The use of medicinal plants in treatment of diseases have been an important part of medicinal therapy as observed for thousands of years contributing to scientific search of safer phytotherapeutic products, in this regard. Ever-increasing diabetes mellitus draw scores of researchers' attention to this phenomenon as a serious threat to mankind health in all parts of the world. In spite of the traditional use of botanicals in treatment of diabetes, paucity of definitive data on efficacy of these herbal remedies still deals a challenge in this field. In view of the fact that the diabetogenic effect of STZ is the direct consequence of irreversible damage to the pancreatic beta cells, resulting in degradation and loss of insulin secretion, STZ induced hyperglycemia has been recognized as a convenient experimental model to evaluate the activity of hypogly- cemic agents. 20,21 Intra-peritoneal administration of STZ (55 mg/kg) effectively induced diabetes in normal rats as reflected by hyperglycaemia when compared with normal rats. 22-24 In our present study we have assessed the hypoglycemicactivity of F. parviflora on normal and STZ induced diabetic rats.
Caper (Capparis ovata Desf. and Capparis spinosa L.) is naturally widespread in Turkey. Traditionally, buds, fruits, seeds and roots of this plant are used as tonic, diuretic, anti-rheumatic, expectorant, antidiabetic, and antifungal. The aim of this study is to evaluate potential hypoglycemic effect of C. ovata var. palaestina extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. For this purpose; diabetic mice were administered with 100, 300, 500 mg/kg (i.p.) doses of methanol extract of bud and fruit. Blood glucose levels were screened 60, 120, 240 and 360 min. after treatment. Furthermore, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis, ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging activity test, and phenolic and flavonoid compounds analysis of extracts were carried out. The data obtained from in vivo study revealed that fruit-methanol 500 mg/kg (FM3), bud-methanol 300 mg/kg (BM2), bud-methanol 500 mg/kg (BM3) extracts showed significant hypoglycemicactivity. All extracts indicated significant antioxidant activity, however bud-methanol (BM) extract demonstrated the most potent antioxidant activity. Moreover high levels of phenolic substances and flavonoids were involved in all extracts, but the highest levels were found in FM extract. HRMS study showed that rutin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin) and stachydrine substances had seen in BM extract. The results of this study showed that the C. ovata var. palaestina extracts which, indicate hypoglycemic, antioxidant activities, might provide additional support in diabetes.
In summary, the S. cumini extract exhibited hypoglycemicactivity in addition to its hypolipidemic action in diabetic animals. That brings clinical implications, since if used as a hypoglycemic agent, it may also reverse the dyslipidemia associated with diabetes, and may prevent the CV complications which are very prevalent in diabetic patients. Our results suggest that S. cumini has the potential to be a candidate for investigation as an anti-diabetic agent in humans.
To test whether Mo-LPI exerts hypoglycemicactivity, an alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model was used. Alloxan causes a massive reduction in insulin release because it destroys the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans, inducing hyperglycemia . Thus, the administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg · bw) to the fasted mice markedly increased blood glucose levels. Pharmacological tests confirmed that the i.p. injection of a single dose of Mo-LPI into mice reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. From this study, it could be concluded that Mo-LPI at 500 mg/kg · bw caused the maximum reduction in blood glucose, corresponding to 34.3%, 60.9% and 66.4% after 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively; therefore, this dose was selected for further analyses. Mo-LPI induced slow and gradual glycemic reductions, whereas insulin caused a rapid reduction (65.9%) in blood glucose within only 1 h of administration. In fact, hypoglycemic events are a fairly common side effect in individuals who use insulin therapy to control diabetes [31,32]. The effect of Mo-LPI (500 mg/kg · bw) was also evidenced in the repeated dose test: A 56.2% reduction in the blood glucose level was observed on the 7th day after i.p. administration. Subcutaneous (s.c.) and i.p. administration of a protein (M.Cy) isolated from Momordica cymbalaria in rats showed similar percent reductions (66.0% and 69.0%, respectively) in blood glucose . Significant hypoglycemic effects were also observed in rats after i.p. and s.c. administration of a lectin isolated from Urtica pilulifera seeds and a protein extract from M. charantia fruits, which caused 28.0% and 43.0% reductions in blood glucose, respectively [9,33]. To further characterize Mo-LPI, the influence of temperature on its hypoglycemic effect was evaluated. After heat treatment of Mo-LPI (500 mg/kg · bw) at 98 ◦ C for 1 h, its hypoglycemic effect was only partially
Figure 2 and Figure 3 highlights the rate of glucose transport across cell membrane in the yeast cells system exhibited by the extract of unripe and ripe fruit of M. sapientum respectively. The mechanism of transport of glucose across the yeast cell membrane has received attention and has been considered as an important technique for in-vitro screening of hypoglycemicactivity of various compounds/ medicinal plants. The results of the study revealed that both the extracts under study promoted transport of glucose across the yeast cells.
to the elaboration of a list of natural products, evaluated speciﬁ cally for hypoglycemic effect, of several plants and plant-derived compounds, used as anti-diabetic remedies from South, Central and North America (Tables 2-4). It should be noted that most of the references cited are not ﬁ rst hand observations, but compilations copied from other sources. The original references should be consulted for details on the models or mechanism based bioassays used for testing plant extracts and pure compounds for hypoglycemicactivity.
Although our results did not show anti- diabetic and antioxidant effects for R. turkestanicum rhizome extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetes, the hypoglycemicactivity of some Rheum species has already been reported in diabetic models (Ozbek et al., 2004; Radhika et al., 2010). For instance, Radhika et al. (2010) reported that oral administration of ethanolic extract of R. emodi rhizome at the dose of 250 mg/kg for 30 days resulted in a reduction in blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Chen and Wang (2010) have also reported the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of Rheum franzenbachii root extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. They found that repeated oral administration of ethanol extract (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) for 14 days produced a significant fall in plasma glucose level and MDA, while elevated the reduced glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in diabetic rats. This discrepancy among these studies and our results could be related to the R. turkestanicum species and differences in chemical composition among the species. This is confirmed by a study which has reported that there are significant variations in chemical composition among Rheum ribes samples collected from six different regions in Eastern Anatolia (Andic et al., 2009).
Due to conﬂ icting scientiﬁ c results and the fact that Bauhinia species are widely used in Brazil as hypoglycemic plants, without any control, using popular knowledge that correlates the color of the ﬂ owers with the suggested activity power, we have decided to investigate the hypoglycemicactivity of the aqueous extract of two Bauhinia species used in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The selected species are Bauhinia forﬁ cata L. and Bauhinia monandra Kurz. A second objective is to try and isolate one or more markers for these species that could be responsible, at least in part, for their activity in normoglycemic mice, and could ﬁ nd potential use for quality control purposes.
As mentioned previously, GE is a very complex process. From the functional point of view, the proximal stomach (the fundus and most of the gastric body) presents tonic activity that accommodates the food bolus and propels the contents to the distal stomach through subtle contractions that overlap the tonus and increase the intraluminal pressure (3,4). The processes that accom- modate the ingested material without substantial increase of the intragastric pressure involves inhibitory pathways mediated by the dorsal vagus complex, the activation of which leads to: 1) the receptive relaxation mediated by vago-vagal reﬂex and triggered by swallowing, and 2) the accommodation mediated by the activation of gastric mechanoreceptors, which are stimulated when the stomach is distended, triggering intrinsic and vago-vagal reﬂexes (3,7,31). The neurotransmitters of the gastric accommodation are nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide (3,7,31).
Statistics analysis was carried out through the SPSS – ver- sion 16.0. The comparison of the participants’ characteristics (age, body mass index and schooling), of the quality of life and the physical activity between the peri and postmenopausal women was performed through the T test for independent samples and the comparison of the health and hormone replacement through the chi-square test. The associations between physical activity (walking, moderate physical activity, vigorous physical activity, moderate plus vigorous physical activity, and total physical ac- tivity) and the quality of life (physical domain, psychological do- main, social domain and environmental domain) were analyzed through partial correlations adjusted to the condition (peri vs. postmenopausal). After the analysis, the physical activity variable which best related to several quality of life domains was selected in order to divide the total sample into three groups: A) < 30 min/day; B) 30-60 min/day; C) > 60 min/day). These three groups were compared through the ANCOVA adjusted to the condition (peri vs. postmenopausal) and, in case of significant differences among groups, through the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Due to the sample size, significance level was set as p < 0.01.
The mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of NS has been suggested previously to be due to pancreatic actions via enhancing insulin secretion and inducing β-cell proliferation and regen- eration.[9,11] Another group of researchers have proposed extra-pancreatic actions as a mech- anism of NS hypoglycemic effect through enhancing tissue sensitization to insulin, especially liver and muscles.[10,12] Benhaddou-Andaloussi et al have reported that NS ethanol ex- tract greatly improves systemic glucose homeostasis in diabetic ‘Meriones shawi’ by acting through increasing circulating insulin and enhancing the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to the hormone. They attributed this effect, in part, to an activation of the AMPK pathway in skeletal muscle and liver; and to an increased content of Glut4 in skeletal muscle. In the present study, the recorded hypoglycemic effect of NS seems to be due to dual effect of this plant on peripher- al insulin resistance and β-cell function. This is supported by the significant reduction in insu- lin resistance, and the significant elevation in β-cell function induced by NS supplementation in our study.
Antimalarial activity against P. falcipalum (K1) was determined by microculture radioisotope techniques (Desjardins et al.) . The anticancer activity against the NCI-H187 was performed using the method described by Brien et al. . The preliminary antimicrobial activities were also evaluated using the agar diffusion method. The microorganisms used were: Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27553, Candida albican, Aspergillus flavus and Trichophyton mentagrophyte.
We have applied an experimentally validated VS workflow based on (a) two structure-based pharmacophores, (b) protein- ligand docking and (c) an electrostatic/shape similarity analysis to identify NPs that may be novel scaffolds for the discovery of new PPARc partial agonists. Thus, from an initial set of 29,779 NPs that are annotated with their natural source, we predict 22 molecules to be potential PPARc partial agonists. A subset of 12 of these molecules are present in 11 natural extracts with known antidiabetic activity and 10 of them are present in extracts related (i.e., they are from species of the same genus) to plants with known antidiabetic activity. None of the 22 hits show chemical similarity with 211 known PPARc partial agonists obtained from the literature and, therefore, are new chemical scaffold candidates for the development of PPARc partial agonists. Moreover, our results provide a new hypothesis about the active molecules of natural extracts with antidiabetic properties and their mode of action, i.e., the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is increased through the action of PPARc. We also suggest plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity that may contain PPARc partial agonists and are related to plants with known antidiabetic activity. These plants represent a new source of potential antidiabetic extracts. Consequently, our work opens the door to the discovery of new antidiabetic extracts and molecules that can be of use, for instance, in the design of new antidiabetic drugs or functional foods focused towards the prevention/treatment of T2DM.
its second major peak during October. The greatest drop was observed in November until second week of December. North-western Himalayan region, India, Gupta et al. (1990) found that the seasonal fluctuation of B. zonata adult activity occurred during June on apricot and plum while in the second week of July on peach. The maximum capture on peach occurred during the third week of June. In Jammu and Kashmir, India, Rai et al. (2008) revealed that fruit flies occurred on guava, mango, citrus and phalsa, with peak populations of 1882.2, 1967.3 and 1069.3 adult male /trap, respectively. The population density was significantly higher in navel orange orchard than in peach orchard. In Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat, India, Dale et al. (2010) Mentioned the highest number of fruit fly populations was observed in September and the lowest in May in the guava orchard. The peak fly population coincided with the fruiting season of guava.
Our finding of a significant decline in hypoglycemia and coma rates in patients with low HbA1c during recent years is consistent with previous observations in smaller population-based studies . The overall rate of severe hypoglycemia in our study was similar to that of another population-based investigation and a recent randomized controlled trial (17.9 per 100 patient-years) [4,28], but lower than in studies from tertiary diabetes centers (29.4 to 55.4 per 100 patient-years) [19,21]. The rate of hypoglycemic coma in our population was lower than that described in other studies (8 to 26 per 100 patient-years) [5– 7,11,17–19,21,29] but similar to that in a Finnish population (3.1 to 3.6 per 100 patient-years) . It may be assumed that differences in study design, patient selection, and case definition have contributed to the variability of hypoglycemic event rates observed in these studies.
Anti-inflammatory activity: Phytochemical analysis of non woody aerial parts yielded 6 flavonoids, namely kaempferol, ombuin, kaempferol 7,4’-dimethylether-3-o-β-D- glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-o-β-D-glucopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-o-β-D-glucopyranoside and hesperidin together with one triterpene caffeate, 3β trans-(3,4 dihydroxycinnamoyloxy) olean-12-en-28-oic acid. These seven compounds from non-woody aerial parts show the anti- inflammatory activity against inhibiting the lipopolysaccharides and interferon γ induced nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines. 7
concentrations, the methanolic extract has a significant activity against 15-lipoxygenase enzymes present in the reaction mixture while the other extracts have considerable effects. Figure 1 presents the graph representation of the percentage inhibitions exhibited by the different concentrations of all of the samples.
DPPH radical is very stable molecule and used to determine free radical scavenging activity of natural compounds . As shown in Table S1, the activity increased with increasing the amount of the extracts (Table S1). The difference between the control and Klasea extracts was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The hexane extracts demonstrated less activity in this assay. However, methanol extracts of K. kurdica, K. coriaceae and K. cerinthifolia showed higher DPPH scavenging activity; higher than that of BHA and close to that of α-tocopherol at all studied concentrations.
elements, but of revealing the relations which characterise that activity. Such systems analysis simultaneously rules out any possibility of a bifurcation of the reality that is being studied, since it deals not with different processes but rather with different planes of abstraction. Hence it may be impossible at first sight, for example, to judge whether we are dealing, in a given case, with action or with operation. Besides, activity is a highly dynamic system, which is characterised by constantly occurring transformations. Activity may lose the motive that evoked it, in which case it turns into an action that realises perhaps a quite different relationship to the world, a different activity; conversely, action may acquire an independent motivating force and become a special kind of activity; and finally, action may be transformed into a means of achieving a goal capable of realising different actions.
In tropical humid countries, the impact of storage period on the quality of agricultural product might be pronounced. The current practice of macaúba fruits exploitation, based on recollection of wild dropped fruits, and extraction of oil from dried fruits, which were kept loosing water naturally without reasonable storage conditions, has rendered unsuitable mesocarp oil for food or biofuel purposes. To overcome this scenario and bring macaúba to the agribusiness, it is demanded to develop whole technological packages to settle processing pathways. Questions like“oil should be extracted from fresh or dried pulp”, are still to be answered, and depends on the cost-effectiveness of the technical approaches. This work aims to provide knowledge about postharvest behavior of macaúba fruits that can be useful to build up a successful macaúba processing. There is a lack of information about storage time and macaúba mesocarp oil quality. Therefore, this work assessed macaúba mesocarp oil quality, based on physical, chemical and biochemical activity and lipid physico- chemical properties, of fresh fruits stored at room conditions and increasing storage periods and recommended appropriate storage time as a technological package.