6 Blogs: Represent the earliest form ofSocialMedia (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010) and is similar to an online journal where the entries are date-stamped and presented with the most recent entry first (Mayfield, 2008). There are various features that make blogs distinct from other websites: tone, topic, links, comments and subscription (Mayfield, 2008). Blogs are usually written in an informal and conversational tone and the author tends to define the topic they are writing about, which can be specific or wide in scope. Blog writers usually make reference to other websites or blog posts to provide further information about what they are writing about. Blogs can be subscribed to using RSS technology, which makes it easier for the audience to keep up to date with new content. In blogs, there is also a comments section that can be considered a small message board or forum, which offers the possibility of interaction between users (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010).
A data mining approach typically includes phases such as data understanding, data preparation, modeling and evaluation (Han et al., 2011). The dataset described in Table 1 includes twelve features (eleven exported from Facebook plus the computed total interactions) that may be used to measure performance, thus any of them can be used as an output to predict. Therefore, the procedure included modeling each of those twelve features to assess which ones can be better predicted. The meaning of each of those features is detailed in table 3. The seven remaining features are known prior to the post publication and can be used as an input. However, three of them are unique per post: the permanent link, the post ID and the post message itself; therefore, such features are of no value to modeling, considering that those do not represent any type of relationship between posts. One could argue that the posted date is also unique per post; nevertheless, a few characteristics may be extracted from the date: the month, the weekday, and the hour. Adding these three computed features to the previous three (excluding the Posted date-time value since it is distinct for each post) provides a dataset with seven distinct input features for feeding the model (table 2).
Figure 1.2 shows the average of fake identities and underage users. According to the survey a very large number of fake identities exist in social networks, these fake identities perform many kind of violations on social Networks in which they register themselves as a fake identity on name of someone else and upload of inappropriate material (Porn or adult) with fake identity it is very much common act of violation. Those users who share their personal information online are badly victimized by fake users . It has also recorded a very large number of underage user using social networks which is almost double of adults (18+) users, social networks are used by three categories of people one of which is teenagers second one is young adults and the third one is adults (18+). According to another survey it has been recorded the ratios of teenage users by categorizing the users in three categories one of which is teenagers (12 - 17) second one is young adults (18 – 21) and the third one is adults (22+) as shown in figure 1.3.
Over the years, many authors have explained what Socialmedia is from their point of view. Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) define socialmedia as "a group of Internet- based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content.‖ Socialmedia content can contain text, audio, video and networks. Text was the first socialmedia, mainly in the form of web blogs. Blogs are written content on the website which is created by the user. These may include day to day diary summaries, audio and also visual content like attached videos and pictures. As Web 2.0 began to explode with the evolution and improvement in technological tools, and socialmedia being the fruit of the web that it is, started gaining more traction among the millennials. Soon there were plenty ofsocial networks that came about and the masses embraced it. People were in awe of the fact that communication between themselves and their friends or family had become so easy. Mangold and Faulds (2009) say that socialmedia have become a major factor in influencing various aspects of consumer behavior including awareness, information acquisition, opinions, attitudes, purchase behavior, and post-purchase communication and evaluation. The development ofsocialmedia has had a profound impact on the way client organizations communicate with their audiences. Baines (2010) observes the reduction in the amount of traditional media and an increase in the amount of digital and socialmedia over the last several years. This is the reason we see a lot of online interactivity with organizations and its consumer base.
. Telecom sector is seeing exorbitant growth in Pakistan. The sector is said to be growing at a fast pace yearly (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority). Mobile subscribers are more than 100 million as of Oct 2010. In fact, Pakistan has the highest mobile penetration rate in the South Asian region . This study intends to explore the impactofsocialmedia on purchase intention of mobile phone customers in Pakistan. In view of the growing number of cell phone users, the factors that influence the purchase intention of customers need to be explored. SocialMedia is being considered playing an important role in customer buying decisions, however little studies have explored its impact over the customer purchase intention. Our study aimed at measuring the impactofsocialmedia on customers in Pakistan.
Research on the impactofsocialmedia in the workplace has focused on identifying ways in which the latest modes of shared communications has influenced productivity in project development, testing, and implementation. Traditionally, a written formal project management communication plan has been key in supporting the integration management that coordinates the project from beginning-to-end, to ensure a greater level of collaboration when managing project scope, schedule, budget and quality, and also to provide a greater sense of confidence in completing the project successfully. However, how beneficial are socialmedia networks in improving the project team’s dynamics, which are important for successfully managing scope verification, budget adherence, and schedule compliance? How will these tools play a role in ensuring greater user involvement, senior management commitment, and user/system requirements? The purpose of this research is firstly to recognize what types ofsocialmedia networks have been used and accepted as potential models for improving project management, and secondly; to promote a discussion to advance research paradigms for investigating the impactof implementing socialmedia networks in project management.
Online social networks have been growing exponentially and are now one of the most important platforms of communication among users. This study aims to understand the impactof this new place of interaction on consumers’ behavior. To measure this impact, a quantitative study was conducted. The sample was randomly selected with 150 men across different nationalities and age groups, and was made in co-operation with the Consumer Goods Company P&G. The objective of the study was twofold: 1) understand the importance ofSocialMedia as a marketing channel; and 2) based on the results, establish the most efficient Facebook media strategy to then be deployed across BRAUN ’s key markets. The results show that tie strength, attitude towards the product and the amount of time spent online affects the perception and purchase intention of a particular product. Although variables like income and product class play a small role, the purchase intention of the consumer is significantly affected by Facebook activity, attitude towards the product and tie strength.
Additionally, I would like to thank to all my friends for all the help, motivation, fun times that I will never forget. I am grateful to my friends who have been with me since the high school, Sofia Batista and Mariana Serras, for continuing with me throughout these years, taking care of my (sometimes complicated) character, for all the patience, advice and memorable moments. To my friends and colleagues, Sara Pereira, Sofia Gomes, Inês Rodrigues, Inês Coelho, Maria Miguel Félix, Carolina Sá Pereira, whom I met in the first year of Católica and who continue with me. Thank you for all the possible escapades from Católica, for the sharing notes, theories, knowledge and most importantly, thank you for never giving up on me. To my friends from the North, Tiago Pontes Silva and Gonçalo Rodrigues, for being the funniest boys I’ve met in Católica and for giving me some fun times. Thank you also to my friends who made Erasmus with me, especially Bárbara de Sousa, Cláudia Carvalho, Francisco Piteira and Nuno Barreiros for helping me and supporting me in difficult times.
In Romania, Biz created a list of the most visible 50 socialmedia brands during the year 2012 and the first two months of 2013. The study called Top Social Brands 2013 took into account the brands degree of popularity and the impactof the campaigns carried on in socialmedia (Biz, 2013). The top 50 most popular brands was led by Vodafone, followed by Samsung, Danone, Avon, Pepsi, Heineken, Cosmote, Coca-Cola, Ford, Orange, F64, Nivea, Nokia, Romtelecom, Dacia, KFC, Staropramen, Mi crosoft,ă Timi oreana,ă Renault,ă ING,ă Lay’s,ă Farmec,ă Ursus,ă BMW,ă Bancaă Transilvania,ă Petrom,ă Rom,ă Doncafe,ă L’Oreal,ă BCR,ă HTC,ă Lenor,ă Grolsch,ă UPC,ă Prigat,ă Citroёn,ă Bitdefender,ă LG,ă HP,ă Piraeusă Bank,ă OMW,ă Jackă Daniel’s,ă Oriflame,ă Matacheă M celaru,ă KLM,ă Canon, Heidi, Skoda and Siemens (Manafu, 2013a).
34 the community, but their interest in the activity is instinctive. Devotees have a small attachment to the group, but compensate with a steady strong interest in the consumption activity. Finally, insiders stand out by having both strong social ties to the group and strong interest in the central consumption activity. Considered the most important data sources for researchers, devotees and insiders shine due to their enthusiasm, involvement and sophistication in the community (Bowler, Jr., 2010). Netnography incorporates a great variety of different research techniques and approaches that should be driven by the researcher's objective and questions (Bowler, Jr., 2010). The type of data collected should go with the quality of the question the researcher wants to answer. The methodological approach must also be appropriate to the analysis. Some of the methodology may involve surveys, journals, or focus groups. The creator of this method believes that the necessary steps the researcher must take to conduct this kind of study are the following: thoroughly plan the research project (research planning), gain entrance to the community (entrée), collect and analyze the data (data collection and interpretation), deal with the ethical considerations (ensuring ethical standards), and finally reflect on how such a research project can/will be evaluated (research representation) (Kozinets, 2010). However, before applying these steps, it is essential to analyse two different areas before: it is necessary to understand when and how to mix ethnography with netnography; secondly, there is a need to comprehend the disparities of the online social environment, so it is possible to correctly and consistently adapt the ethnographic procedures.
and sustainability orientation play an important role in explaining the speed, scope and success ofsocialmedia adoption. Specifically, the results indicate that more innovative companies adopt socialmedia earlier than those that put less emphasis on innovation (H1a), while businesses that have a higher sustainability orientation seem to use SM more extensively (H2b) and be more successful in terms of attaining high numbers of followers and engaging users (H2c). These findings are in line with previous literature on technology adoption (e.g. Frambach & Schillewaert, 2002), which suggests that organisational innovativeness has an impact on the adoption of new technologies such as the internet. Regarding the role of sustainability orientation in determining SM adoption, the results only partly confirm the findings of Lee et al. (2013), who find that more socially responsible firms are faster in adopting SM and more successful in building up a large online presence. While evidence was found for the influence of firm innovativeness on the speed of SM adoption, the hypothesised positive relationship between innovativeness and scope as well as between innovativeness and success of SM is not supported by the model. Interestingly, the relationships identified as significant are unidirectional, i.e. only one significant path per dependent variable was found, contrasting the multidirectional relationships that were hypothesised. Considering that in the two alternative models which tested the same structural paths separately for each independent variable both independent variables were found to be significantly related with the scope of SM, it is possible that complex interaction effects are at play.
goals for Education First, and also on the amount of clicks and followers on EF Portugal social networks. However, there were also influencers - Conguito and Sea3PO - who had hardly any positive impact on the results. Interestingly, these two were the most expensive situations. Although a contract was signed, the experience with Conguito (50.2K followers; Engagement Rate = 1.4%; Average Number of Likes = 2.8K) went awry because he did not even accomplish with 1/3 of what was agreed with EF. Despite being one of the most famous radio hosts between the Portuguese teens, his characteristic way of acting and speaking is not sufficient enough for followers to believe him and take what he says seriously. Sea3PO (331.3K followers; Engagement Rate = 9.05%; Average Number of Likes = 29.6K) , was the first Portuguese socialmedia influencer to achieve such a large number of followers in such a short period of time. Moreover, she was also considered as the Portuguese influencer with the largest number of fans - kids between 7 and 15 years old are completely mad about her and they know everything about Sea´s private and non-private life.
It has become evident in the past decades how non-profit organizations need to put efforts in creating large-scale marketing campaigns in order to enhance their fundraising activities. This is a pain point for many organizations, as they are often lacking the budget for such operations (Hu, Kapuku & O’Byrne, 2014) as well as specialized employees to manage them. In this scenario, digital marketing offers a cheaper, reliable and scalable alternative to traditional marketing for these organizations that have the funds to hire specialists with the right skills. Unlike corporate marketing, which final goal is mostly creating the right environment and brand awareness to increase sales and profits, non-profit marketing is more about seeking relationships, create trust and being able to keep them strong in time. The skill set needed to achieve such results are not easy to find, as most of the formative offer in universities and private institutes provides marketing courses, but just a few of them focus on the branch of the non-profit marketing. It is evident the need of talents with that specific expertise, also because it is impossible to think about a successful organization without such employees. Due to the limited financial resources, organizations of small-medium size often don’t hire specialized employees for managing the digital marketing branch, but they superficially give the role to people who are not really aware of the complexity of the system.
Due to a lack of research the non-EA events are of more interest. When removing the earnings announcements, the CAAR are still abnormally increasing in absolute terms after the detected event. The positive non-EA events CAAR are not significant the first 3 days after the event, although they become significant even at a 1% level the next day and remain significant for 2 more days. Therefore, the null hypothesis that non-EA have no impact on stock returns cannot be fully rejected regarding the positive sentiment peaks. One could argue that the real positive effect of such an unknown event has a delay however, the positive reaction does not last for long. Regarding the neutral non-EA events the null hypothesis cannot be rejected and no clear pattern can be seen. The negative non-EA events give some indication that the CAAR are meaningful after the sentiment volume peak. Figure 6 shows that after the peak, the average cumulative returns remain statistically significant for one week after the negative event, so one can reject the null hypothesis that negative non-EA events have no impact on price returns. Although the period of influence ofsocialmedia sentiment on returns is shorter when earnings events are removed and CAAR are lower, the returns are still statistically significant. All statistics are summarized in Table 2.
Jayaram & Indumeti (2010) while studying the awareness and attitude of farmers associated with sericulture observed a significant relationship between knowledge level and education, total land holding, extension contact, social participation and cocoon yield. Variables like age, education, extension participation and extension contact, mass media exposure, social participation and risk orientation had significant association with knowledge and adoption level of respondents (Shilpa et al . , 2011). Since practice of sericulture in the valley of Kashmir is subsidiary and where only monocropping is practised, it becomes very important to boost cocoon production and single out the reasons which might play the negative role in increasing the productivity. As such the possible role of these determinants in the production of cocoons in Kashmir valley which has not been worked out till date would throw open fruitful information for the sustenance of farmers associated with the sericulture industry.
Nowadays, the power switched places. It moved from the companies to the consumer. Given some specific features of the online environment, consumers are all connected with each other, talking about brands. So, conversations are occurring. Conversations that can have an impact on a Brand’s reputation (Kim and Ko, 2010), and brands do not control what is being said about their business. Yet, Brands can join the conversation. Brands can even promote the conversation in order to engage their fans in followers in subjects that are of its interest. This is where the brands’ strategy sometimes fails, usually by continuing to address their clients as end receivers of a marketing message instead of participants in a dialogue. Thus, this thesis comes as contribute towards that, under the form of a SocialMedia plan for FNAC, a retailers of cultural and technological products. FNAC’s current SocialMedia presence will be analyzed, and there will be suggested measures to capitalize it.
In social networks there are several publications revealing the dissatisfaction of users, which may result in a negative impact for companies when they are released before the whole society. Pekka Aula (2010) gives the example of two cases where this situation occurred. The first case referred to one of the world’s biggest air carriers, United Airlines, which refused to compensate a passenger who was a professional musician for breaking his $3,500 guitar in 2008. The passenger eventually wrote a song about his lengthy but failed negotiations with the company and he sang it in a derogatory music video posted on YouTube in 2009. His protest video ‘‘United Breaks Guitars’’ was seen by millions of people in a matter of days, and as a result the case received widespread coverage in the Internet media – blogs, forums and news websites – as well as in print and TV. Reacting to the groundswell of adverse publicity the carrier quickly responded with a settlement offer.
The model provides the bad fit to the data with a Chi-square (χ2) = 239.96, d.f. =51, p<.05. This is due to larger sample size (n=459). The Larger sample size results into the significant χ2 statistics (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988).However, χ2/d.f. = 4.71 is satisfactory. χ2/d.f. less than 5 is considered adequate to accept the model (Thomson, MacInnis, and Park, 2005). Six indices, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI),Incremental Fit Index (IFI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Normed Fit Index (NFI), Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) were used to examine the model fit. The model fit on these indices was examined by using traditional cut-off criteria of model fit (see Bentler, 1983:1990; Browne and Cudeck, 1993; Marsh and Grayson, 1995; McDonald and Ho, 2002; Schumacker and Lomax, 1996; Thompson, 2000). Traditional cut-off criteria of model fit revealed the satisfactory results to accept the model (see Table 3). Figure 2 shows the structural model.
The third and final hypothesis of this dissertation is related with switching costs. Through the questionnaire it was possible to understand that users are willing to be directly targeted by companies with discounts and promotions, which was confirmed in H8. From the literature review on location-based social networks we know that some of the promotions and discounts that users might benefit from are related with the amount of check-ins they do at a specific location, being these campaigns aimed to increase customer loyalty. Therefore, users have incentives to return to a specific location and interact with that company or brand continuously. Let’s consider the example of Starbucks. If a customer receives a Starbucks’ coffee or a cup after visiting its shop five times, and he has a preference for this brand or the shop is located at a favourable location for him or her, it is normal that this customer will forgo other coffee brands becoming more loyal to Starbucks. Therefore, the third hypothesis about the location-based socialmedia strategic impact for companies is: