Infection Prevention and control

Top PDF Infection Prevention and control:

THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEILLANCE IN THE CONTEXT OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON  PREVENTION AND CONTROL

THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEILLANCE IN THE CONTEXT OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON PREVENTION AND CONTROL

Objective: To Identify through the literature review the strategies used by the epidemiological surveillance for prevention and control of nosocomial infections. Method: Literature review in Lilacs and Bdenf databases included in the last five years of full-text articles in portuguese, english or spanish, which were related with epidemiological surveillance, hospital infection and prevention/control. Results: The epidemiology is characterized by the observation of the risk factors that contribute to the apperance of the infections in order to provide information for intervention and control measures and make us think about the practice in health. Conclusion: Epidemiological surveillance is the facilitator of the health-disease process, because identifies the links of chain infection transmission to guide the implementation of control measures. Descriptors: Epidemilogic surveillance, Nosocomial infection, Prevention and control.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Andréa Mara Bernardes da SilvaI , Lucas Lazarini BimI , Felipe Lazarini BimI , Alvaro Francisco Lopes SousaI , Pedro Castania Amadio DominguesI , Adriana Cristina NicolussiI , Denise de AndradeI

Andréa Mara Bernardes da SilvaI , Lucas Lazarini BimI , Felipe Lazarini BimI , Alvaro Francisco Lopes SousaI , Pedro Castania Amadio DominguesI , Adriana Cristina NicolussiI , Denise de AndradeI

Objective: To analyze curricular integration between teaching of patient safety and good infection prevention and control practices. Method: Integrative review, designed to answer the question: “How does curricular integration of content about ‘patient safety teaching’ and content about ‘infection prevention and control practices’ occur in undergraduate courses in the health fi eld?”. The following databases were searched for primary studies: CINAHL, LILACS, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Scopus, Europe PMC and MEDLINE. Results: The fi nal sample consisted of 13 studies. After content analysis, primary studies were grouped into two subject categories: “Innovative teaching practices” and “Curricular evaluation. Conclusion: Patient safety related to infection prevention and control practices is present in the curriculum of health undergraduate courses, but is not coordinated with other themes, is taught sporadically, and focuses mainly on hand hygiene.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Status of Hepatitis B Immunization in Medical Stuffs at Children Medical Center Hospital-Tehran

Status of Hepatitis B Immunization in Medical Stuffs at Children Medical Center Hospital-Tehran

Occupational health programs and others responsible for infection prevention and control should identify all staff whose work- related activities involve exposure to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids in a health-care, laboratory, public safety, or institutional setting (including employees, students, contractors, attending clinicians, emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and volunteers); provide education to staff to encourage vaccination; and implement active follow-up, with reminders to track completion of the vaccine series and postvaccination testing among persons receiving vaccination (34).
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Rev. Saúde Pública  vol.45 número1

Rev. Saúde Pública vol.45 número1

RESULTS: The indicators for the technical-operational structure and epidemiological surveillance presented almost 100% conformity in the whole sample. The indicators for the operational prevention and control guidelines and the prevention and control activities presented internal consistency ranging from 0.67 to 0.80. The discriminant validity of these indicators indicated higher and statistically signifi cant mean conformity scores among the group of institutions with healthcare certifi cation or accreditation processes. In the construct validation, two dimensions were identifi ed for the operational prevention and control guidelines: recommendations for preventing hospital infection and recommendations for standardizing prophylaxis procedures, with good correlation between the analysis units that formed the guidelines. The same was found for the prevention and control activities: interfaces with treatment units and support units were identifi ed.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Knowledge about prevention and control of infection related to health care : hospital context

Knowledge about prevention and control of infection related to health care : hospital context

In the field referring to intravascular catheters, infections related to insertion of vascular access, even smaller when compared to bloodstream, show rele- vant considerations that may indicate contamination of the device insertion place and point to the possibi- lity of a specific preventive intervention. In addition, they are indicators of care quality, applied in and out critical and non-critical environments; they measure quality of assistance and impact directly and indirec- tly, raise the cost of hospitalization and increase mor- tality rates. It should be noted that the prevention and control of infections related to vascular catheters is the responsibility of nursing staff (17) .
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Extragenital Gonorrhoea in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Retrospective Study in a STI Clinic in Lisbon, Portugal

Extragenital Gonorrhoea in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Retrospective Study in a STI Clinic in Lisbon, Portugal

young adults, as the age group of ‘26 – 40 years’ accounted for most cases, followed by the ‘18 – 25 years’ group. Considering the patients’ countries of origin, although most cases corresponded to Portuguese MSM, our sample included also several foreigners, living in or visiting Lisbon. This is also a noteworthy finding, reminding that population movements (migration, travelling, etc.) may influence the dynamics of infectious diseases, particularly STIs, and pose challenges to prevention and control efforts, particularly in major urban areas. Walk-in STI clinics like ours are very useful to facilitate people’s access to healthcare, including STI testing and treatment, with no appointment required. Exclusive extragenital gonorrhoea without concurrent urogenital infection accounted for the majority of cases. This means that we identified a considerable number of gonococcal infections that would have been undiagnosed if urethral screening alone had been performed. Furthermore, in most cases (54%) the patients did not present with any extragenital symptoms, including 26 (30%) cases of completely asymptomatic infection. Considering that we found local complaints possibly associated with gonococcal infection at extragenital sites only in 52% of the anorectal and in 14% of the oropharyngeal infections, 48% of the anorectal and 86% of the oropharyngeal infections would have been missed if only the patients reporting local symptoms had been tested for N. gonorrhoeae at these sites. In fact, it is known that anorectal and oropharyngeal gonococcal infections are usually asymptomatic. 2,7,9,20 According to
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Outbreak of Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii – Measures and Proposal for Prevention and Control

Outbreak of Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii – Measures and Proposal for Prevention and Control

In the present study, to identify risk factors for MDR/ carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter, 86 patients were compared to 172 non-colonized/infected patients. Colonization or infection was associated with prior infection and antibiotic use. During 2007, prior infection (p=0.001) and carbapenem use (p=0.001) and, in 2008, third- generation cephalosporin (p=0.015) and carbapenem use (p=0.019) were identified as risk factors. Antimicrobial treatments probably select resistant strains, as is shown by an association tendency in the multivariate analysis. Manikal et al., in a multicenter study, described an increase of MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii associated with the use of third-generation cephalosporins. These authors suggested that the use of one antimicrobial could improve resistance mechanisms to others [39]. Falagas and Kopterides observed that carbapenem and cephalosporin use were important risk factors for the selection of resistant strains [40]. Other studies have also shown, in univariate and multivariate analyses, that prior carbapenem use was associated with A. baumanni resistance [41,42].
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Nursing activities in the prevention and control of nosocomial infection in the emergency sector

Nursing activities in the prevention and control of nosocomial infection in the emergency sector

Objective: To evaluate the performance of the nursing staff in the prevention and control of nosocomial infection in the emergency sector. Method: This is a field study, the exploratory kind with quantitative and qualitative approach and was conducted through a questionnaire and a check list of invasive procedures. The study population consisted of 77 professionals of nursing staff, 15 nurses, 59 practical nurses and 03 nursing assistants. Results: The results showed that the professionals of the nursing staff know the importance of the prevention and control of hospital infection, but only a few knew conceptualize this issue correctly and completely. Conclusion: The safe and effective care can be reality from the acknowledgment of health professionals about the standard precautions to be taken while handling a hospitalized patient. Descriptors : Hospital infection, Nursing, Prevention.
Mostrar mais

13 Ler mais

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF CERVICAL CANCER

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF CERVICAL CANCER

Pap smear screening can identify potentially precancerous changes. Treatment of high grade changes can prevent the development of cancer. In developed countries, the widespread use of cervical screening programs has reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by 50% or more. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary factor in the development of nearly 70% of cases of cervical cancer [13, 14]. HPV effective vaccine against the two strains of HPV that cause the most cervical cancer has been licensed in the U.S, Canada, Australia and the EU. These two HPV strains together are currently responsible for approximately 70% [15, 16] of all cervical cancers. Since the vaccine only covers some high-risk types, women should seek regular Pap smear screening, even after vaccination.
Mostrar mais

18 Ler mais

Care bundle for both prevention and control of hospital-acquired infection in adult emergency service          /          Bundle de cuidados para a prevenção e o controle de infecção hospitalar em serviço de emergência adulto

Care bundle for both prevention and control of hospital-acquired infection in adult emergency service / Bundle de cuidados para a prevenção e o controle de infecção hospitalar em serviço de emergência adulto

The individual groups and approaches provided an exchange of knowledge, orientation from the health team at the study site, a discussion of the issues addressed in the Survey, which presented relevant results, such as poor adherence to hand hygiene by the team, low adherence to the use of gloves in specific procedures, such as in the administration of subcutaneous medications, a deficit in the manipulation of containers for the disposal of sharp materials, and the non-exchange of these when reaching two-thirds of their capacity, according to the manufacturer, and other issues. There was unanimous agreement with the importance of the topic and the need to develop tools to help reduce hospital infections. They were cited to compose the bundle: orientation on the use and consequent adherence to Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), stimulation and promotion of hand hygiene, guidelines and greater adhesion/ solicitation to the hygiene of materials and equipment for collective use. The need for permanent education actions, adequate to the reality of the place, was also highlighted.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.  vol.49 número1

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. vol.49 número1

all antimicrobials tested. Because of infection by gram-negative bacteria resistant to carbepenem, the samples were sent to the Central Public Health Laboratory for investigation of resistant strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. As a result, on May 9, 2014, the Hospital Infection Control Committee was notifi ed by the State Coordination of Prevention and Infection Control in Health Care of Santa Catarina that the patient was infected with bla NDM-1 producing bacteria. Because the patient remained febrile, even with the administration of the proposed antibacterial drugs, the administration of 600mg/day Zivox® was suspended and replaced by 1.5g/day vancomycin, combined with 2,000,000IU/day polymyxin B.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Comparação entre um método de diagnóstico clínico e a técnica de vigilância do Center for Disease Control and Prevention para identificação de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica.

Comparação entre um método de diagnóstico clínico e a técnica de vigilância do Center for Disease Control and Prevention para identificação de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica.

Foram realizadas coletas diárias de todas as variáveis que permitissem a identiicação de PAV, tanto pelo méto- do clínico quanto pelo protocolo de vigilância (NHSN/ CDC 2013). Os dados que alimentaram os dois méto- dos foram coletados de modo concomitante e por pro- issionais diferentes, que não trocaram informações sobre suas constatações. As variáveis do protocolo NHSN/CDC 2013 (Quadro 1) foram registradas prospectivamente por enfermeiras da Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hos- pitalar. Paralelamente, os isioterapeutas registraram as variáveis utilizadas para realização do diagnóstico clínico de PAV. Para diminuir a variabilidade na interpretação dessas variáveis clínicas, utilizamos o Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS), considerando-se diagnóstico clíni- co de PAV sempre que o CPIS alcançasse pontuação ≥ 7 (Quadro 2). (12-14) A pontuação do CPIS obtida a partir da
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Ações de prevenção e controle de infecção em hospitais / Prevention and infection control actions in hospitals

Ações de prevenção e controle de infecção em hospitais / Prevention and infection control actions in hospitals

Destaca-se a formação profissional voltada para uma cultura prevencionista como condição necessária para se concretizar um programa de controle e prevenção de infecção, evide[r]

12 Ler mais

Prevalência de infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e de sintomáticos respiratórios em privados de liberdade

Prevalência de infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e de sintomáticos respiratórios em privados de liberdade

AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY (ATS), CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDC). Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. American [r]

65 Ler mais

J. bras. pneumol.  vol.35 número1 en v35n1a12

J. bras. pneumol. vol.35 número1 en v35n1a12

In 1990, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released a guide on the prevention of TB transmission in health care facilities, with special focus on problems related to the hospitalization of TB patients with HIV. Some of the measures proposed in the docu- ment have already implemented, and others, especially those related to cost-effectiveness, are still under debate. In addition to being the first official document that truly recognized the problem of nosocomial transmission, proposing protection measures, it set forth the following objectives: a) the prevention of the generation of viable bacilli through early identification and appropriate treatment of individuals with active TB; b) the use of engineering methods to control the circulation of aerosols containing M. tuberculosis; c) the use of personal protective equipment, such as masks, in order to reduce the inhalation of aerosols containing M. tuberculosis in the contaminated air; d) surveillance of the individual health care facilities, in order to avoid M. tuberculosis infection and TB. (33)
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil: a 30-year assessment

Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil: a 30-year assessment

Secretariat: Afghanistan, South Africa, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Algiers, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrein, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, BosniaHerzegovina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Ivory Coast, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Djibouti, Domenica, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, United Arab Emirates, Slovenia, Spain, Estonia, Philippines, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Granada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guiana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Montenegro, Myanmar, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Netherlands, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Kenya, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Republic of Korea, Check Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Russia, St. Lucie, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leoa, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Saint Christopher and Nevis, Syria, Surinam, Swaziland, Sweden, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, European Union, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen and Zimbabwe. b Includes the 23 Member States in the Americas that sent reports on the progress of
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

The U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project

The U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project

Persons who reported having been told by a health professional that they had diabetes were classified as having diagnosed diabetes. Persons without previous diagnosed diabetes were those who reported that they had never been told and women who were told only during p r e g n a n c y. Undiagnosed diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glu- cose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dl among persons without diagnosed diabetes. To t a l diabetes is the sum of diagnosed and undiagnosed cases. Prediabetes was defined as having no diabetes and FPG in the range 100-125 mg/dl. Underweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m 2 n o r m a l
Mostrar mais

16 Ler mais

CSP25/11: Prevention and Control of Tobacco Use

CSP25/11: Prevention and Control of Tobacco Use

While health education is useful, it is not usually sufficient to discourage smoking. Similarly, it may not be advisable to endorse a rigid and restrictive set of control measures. A comprehensive approach seems to be the best alternative, including early parental involvement to foster positive role modeling and strong broad school and community involvement in discouraging unhealthy lifestyles. Nevertheless, the price of cigarettes has proved to be an effective deterrent in many countries, including Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America (at the state level).
Mostrar mais

22 Ler mais

Blueprint for the next generation: dengue prevention and control

Blueprint for the next generation: dengue prevention and control

Although legislation exists to regulate various aspects of dengue prevention and control programs and activities, some are not implemented or for some reason cannot be implemented. Means to adjust or create practical legislation must be advocated in order to reduce the disease burden. This includes increasing access to primary health care, particularly for the most marginalized strata of the community; incorporating environmental basic health education at all levels, including the school curriculum; and developing policies to eliminate mosquito breeding sites through periodic removal of trash and other receptacles that attract mosquito populations. How can legislation be developed and/or implemented within a framework that ensures equity?
Mostrar mais

17 Ler mais

Show all 10000 documents...