ABSTRACT - This study aimed to investigate the influence of forage production area, concentrate supply, and farm labor on characterization of milk production systems (MPS) and their productive results. Milk volume data provided in 2014 by 110 dairy farms located in the eastern region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, were obtained from a dairy industry. Forty-four farms with different production levels were selected, in which interviews were carried out aiming to characterize the management practices related to forage production area, concentrate supply, and farm labor. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Then, regressions were made between the principal components (PC) and indicator variables of productive response (annual milk production, milk production per area, milk production per cow, milk production per worker on farm, and number of cows per hectare). Finally, we performed a hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis based on the PCA, followed by comparison of the means between clusters. Three PC were generated: indicator of scale and intensification, indicator of age of the manager and his experience on dairy farming, and indicator of specialization and permanent family labor available. The three PC were influencing the production results, especially PC1. It was possible to form five clusters: cluster 1, characterized by the highest value in PC1, showed the highest production results, followed by the cluster 2, with intermediate values in PC1; clusters 3, 4, and 5, characterized by lower values in PC1 and distinguished by PC2 and PC3, had the lowest productive results. Aspects related to forage production area, concentrate supply, and workforce are important for MPS characterization and have significant influence on productive results.
ILUSTRATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE HEATING RATE IN THERMOGRAVIMETRY RESULTS. The effects of the heating rate on a TG curve of a sample have been widely discussed in the literature. This paper shows the influence of heating rate ( β ) in thermogravimetry results when stoichiometry determinations are studied. For this purpose the compound Sm(CH 3 SO 3 ) 3 .2(3-picNO)
The main scientific databases worldwide that conduct this research are Scopus, Web of Knowledge (WoK) and Scielo. These scientific sources are the most used to support integrative review studies due to its international (Scopus and WoK) and national (Scielo) coverage. Additionally, official and technical reports from governments and private companies of lamps production were also included in the search sampling. The time span for the search was stated from 2002 to 2016. The rationale for the aforementioned time span is because the year of 2002 was very important to disseminate and consolidate the LCA methodology worldwide, represented by the foundation of the Life Cycle Initiative by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and by the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC). On top of that, the number of publications on LCA increased at the early 2000s, as pointed out by several authors (Chen et al., 2014; Cherubini and Ribeiro, 2015; Hou et al., 2015; Zanghelini et al., 2016).
The patients with the medium and back forms of hypospadias suffered from the androgenic deicit characterized by proximal level of meatus ectopia, diminution of penis length and prostate volume, decrease of blood vessels in deep layers of penis skin. The testosterone pre-operational medication of patients makes possible to improve the results of surgical correction due to blood supply of plastic material. on the basis of recieved data logistically regressive model has been worked out and the prognosis of results has been estimated.
significance degrees and estimation coefficients in both panels perhaps indicated that the model is too fragile to the presence of extreme profit observations. Actually, we expected that the models would face more difficulties to explain the behavior of the net profit, since we can point out that the block of the 500 biggest companies listed in the Exame magazine recorded a loss of 10% in sales in 2009, and a growth of 20% of the profit in the same period. Thus, perhaps the profit is more susceptible to internal management mechanisms, specific for each company, which are not captured by the control variables used in the estimation model. Another possible explanation perhaps is the fact that his proxy was not the most appropriate to represent the profit as one of the variables representative of the economic-financial results declared by companies, which in a way is one of the limitations of this research.
1998), explicitly simulates fire spread (following Cohen and Deeming, 1985) and fire ef- fects including post-fire mortality (following Peterson and Ryan, 1986), but allows only one ignition per year per grid cell, and requires a drought index and information on time since last fire to estimate the fraction of the grid cell burnt (Lenihan and Neilson, 1998). Arora and Boer (2005) present a simulation model of fire activity and emissions from
Fungal spores represent a significant fraction of atmosphere bioparticles, which are usually detected at concentrations greater than 1000 spores day/m 3 (Oli- veira et al. 2007 ; Nunes et al. 2008 ; Simon-Nobbe et al. 2008 ; Grinn-Gofron and Bosiacka 2015 ). Knowledge about the dynamics of the studied airborne fungal spores in a locality/region is of great interest not only in aerobiology, but also in the agricultural and health areas (Reyes et al. 2009 ). It is known that in the agricultural area some fungal species can colonise crop plants and damage them, leading to great agricultural and economic losses.
Changes in the constraints with regard to the production of some feeds point to the need to change the value of minimum production of complete cattle feed, complete feed for pig fattening (both categories) and complete feed for chicken fattening. Increasing the production of the feeds tended to decrease net income per kg by 10.12 dinars (complete cattle feed), 5.23 dinars (complete pig feed) and 1.29 dinars (complete feed for laying hens). The net income increase ranged from 0.04 to 9.10 dinars per kg. The greatest impact may be expected from increasing the production of feed supplements for pigs, and the smallest from complete pig feed.
A series of experiments were performed to research the influence of the shear stress and the salinity of the medium (Table 1 ). Four different flow rates were tested. The lowest flow rate was near to the minimum, necessary to maintain the fluidized conditions of the biomass through the flow cell. The highest was chosen to avoid shear stress inhibition [ 15 ]. Regarding salinity tests, two salts were employed, NaCl and CaCl 2 . Ferna´ndez et al. [ 5 ] reported that the presence of NaCl improved the retention of biomassin Anammox reactors acting as a granulation promoter. Besides, CaCl2 has been used as granulation promoterin anaerobic digesters. The initial concentration tested in both cases was 5 g/L, which was supposed not to be significantly inhibitory for the Anammox biomass [ 5 , 17 , 30 ]. Later on, during test 7, a higher concentration of NaCl was tested. The duration of the experimental runs was in every case at least about 20 days, this means at least about 15 HRTs and more than 1 time of duplication of the biomass [ 31 ], which was considered enough to attain a steady state. However, in some of the cases (especially runs 1–3), longer experimental times were necessary to confirm the observed trends. The start of each experimental run was done under transient operation, so as soon as the salinity was changed, the medium was flowing through the flow cell. This strategy was considered better because high salinity promotes strong auto-aggregation of the Anammox biomass [ 5 ]. If that phenomenon was happening inside the reactor, the strong and compact granules formed might prevent or reduce the attachment to the sensor and the PVC plates of the flow cell, apart from causing clogging/smashing in the pump. Besides, taking into account the relatively low HRT, the hydraulic steady state was attained in a short time after the perturbation.
On the other hand, in the study of Fasenko et al. (2001a), incubation results of eggs pre-heated for 12 hours before storage for 14 days were similar to those of non-heated eggs stored for four days. These authors observed that six hours is the heating duration required to the complete formation of hypoblast in the embryo, and suggest a pre-storage heating period of chicken settable eggs between 0 and 2 hours. Conversely, in the present experiment, heating for 12 hours caused worse hatchability in eggs stored for nine or 14 days, probably because it took the embryos to a development stage after XIII EGK, which is the stage that promotes the highest embryo survival when eggs are submitted to long storage periods (Fasenko et al., 2001a; Malecki et al., 2005). In addition, eggs heated for 12 hours before nine and 14 days of storage presented high egg weight loss after storage, which may be related to their low hatchability. Long periods of storage may also increase the probability of bacterial contamination, as cuticle quality deteriorates (De Reu et al., 2006). Also, these embryos were more susceptible to temperature changes from storage to incubation, contributing to their higher early embryo mortality. These findings indicated that heating the eggs for 12 hours before storage was not a proper treatment for eggs stored for nine or 14 days.
Van Rooij et al  evaluated this statement with a large group of unselected women. He analysed FSH, inhibin, estradiol and AMH in women with immature follicles, in order to control whether AMH is able to provide detailed information about ovarian reserve; i. e. about the number of primordial follicles and oocyte quality. According to his findings, the AMH value correlates positively with the number of granulosa cells inside the growing follicle. As AMH also increases when small, immature follicles are abundant, as in PCO patients, it has no predictive value for oocyte quality, but it does for ovarian reserve. In contrast to non-stimulated cycles, the AMH value is a significant prognostic factor for the patient’s response in stimulated cycles. This was proven in IVF cycles by Cohen-Bacrie and Hazout  who were able to recog- nise the “old” ovary with its diminishing ovarian reserve. This low reserve manifests itself by a reduced ovarian response to any hormonal stimulation, by a reduction in oocyte quality, a decline in the fertilisation rate, and a
et al., 2008), drying using vacuum (Swasdisevi et al., 2009), foam mat drying (Thuwapanichayanan et al., 2009), spray drying (Evelin et al., 2009), among others. Dried banana is a food stock in ripe (Leite et al., 2007; Jalili et al., 2008) or unripe maturation state (Pacheco-Delahaye et al., 2008; Borges et al., 2010). The dehydration of banana results also in physical modifications as color change (Prachayawarakorn et al., 2008), shrinkage and porosity (Katekawa & Silva, 2007; Hofsetz et al., 2008; Yan et al., 2008) and texture (Kotwaliwale et al., 2007; Prachayawarakorn et al., 2008).
Soil samples with disturbed structure were collected from the same layer for the determination of gravimetric moisture and particle size distribution of the soil. Soil gravimetric moisture (θg) was obtained by the difference between the wet and dry weight, divided by the dry weight. Soil particle size distribution was determined by the Pipette method (EMBRAPA, 1997) after dispersion following Suzuki et al. (2015). Soil penetration resistance (PR) was determined with an impact penetrometer (Stolf model), where the depth of penetration in each of five impacts was measured with a tape measure, and RP calculated using the equation developed by Stolf (1991).
The impact of the economic crisis on the mental health of the population was assessed by comparing epidemiological data on mental disorders, their determinants and the use of services, before and after the crisis, in a subsample of the pop- ulation studied in 2008 in the National Mental Health Survey (n=3849), part of the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative. Psychiatric morbidity was evaluated in 2008 with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI 3.0). All individuals diagnosed with a mental disorder in 2008 and a 20% random sample of those without a diagnosed mental disorder were recruited In 2015-2016 for a National Mental Health Survey Follow-up (n=911). The follow-up survey evaluated mental distress and 30-day prevalence of mental disorders, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors, social support, perceived neighbourhood conditions, use of services and psychotropic medication. Other questions were included in the questionnaire to capture in more detail the changes that occurred since 2008 at the level of family, work, housing and use of health services.
being proteins, lose their activity after addition of organic co- solvents concentrations higher than 10-20% (14). Therefore, effect of various organic solvents at concentrations of 20% (v/ v) on the enzyme was examined. The enzyme stabilities in organic solvents at 30ºC for 1 and 24 h are shown (Table 5). The results revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa SRT9 lipase was stable for 24 h in organic solvents with the exception of n- butanol and iso-propanol, suggesting alcohols with longer chain length have inhibitory effect. The lipase retains complete activity in n-hexane; even after treatment upto 48 h. A significant degree of stabilization in the presence of organic solvent has been reported for this lipase than lipases obtained from Bacillus (43), Pseudomonas aeruginosa B 11 -1 (31).
FILHO et al., 2006). Many studies have been performed to evaluate these mechanisms; however, the interest in the relationship between grain quality and a more appropriate use destination has also increased (FOX et al., 1992). There are not many studies on grain characterization andinfluence of its characteristics on byproduct yields. Moreover, the current classification standard does not allow estimates of values to allocate a grain for either wet milling or any other process. It is believed that grains with high starch content will provide better starch yields; however, other intrinsic factors, such as their chemical composition, may affect yield (FOX et al., 1992). The knowledge on the relationship among these factors may allow a rapid assessment of grain quality and improve the wet milling process, reducing losses. One example is that, although there are variations in the chemical composition of maize grains, the criteria used in Brazil for classification are based on grain physical and appearance characteristics. Grains with flint appearance (higher density) are preferred due to the fact that they are mistakenly believed to have higher hardness, breakage resistance, and solid contents. However, this evaluation is not appropriate to determine maize quality, resulting in the rejection of high yield potential cultivars for presenting grains of dent appearance or low volumetric mass (DUARTE et al., 2008). Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the influence of the appearance and physical-chemical composition of maize grains on byproduct yields from wet milling. It was also verified the influence of lactic acid concentrations in the steeping solution on the same byproducts.
ABSTRACT: The use of biomass for biochar production is already a reality. However, little is known about its structure and composition, mainly due to the changes occurred during the heat treatment. This information is crucial since it will have an immediate impact on the quality and applicability of the material produced. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze different biomasses, characterizing their potential for biochar production. Woods from Eucalyptus urophylla and Corymbia citriodora and coffee husk were assessed. The biomass was ground and sieved, and then stored under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. Subsequently, the material characterizations were performed through proximate analysis, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In general, all biomasses presented potential to be used in the production of biochar, where low H/C and O/C ratios were found. The coffee husk has higher lignin, extractives, ash and fixed carbon contents, which certainly contributed to its greater thermal stability. The FTIR analysis showed the presence of bands related to recalcitrant chemical groups such as carboxylics and phenolics in the spectra of all biomasses. The thermogram profiles of the C. citriodora and E. urophylla wood were similar to each other, and different from that of the coffee husk, which showed higher thermal stability.
There are many forest species in the Amazon forest with the potential to replace the demand for traditional timbers. However, few studies have been conducted with these tropical species, in order to evaluate their technological characteristics. According to Zangiacomi and Rocco Lahr (2007), little information is available on the potential use of the so-called alternative species for replacing the traditional ones. Surely, the availability of other woods would reduce pressure on those endangered ones.
Essential oils from aerial parts of Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, O. applii, Aloysia triphylla, Ocimum gratissimum, O. basilicum were obtained by steam destillation using a Clevenger-type system. These oils were screened for antibacterial and anti-Candida albicans activity using bioautographic method. Subsequently, minimal inhibitory concentration from oils was determined by microdilution method. Most essential oil studied were effective against Enterococcus faecium and Salmonella cholerasuis. Aloysia triphylla and O. basilicum presented moderate inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus while only A. tryphila and M. piperita were able to control the yeast Candida albicans. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques in order to determine the majoritary compounds.