Physical activity and sports nature have been undergoing increasing social changes and making a positive economic tourism impact. Many sporting events related with nature and the environment, such as trail running, mountain biking, orienteering and triathlon, among others, have worked to attract tourists and emphasise local identities as a strong point. Thereby, the companies and stakehold- ers, with public policies coupled to a tourist destination (identified as natural and authentic), use physical activity and sport tourism as a key strategy for local development. This is valid not only for major sporting events compe- tition (Chalip, 2005), but also for recreational activities (Cater, Funk, & Low, 2018; Hardiman & Burgin, 2010) and the demands of adventure and hard fitness (Klaus & Maklan, 2011). Likewise, slow and outdoor nature tourism has been growing and becoming differentiated, as has the practice of physical activities in a natural environment (Farkic & Taylor, 2019). The inclusion of sport products and physical activities in the offer of nature tourism pack- ages is evident, which demands concern for preserving wildlife and natural characteristics. Thus, important deci- sions are made by international organisations in order to preserve and regulate the organisation of tourist activities innature. We also know that people who intend to prac- tise sport innature or aim to experience a challenging outdoor activity tend to respect and collect positive con- nections and feelings from a natural, environmental stim- ulus. Nature and cultural heritage are increasingly valued as truly significant to tourists’ interests by way of physical and sporting activities.
The data of this article is related to the original article entitled “An expert-based approach to assess the potential for local people engagement innature conservation: The case study of the Niassa National Reserve in Mozambique” , published in Journal for Na- ture Conservation. The dataset is from an online and self- administrated survey with 55 experts aware of conservation pol- icies and incentives under implementation in the Niassa National Reserve (NNR), the largest protected area in the country and third- largest in Africa. The survey included four sections of both compulsory and non-compulsory questions, mostly in closed- ended Likert-scale. In the ﬁrst section, experts were asked about the main practices that threaten biodiversity conservation in the NNR, the actors who are directly and indirectly responsible for each practice, and the reasons for local people's involvement with those practices. The second section was about the effectiveness and limitations of the current compensation measures to engage local residents with conservation-friendly practices. In the third section, respondents were asked to select new measures to
consequently most likely to exist – having in account all the other possibilities (Stevens 1974, 37). Each geometry has its relative advantages: Fig. 2 shows how an equidistant chain of points disposed in a regular manner can be connected to the midpoint in a more or less directly way. This exercise assumes the existence of a property inNature which is the growth from a center that radiates to achieve each of the peripheral points of the pattern. Spirals, for example are a very uniform pattern. The line which draws its structure perfectly fills the space with great economy of material (line lengh). However, the average distance between each point and the center is great. The meander is more chaotic and less uniform but like the spiral it covers the space with great economy of material. Nevertheless the relation of each point with the central point is very indirect. Explosion pattern is uniform, since it keeps constant angles between the beams. However unlike the spiral and meander this pattern cannot fill the space very well - is much denser near the center. Moreover, the sum of their radii constituents is very high – so it needs more material, long length line. However their connections to the central point are very direct. This is the reason why many cities exhibit this pattern of growth as we can see next section for Lisbon city.
Abstract. Daily rhythms are observed in the majority of organisms, following day/night variations in their environment. Some of those rhythms are endogenously generated by oscillators which synchronize to environmental cycles, by means of entrainment. The daily light/dark cycle, recognized as an important synchronizing agent for various species, is frequently studied by protocols with alternating phases of 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness, which is not the real condition experienced innature. For some animals, the dynamics of out-of-den activity and the sensitivity of photoreceptive pathways might modify the exposure to the light/dark cycle. Despite its importance, synchronization by light/ dark cycles cannot fully predict the activity pattern in the field, due to the effect of other environmental factors on the final activity/rest rhythm.
Tourism has been recognized as one of the most important economic and social phenomena today. It is important to understand how inter-national relations, cooperation networks, especially innature tourism, are interrelated. Thus, based on the intense transformations in the economic and social systems, particularly those involving regional productive structures, in order for organizations working in these contexts to achieve greater competitiveness, there is a continuing need for adaptations in interorganizational relationships. In this process, more and more managers seem to be betting on the differentiation of established activities, which leads to the consideration of new relational forms capable of developing a greater value aggregation for organizations, consumers and markets (Brass et al., 2004). In this same line, international studies such as Jarilho (1998), Ring and Van de Ven (1994), Human and Provan (1997), Olivier and Ebers (1998), Thompson (2003), among others, demonstrate the importance of networks of cooperation as relational strategies capable of generating results that transcend the simple sum of individual resources. In addition, according to Powell (1998), resource and risk sharing, the synergy resulting from organizational interaction and the relationship structure produced, provide a configuration of elements that could result in increased competitiveness for organizations that establish cooperation networks Alternative to development.
Ostensibly, the Darwinian evolutionary synthesis displaced humans at the centre of the earth; yet biologists certainly have not displaced them at the centre of evolutionary thinking. We can still can hear intimations of an evolutionary hierarchy, almost like a great chain of being with humans at the top. Even the most devote Darwinian biologists speak of “higher” and “lower” plants and animals. Humans and other animals are “higher,” bacteria the lowest of organisms. Nonetheless, this is, in reality, not merely our own eukaryotic chauvinism. Indeed, whole books on evolutionary biology are written in which the word “bacteria” is virtually absent. Part of this absence is owing to our anthropocentric world view of bacteria as “germs,” and as the enemy of humans. (We can also still hear ecologists speak of the role of parasites in regulating populations, in the teleological style of the natural theologian viewing a common good in nature’s plan. This non-Darwinian way of seeing, this convergence with the natural theologian of old is actually a way of seeing for environmental preservation.) Our definition of ourselves, our relations with nature and to each other is a question of politics. Our anthropocentricism is understandable.
control. Two flasks containing PVC and LDPE powder (added separately) at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL without the consortium were taken as negative control. The remaining two inoculated with above said amount of consortium and both the polymers separately were taken as the experimental flasks. All the flasks were incubated at 37 o C with continuous shaking (120 rpm). The shift in λ-max in the treatments and negative controls was determined after the regular intervals of 24 h during the incubation period, till the consortium attained the stationary phase. The treated samples were recovered from the broth through the filtration of flask content and then the filtrate as well as the residue was collected separately. The filtrate was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 15 min to remove the bacterial biomass and the supernatant was kept in an oven at 50 o C for overnight to evaporate the water and the residual samples was recovered and analyzed.
Apart from the impact of the PVDF itself, the coating might im- prove or diminish protein adsorption and cell adhesion. For adher- ent cell lines like MC3T3, this is of extreme importance. Surface properties are also inﬂuenced by the sterilization method. In this study, c -irradiation was used to sterilize the devices; this method may increase protein adsorption and cause coating oxidation phe- nomena  . In the present study, no in-depth study was con- ducted on eventual oxidation phenomena on the surface of the devices. It is known that polymers, including PMMA, when sub- jected to high energy irradiation undergo structural changes, with radical formation and scysson phenomena, leading to change of mechanical properties in a dose-dependent manner [41,42] . PMMA samples subjected to irradiation doses of 20 kGr show oxidation, chain scysson and a lower molecular weight, favoring a more duc- tile behavior that might be beneﬁcial in the present experimental conditions  . Material changes can be seen, also, in other steril- ization techniques such as ethylene oxide, ultraviolet radiation and even low temperature plasma sterilization.
Among the most commonly used methodologies for changing the inefficient fra- mework by which EE is currently applied in Brazil are the conducting of in situ practical activities in natural environments (including scientific visits to Conservation Units, walks on ecological trails), and activities carried out in school environments (such as mini courses, workshops, creating vegetable gardens and recycling projects) (SOUZA and BRITO, 2012; SANTOS and BRÊTA, 2013; WEST, 2014; BAUR and HAASE, 2015). While such activities are extremely relevant to EE (SATO, 2002; GUIMARÃES, 2007), their they are often applied in a discontinuous way, or without an appropriate knowledge of biodiversity and sustainability, so that they become yet another informal educational activity that is trying to get beyond the school gates (SATO and CARVALHO, 2005; CARVALHO, 2006). Nevertheless, when EE activities are practiced in a systematized and appropriate way, it is considered that they can often be highly efficient, and that activities undertaken in natural areas are those with the greatest potential to promote knowledge and interest in environmental issues (NAVARRO-PEREZ and TIDBALL, 2012; STERN et al., 2014).
O mercado financeiro produz e negocia direitos sobre renda futura. Estimati- vas de renda futura envolvem risco (probabilidade de eventos desfavoráveis), in- certeza (eventos desconhecidos) e, em função desta, graus variados de confiança nos cenários formulados. O problema não se resume ao custo e acesso à informa- ção, mas envolve também a inexistência dela: trata-se de informações sobre a evolução do mercado ao longo do período (futuro) durante o qual o ativo em questão pode ser retido em carteira ou renegociado. Nesse contexto, utilizar toda a informação disponível não é garantia de uma alocação de recursos eficiente, por- que grande parte das informações necessárias ao cálculo do retorno do investimen- to são indisponíveis (Kregel, 1980).
The simplest natural answer is 2,4,6,6.0 (N=3(N-1)-3 (N-2). Notice that modelling is just an approximation (there are no negative values inNature). It should be simple and convenient. Many models can ﬁt the data, but some give unrealistic extrapolations. Try different models and check the extrapolations. Select the models that ﬁt other natural distributions.
Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese govern- ment has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the ex- pansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast eco- system, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature re- serves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in South- west and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area de- creases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained innature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature re- serves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other re- gions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature re- serves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of na- ture reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of na- ture reserves continues increase.
Further, this passage seems to me much simpler than what Harry sees in it. What Aristotle is saying here is just that whether you consider time in general, as a continuous succession, or any concrete piece of time you like, it will always appear to you as being composed of what-has-been and what-is-going-to-be, of past and future. He is therefore appealing to common sense, everyday notions of time, which fully agrees with the endoxical section of the treatise he is initiating. Of course, this does not commit him in the least to the idea that time is really a whole whose parts are the past and the future. The argument works, on the con- trary, as an ad hoc argument (in fact, a reductio ad absurdum) against all those who do consider time to be so, that this to say, all those, philosophers and non- philosophers alike, who share this naive view of time.
The “Brazilian garden” had in its beginnings a strong Asian influence, regarding the structure and the use of ma- terials coming from that continent, but was cosmopolitan as to the used species and their origins. At the time, the Brazilian garden had its focus on functionality rather than on esthetics, the more as it generally would be found in the backyards of family homes and orchards of religious orders. The arrival of the Royal Family in Rio de Janeiro would produce a Europeanization of the country and the gardens, with great admiration for European plants and flowers, leading to a loss in importance of tropical species, including native ones, as well as already acclimated ones (Marx 2004).
he interface between History, Science and Nature is dynamic and vital for deepening knowledge about the uses of the planet and nature (Earth / Oceans / Seas), understanding it as an agent of modernization of economic, social, scientific and cultural of states and nations (Horden et al. 2006; Rozwadowski 2014; García 2014). Nature can also be seen as an agent of new scientific and cultural practices of sociabilities, representative of new political, philosophical and social ideals, in which the production, circulation and appropriation of knowledge and its techniques is a reality (Wigen 2006; Brito 2010; Salgueiro et al. 2014). There is a brave new world waiting for new relations that unite different spatialities and mentalities, enhancing intercultural encounters, manifested in official reports, explorers' reports, and the constitution of libraries, museums, collections and scientific objects (Lopes 2009; Felismino 2014; Granato & Lourenço 2014; Albuquerque 2015; Nunes 2016; Pereira 2017).
High and broad maxima in temperature dependence of dielectric constant (e 0 ) and dielectric loss (e 00 ) and their shift to higher temperature with increasing frequency form the typical features of relaxor ferroelectrics. Since the first report of about half a century ago, relaxor ferroelectric materials have attracted high attention and been studied intensively due to not only their potential technical applications in piezoelectric devices and microelectronics, but also their pe- culiar physics of partially disordered materials. 1 – 4 The par- ticular structural, dielectric, and electromechanical behaviors of relaxor ferroelectrics are generally related to the presence of polar nanoregions above and below the maximum temper- ature of permittivity (T m ). Since most of the relaxor ferro- electrics with potential applications are lead-based single crystals and ceramics with perovskite structure, 1 , 2 under- standing of the polar nanoregions in relaxor ferroelectrics are mainly based on the study of compounds with perovskite structure. In perovskite relaxor ferroelectrics, the polar nanoregions are related to chemical disorder of cations with different valence in the B-sites, 2 , 3 while in lead-based perov- skite relaxor ferroelectrics, the dynamic Pb-disorder plays a more dominant role than the B-site disorder. 4 – 6 The increased need of environmental friendly lead-free dielectric and microelectric materials promote the search, development and study of new lead-free ferroelectrics and relaxor ferro- electrics. However, the mechanism of relaxor behavior and the origin of the polar nanoregions are much less understood
Monfurado is therefore an agro-forestry-pastoral ecosystem shaped by humans over centuries – Iberian Romans reputedly bred pigs under evergreen oaks (Pereira and Fonseca 2003). It may be exploited for cereal cultivation, cork, charcoal, game, honey, aromatic plants, mushrooms, meat, and dairy products, the latter usually obtained from domesticated, extensively bred animals (Pereira and Fonseca 2003). Pollen analysis has shown that among the first human actions was the clearing of primary oak and pine forests, around 4,500 years ago, coinciding with the high occurrence of Vitis pollen (Stevenson and Moore 1988 in Blondel 2006). Social functions have long been provided by the montado to beekeepers; hunters; wine makers; pickers and extractors of medicinal, aromatic, and fiber- producing plants, mushrooms, fruits, tanning agents, and resins; however, the major production functions of the montado are currently the cork harvest and meat from livestock breeding, both of which secure an income for local landowners (Blondel 2006; Surová and Pinto-Correia 2008). This is also the case in Monfurado, with more than 95% of its area consisting of private property mainly devoted to these activities. Although they have been extensively developed, over the last few decades these activities have been subject to intensifying production scales (Palmeiro 2007).
During the collections of data for our research, one of the problems that appeared was an inconsistency in the defining terminology and in the essential recognition of different features and areas of this type. Löfvenhaft et al.  state that the basic problem in the collection of such data occurs due to “poor and/or heterogeneous compilations of ecological data and the terminological confusion leading to multiple meanings for terms such as nature, forest, park, built-up area and green area.” For Belgrade, which is the subject of this study, it is obvious that relevant legal documents clearly define the concepts of green areas, forest parks, forests, parks and protected natural assets. However, in official documents and among the public, confusion in the use and essential properties of such terms is present. This clearly results in a remarkably complicated or impossible comparison in an international context, especially in countries where legislation is not compatible with EU regulations and recommendations, as is the case with Serbia.