dairy purposes. The next best MY and FY performance occurred in the 5/8H group, how- ever, FP was low in this group, possibly due to the fact these cows were sired by Holstein bulls which normally sire off- spring which produce lower levels of milk fat in compari- son with offspring produced by Zebu sires. The 1/4H cows
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First report of Trypanosoma vivax outbreak in dairy cattle in São Paulo state, Brazil

First report of Trypanosoma vivax outbreak in dairy cattle in São Paulo state, Brazil

This is the first description of a Trypanosoma  vivax outbreak in the state of São Paulo (municipality of Lins). Fever, jaundice, decreased milk production, weight loss, profuse diarrhea, abortion, anemia, leukocytosis and hyperfibrinogenemia were observed in the affected animals. Thirty-one cows and calves died out of a total of 1080 in the herd. Three cows showed neurological symptoms like dysmetria, ataxia, muscle weakness, ptyalism, lymph node enlargement and submandibular edema. Flagellated hemoparasites were observed in blood smears. The species was diagnosed as T. vivax by means of PCR. This T. vivax strain showed resistance to diaminazene aceturate and the infection spread quickly at the herd. From the ELISA test, 599 serum samples (98.36%) were positive for anti-T. vivax IgG antibodies. This outbreak occurred during a very dry period, which indicates that other factors were involved in the outbreak, such as absence of tabanids and large populations of Haematobia irritans and Stomoxys calcitrans. The increases in these populations may have been due to the use of biosolid waste from sugar and ethanol plants in the sugarcane plantations surrounding the dairy farm.
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BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM DAIRY CATTLE MANURE, UNDER ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM DAIRY CATTLE MANURE, UNDER ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

The treatments evaluated were: a) CMOS–cattle manure under organic production system, from Fazendinha Agroecológica km 47, located in the city of Seropédica, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The cattle herd of Fazendinha Agroecológica km 47 counts with the number of 50 head of dairy cattle Girolando breed. These animals are fed on Brachiaria pasture, organically managed, without mineral fertilization and during the dry season they are fed in the trough when available, grass, sugarcane and leguminous, also from organic production. The cleaning of the facilities is performed only with water, and the removal of manure from the corral was done by scraping and; b) CMCS – cattle manure under a conventional production system, from the dairy cattle sector of the Agricultural Research Company of the State of Rio de Janeiro - PESAGRO-RJ, also located in the city of Seropédica (RJ). The herd of the estate counts with the number of 180 head of cattle from the Girolando breed. These animals are fed with a Brachiaria pasture, but also consume commercial feed with 20% crude protein, as well as cotton seed meal, corn, soybeans and macronutrient and micronutrient supplementation. The calves are fed with feed based on corn, soybean and mineral salt. Cleaning of facilities and milking equipment are carried out with soap, alkaline and acid detergent. The removal of manure from the corral was done by scraping.
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 	  Screening of selected indicators of dairy cattle welfare in Macedonia

Screening of selected indicators of dairy cattle welfare in Macedonia

Considering the present dairy production in Macedonia, where most of the farms have less than 20 animals (9, 10) with predominantly tie stalls, the acquisition of farms was focused on tie stalls, while the categorization of large and small scale farms was set up only by the number of animals (more than 30 and less than 15 milking cows). Since this study was performed only as initial screening and for the first time the Welfare Assessment Protocol (8) was performed in Macedonian dairy farms, the number of farms was very low for complete representation of the present welfare state of milking cows. Therefore, the absence of any differences between large and small scale farms could be due to the low number of farms included in the study. Since there is considerable variability within small scale farms this could have biased the representation of the current welfare status on state level. In future analyses, proper sampling, in terms of valid geographic distribution and representative number of small and large scale dairy farms, is highly recommended for any detailed analysis on the dairy cattle welfare.
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SCREENING OF BREEDING BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS THROUGH KARYOTYPING

SCREENING OF BREEDING BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS THROUGH KARYOTYPING

Blood samples from 200 bulls of Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Sahiwal, Cross-bred (SxHF) cattle and Nili- Ravi buffalo maintained at the Livestock Experiment Station (LES), Bhunikey (Pattoki), district Kasur and Semen Production Unit (SPU), Qadirabad, disrrict Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan were used to study the normal chromosomal pattern and any karyotypic abnormality (Table 1). About 5 ml of peripheral blood from jugular vein of each animal was collected in sterile heparinized tubes. The micromethod for culturing leukocytes was used in the present study. The procedure used was the combination of techniques of Moorhead et al. (1960) and Lin et al. (1977).
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Genetic analysis of clinical mastitis data for Holstein cattle in the Czech Republic

Genetic analysis of clinical mastitis data for Holstein cattle in the Czech Republic

Mastitis is the most common and costly disease in Euro- pean dairy cattle populations (Halasa et al., 2007; Wolfová et al., 2006). Improving animal health is becoming increasingly important worldwide. Accordingly, many genetic selection programs are focusing on improving disease resistance and functionally important traits (Zwald et al., 2006). The most effective method would be to use direct measures of health or disease as selection criteria, but to do so such traits would have to be included in recording, evaluation and selection schemes. Unfortunately, routine recording of clinical mas- titis is not implemented in many countries, although it has been well established in the Nordic countries for more than 40 years (Carlén, 2008). Direct scoring and recording of ud- der health traits is limited in the Czech Republic, and conse-
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Expressão gênica em bibliotecas de cDNA de pele de bovinos F2 (Holandês × Gir) infestados com o carrapato Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

Expressão gênica em bibliotecas de cDNA de pele de bovinos F2 (Holandês × Gir) infestados com o carrapato Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

The co-existence of Zebu animals with the tick Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus over the centuries seems to have conferred greater resistance to these animals compared to Taurine animals (Villares, 1941; Utech et al., 1978). Genetic resistance to the bovine tick R. microplus is one of the most important factors to reduce costs related to the control of this parasite in tropical cattle systems. Little is known so far about the genetic mechanisms involved in the genetic resistance of Zebu animals to ticks. However, studies regarding this genetic resistance may contribute to the biological control of ticks, since the use of resistant animals is one of the most effective solutions to control this parasite. Genetic resistance can contribute to decrease the tick population, costs with medications, personnel, mortality, and production losses and also to decrease environment pollution and intoxication of the animal. Development of new control methods is of great importance for cattle breeding programs. The identification of new genes and host antigens involved in the mechanism of resistance/susceptibility to the parasite are a promising approach.
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