Institutions of the social sector

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CD28.R34: Coordination of social security and public health institutions

CD28.R34: Coordination of social security and public health institutions

4. To recommend that the Governments include representatives of social security agencies and other health sector institutions in delegations to the meetings of the Organization's Governing Bodies. 5. To request the Governments to direct institutional coordination efforts toward priority problems whose solution will help universalize health services coverage at maximum effectiveness

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A Framework for the Development of Social Media Content Strategies for Higher Education Institutions

A Framework for the Development of Social Media Content Strategies for Higher Education Institutions

Education is intrinsically linked to the idea of a "free right accessible to all citi- zens"in several nations. Even though university students pay tuitions, society at large is affected by any governmental changes introduced in this area. It is also necessary to point out that few services can be considered as basic human rights and, as such, one would easily believe that it is a sector where competition is very low, since there is a permanent base of customers. This is not the case, however. The sector has been undergoing tremendous changes that have been leading to an increased level of com- petition among organizations. Reduced government funding, societal changes and changes in the labor market are some of the most important responsible factors, and the fact is that there has been a decrease in the number of students applying to higher education courses, which has been leading to the marketization of the sector.
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CD32.R11: Coordination of social security and public health institutions

CD32.R11: Coordination of social security and public health institutions

Noting that in various countries of the Region lack of functional and operational coordination still persists among the institutions of the health sector, and particularly between the ministries of health and social security institutions, and that this has unfavorable repercussions on the health care of the population and on the efficient and equitable use of the health resources of those countries; and Recognizing the growing significance and importance of the health care programs being carried out by social security institutions in Member Countries, as well as their potential to help in the attainment of universal health care coverage in this Region,
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The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

One of the most common defects leading to the rejection of faulty castings made of duplex cast steel is hot cracking. Hot cracking – differently from cold cracking which occur on cooling, when the material exhibits already distinct elastic properties – proceeds in the semi-solid state, particularly when the temperature of solidifying casting is close to the equilibrium solidus point. There exist a range of temperatures in the vicinity of the solidus point within which the solidifying metal shows very small deformation ability and small strength. Therefore even little stresses occurring at the solidification stage and caused by density difference between ferrite and austenite, or restricted shrinkage, or various temperature gradients, can be the reason of hot cracking. Copper addition, as it is used in cast steel grades implemented in Polish power industry applications, decreases the temperature of the end of solidification, thus affecting beneficially the surface reproduction quality, but on the other hand it can promote, along with several other elements contained in duplex cast steel, the peritectic transformation during the last stage of solidification. The presence of peritectic solidification, i.e. strictly speaking the structural stresses accompanying that process, is the well-known and significant reason of the increased steel defectiveness in the continuous steel casting (CSC) technology if the steel with carbon content promoting the peritectic transformation is processed.
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Evaluating the influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification

Evaluating the influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification

Presented paper contains evaluation of influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification. The investigated model is based on the heat conduction equation with a heat source and solved using the finite element method (FEM). The model is built with the use of enthalpy formulation for solidification and using an intermediate solid fraction growth model. The model sensitivity is studied with the use of Morris method, which is one of global sensitivity methods. Characteristic feature of the global methods is necessity to conduct a series of simulations applying the investigated model with appropriately chosen model parameters. The advantage of Morris method is possibility to reduce the number of necessary simulations. Results of the presented work allow to answer the question how generic sensitivity analysis results are, particularly if sensitivity analysis results depend only on model characteristics and not on things such as density of the finite element mesh or shape of the region. Results of this research allow to conclude that sensitivity analysis with use of Morris method depends only on characteristic of the investigated model.
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WP 082 – (Mis)Allocation Effects of an Overpaid Public Secto

WP 082 – (Mis)Allocation Effects of an Overpaid Public Secto

Fact 3: Public-private institutional gap. The OECD (2011) report shows that many countries have labor legislation which translates in more secured jobs in the pub- lic than in the private sector. According to Piketty (2014) civil servants in the great depression were immune from the risk of unemployment and some enjoyed an in- crease in their real wages. Clark and Postel-Vinay (2009) construct indicators of the perception of job security for 12 European countries. They find that after controlling for selection into job types, workers feel most secure in permanent public sector jobs and such jobs are perceived to be by and large insulated from labor market fluctua- tions. He, Huang, Liu, and Zhu (2014) provide indirect evidence on job security for China. Using a large-scale reform which decreased job stability in state-owned en- terprises (SOEs) but not for government employees in China in the late 1990s, they show significant evidence of precautionary saving stemming from sudden increases in unemployment risk for SOE workers relative to that for government employees. In Brazil workers in the public sector are guaranteed life tenure after a three-year probation period and since there are no performance evaluation mechanisms in the public sector, rarely an employee is not awarded tenure in the public sector. Conse-
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The Use Of Social Networking Sites For Learning In Institutions Of Higher Learning

The Use Of Social Networking Sites For Learning In Institutions Of Higher Learning

different needs (Silius, et al., 2010). Kärkkäinen (2007) observed that one of the crucial problems in university level studies is that the very early steps at the beginning of studies are the most difficult for many students. One reason for this is that only a few new students know any of their peers at the beginning of studies in their new university. The integration of students into a student community can be supported in many ways. One method is to use the opportunities, techniques and customs offered by social media (Kärkkäinen, 2007 as cited in Silius, et al., 2010) As a result of the ubiquitous nature and pervasive informational function of interactive digital and mobile technologies, social media (SM) has now transformed from being used informally in educational settings to gaining formal acceptance by students, faculty, and administrators (Tess, 2013; Voorn & Kommers, 2013; Waldeck & Dougherty, 2012; Wang et al., 2012). This represents a major paradigm shift in education today. Interactive and mobile technologies, under the domain of Web 2.0 communications, span a wide variety of mediums such as blogs, wikis, social networking, and virtual worlds (Moran & Tinti-Kane, 2012). The unique attributes represented across all SM forums are encompassed by the following functional features: communication, collaboration, community, creativity, and convergence (see Friedman & Friedman, 2013). Such attributes enable more unrestricted and participatory discursive practices, which are at the heart of the instructional-learning praxis (Selwyn, 2011). Today’s students and educators live in the world of Facebook, Twitter, Wikipedia and YouTube. These and many other social networking and social media applications are part of the so- called Social Web (i.e., Web 2.0), best
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Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

The females G.S.I. presents two peak, the first in early winter, in January 2012, (1.15 % ± 0.66 %) and the second in the late winter, in March 2011, (1.45 % ± 0.83 %), and reached the lowest value in autumn. However, the higher values of males G.S.I. were observed in winter, in February 2012 (1.77 % ± 0.52 %), and in spring in March 2011( 1.72 % ± 1.4 %) and April 2011 ( 1.86 % ± 0.88 %) and reached the lowest value in autumn and summer. Similar findings have been reported by Hood and al., (1988) and Sullivan et al., (2003) on Conger. oceanicus and C.conger, respectively. Nevertheless, Correia et al., (2009), showed that the G. S. I. was lowest in autumn and high during winter and spring seasons. This was probably due to mobilization of somatic energy for the development of ovaries. The decline of G.S.I. from April to December 2011in female and from May 2011 to January 2012 in male may be due to the migration of the broodstock. Indeed, the reproduction is carried out in deep water, south-east of Sardinia in the Mediterranean Sea. A spawning ground exists in the Sardinia channel at depths between 600 and, at least, 800 m in the Mediterranean Sea (Cau and Manconi, 1983). The females H.S.I. showed two pairs of peak, first in winter, in January 2012 (1.89 % ± 0.36 %) and March 2011 (1.80 % ± 0.51 %), and the second in summer, in July 2011 (1.75 % ± 0.78 %) and September 2011 (1.84 % ± 0.66 %). The summer peaks coincided with hepatic fats deposits due to intense feeding activity, probably because of the abundant food, useful for fish gonad maturation (Abi-Ayad et al., 2011). The peaks measured in January and March was correlated with the dynamic of G. S. I. these can be explained either by the action of liver (precursor synthesis products involved in
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Brazilian public administration: shaping and being shaped by governance and development

Brazilian public administration: shaping and being shaped by governance and development

Second, there is an increasing concentration of financial and human resources at the federal level, though the bulk of services is in the hands of states and municipalities. The constitution of 1988 aimed at political and administrative decentralization and gave autonomy and power to states and municipalities, but they face increasing challenges to deliver quality public services. Even though the constitution and other reforms aimed at decentralization, most of the public budget stay at the federal level. In 2014, the federal, state, and municipal levels had, respectively, 68.5, 25.3, and 6.2% of the total government taxes (Receita Federal 2015). States and municipalities now deliver the bulk of public services but are strangled financially. Most of the municipalities do not have their own revenues and depend largely from transfers form the federal and state governments. Moreover, even though all municipalities have the same responsibilities, there is a huge difference in administrative and financial resources among them (the same for the states), both in terms of quality and quantity. There are very different municipalities, like Sa˜o Paulo city (*12 million inhabitants) and Bora´ (825 inhabitants), both with the same constitutional responsibilities. As their sizes and capacities vary significantly, this leads to an unequal capacity to delivery public services effectively, such as health and education (Avallaneda and Gomes 2015). There are also some conflicts of jurisdiction over certain responsibilities (Puppim de Oliveira 2005).
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Can we have a multi-level governance for tourism development? The case of Douro region.

Can we have a multi-level governance for tourism development? The case of Douro region.

Some actors perceive progressive actions under the CIM-Douro, despite the heterogeneity and re- sistance reinforced by local agents discourse, here represented by a mayor speech, stating that Douro, as a brand, is not a panacea to solve all problems of their fragile territories. He complements the spe- ech, indicating that the territorial integration took place involuntarily, and “[. . . ] does not require that the whole life of these communities is organi- zed around something that is not derived from the will, nor from the history, traditions and daily life of these citizens” (Lopes, 2012). He has suggested the creation of a new inter-municipal community composed only by the ten historically linked coun- ties that compose the Beira Douro (development association), “a communion of objectives and the existence of a community spirit that facilitates true processes of governance”. For him, CIMS will only be asserted as units of formulation and implemen- tation of territorial policies in a coherent (coin- cident) institutional structure (Lopes, 2012). A year before, he stated: “We have serious problems of local governance, lack of institutional thickness and critical mass, we lack strategic prospective vi- sion, we lack the strong and committed collective actors” (Lopes, 2011). Some agents confirm the lack of political leadership capable of aggregating the municipalities of the CIM-Douro.
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The Social Reality as a “Given Fact of Law” – Between Modernist and Postmodernist Vision

The Social Reality as a “Given Fact of Law” – Between Modernist and Postmodernist Vision

The Social Reality as a “Given Fact of Law” – Between Modernist and Postmodernist Vision. Ramona DUMINIC Ă Andreea DR Ă GHICI[r]

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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Many practical problems can be reduced to systems of linear equations Ax = b, where A, b are known matrices and x is a vector of unknowns. Systems of linear equations play a prominent role in economics, engineering, physics, chemistry, computer science and other fields of Pure and Applied Sciences [2]. A solution to a system of linear equations is a set of numerical values ….. that satisfies all the equations in a system [1]. There are two classes of iterative methods [3]: linear stationary and linear nonstationary. The stationary iterative methods are the Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR and Nonstationary include Krylov subspace methods: Conjugate Gradient, Minimal Residual, Quasi-Minimal Residual, Generalizes Minimal Residual and Biconjugate gradient methods. The choice of a method for solving linear systems will often depend on the structure of the matrix A. According to [8] ideally, iterative methods should have the property that for any starting vector , it converges to a solution Ax = b. [5] is of the view that examination of the Jacobi iterative method shows that in general one must save all the components of the vector while computing the components of the vector for an iterative method. According to Hadjidimos [6], the first step in the construction of solution of stationary iterative methods usually begins with splitting of matrix A. Thus, A = M – N where det M and M is easily invertible so that A = b is equivalent to = T + C , where T = and C = giving the iterative scheme = T + C , (k = 0,1,2……). [2] noted that for systems of linear equation A the splitting matrix may be chosen in a different way; that is, one can split matrix A as A = D L U where D is the diagonal matrix, L and U are strictly lower and strictly upper triangular matrices respectively. In solving the systems of linear equations Ax = b, therefore, we consider any convergent method which produces a sequence of iterates { [7] .Quite often the convergence is too slow and it has to be accelerated. According to [9] to improve the convergence rate of the basic iterative methods, one may transform the original system A = b into the preconditioned form PA = Pb, where � is called the preconditioned or a preconditioning matrix. Convergent numerical sequences occur quite often in natural Science and Engineering. Some of such sequences converge very slowly and their limits are not available without suitable convergent acceleration method. Some known acceleration schemes are: Chebyshev Extrapolation scheme [4] and residual Smoothing.
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Analysis of Open Data Availability in Czech Republic Agrarian Sector

Analysis of Open Data Availability in Czech Republic Agrarian Sector

MA has undertaken the biggest step towards open data at the end of last year when it published a substantial GIS part of the LPIS portal that was not publicly available before. Here it is necessary to particularly highlight the fact that the data from the LPIS portal can be exported into open XML format. MA was followed by other institutions such as the SVA or CISTA. Here it should be noted that many other data remain internal. Among them one could ind a lot of other data that could be potentially made open. Most of the already published data has great potential in their subsequent use. There are options for potential developers and for the general public. Developers will mainly appreciate access to data in "raw" format. The biggest area opened for specialized farming applications – pest occurrence registers, advisor registers, catalogs of public commissions, etc. On the other hand, the Ministry of Agriculture and other institutions took patronage over of these applications themselves. These applications, which transform the "raw data" to other forms of information, ind their use mostly with the general public (Charvat et al., 2014). However, a problem occurs with institutions that have chosen to disclose only the fully ready information, not "raw data". Many of these
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THE IMPACT OF ICT SECTOR ON THE SOCIAL PILLAR OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

THE IMPACT OF ICT SECTOR ON THE SOCIAL PILLAR OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The social pillar is the principle axis of sustainable development. The main objective of sustainable development is sustainable economic development achievement, to improve the living conditions of human communities and to contribute to social and ecological balance. Healthy and educated human resource contributes to economic development of a country.

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Happiness, Economic Well-being, Social Capital and the Quality of Institutions

Happiness, Economic Well-being, Social Capital and the Quality of Institutions

economic journals using subjective indicators. 4 For a discussion of the issues raised by the use of subjective indicators, see, among others, Veenhoven (2002), Kahneman and Krueger (2006), and Diener and Suh (1997). The robustness of some empirical results and the fact that the same variables that seem to explain subjective happiness also explain objective acts of suicide (Helliwell 2004) provide additional support for the reliability of subjective information. 5 Two main type of methods have been used to measure subjective well-being. The first one results from a survey where individuals are asked how satisfied they are with their lives: the “survey life satisfaction” method. The other, is based on individual time allocation to several activities weighted by the subjective experiences (“net affect” or “unpleasant” experiences) associated with each. Both have advantages and shortcomings. In this paper we follow the “survey life satisfaction”. The fact that there are reliable measures of “happiness” solves a problem. It is now possible to analyze the determinants of “happiness”, namely income but also other non material causes, and see their relative importance. However, it does create a different problem: what should the indicator for measuring the effectiveness of public policy be: an indicator of subjective well-being (SWB) or an indicator of material well-being (MWB)? Should we have a national well-being index and accounts, or should we concentrate on GDP growth, national accounts, and income distribution?
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Saúde debate  vol.40 número111

Saúde debate vol.40 número111

The hypothesis that guides this analysis states that the APP is a privileged mechanism to privatize public goods, currently fully le- galized by the Public-Private Partnership Act (LAPP). In the literature on the subject it is common to find different ways of naming the same concept, i.e., ‘mixture’, ‘articulation’, ‘as- sociation’ or ‘collaboration’. In this work we decided to call it ‘public-private articulation’, since we consider that this denomination connotes the precise and complex forms of relationship between the public and private spheres and, in addition, combats the con- ceptual tendency to conceive them as entities that share common interests, under condi- tions of equality and neutrality.
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INDICATORS OF THE ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE FOR THE PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN ROMANIA

INDICATORS OF THE ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE FOR THE PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN ROMANIA

Another important aspect refers to the fact that performance cannot be qualified in isolation, but rather it should always be addressed by reference to a mark, through a comparison process. In this regard, defining and choosing the comparison criteria are important. As Siminică considers (2010, p. 114), highlighting performance can be achieved only by comparison with other obtained results because being performant means to reach or to exceed the proposed objectives. However, in his opinion, the objectives to be achieved are not the only referential which can be chosen for comparison. Regarding this issue, the authors Coste and Tudor-Tiron (2013, p. 218) believe that, for measuring the performance, the comparisons with public organizations offering the same type of services would be helpful. In turn, Ganea (2012, p. 72) considers that the performance measurement process involves not only the activity of quantifying and presenting performance through a number or a value associated with various indicators, but also the action of comparison, of reporting to a referential (internal or external, previously made or programmed) in order to determine the institution actions efficiency or inefficiency.
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	Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Alcohol drinking results in exposure to acetaldehyde, derived from the beverage itself and formed endogenously. Acetaldehyde is a genotoxic compound that is detoxiied by ALDH. The presence of the ALDH2-2 allele encodes ALDH2, an inactive enzyme. Carriers of the ALDH2-2 allele accumulate acetaldehyde and have higher relative risks of alcohol-related OEC and HNCs as compared with individuals with wild-type alleles. The International Agency for Research of Cancer stated in 2009 that acetaldehyde derived from alcoholic beverages could cause cancer and that alcohol consumption, i.e. ethanol in alcoholic beverages, was classiied as a group 1 carcinogen. 17 A strong linkage of
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Strategic and programmatic orientations for the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, 1999-2001

Strategic and programmatic orientations for the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, 1999-2001

Despite the significant achievements chalked up in health, such as the increase in life expectancy and the control of communicable diseases, with the consequent reduction in infant mortality, due mainly to the advances in controlling poliomyelitis, measles, and diphtheria, the three evaluations performed by WHO on the progress toward achieving the goal of Health for All by the Year 2000 indicate that enormous efforts remain to be made, since major population groups do not yet have access to basic health services. In this regard, the targets and goals promulgated in the SPO for the period 1995-1998 have largely not been met. The gaps between specific population groups in regard to the benefits provided by the health systems are still enormous, and extensive reforms in the operation of the services will be needed to guarantee universal access. This situation justifies making a vigorous effort to attain Health for All as proposed by WHO.
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The national health system in Chile

The national health system in Chile

needs in the health sector if they continue to be used in accordance with the commitments of particular institutions and not in the light of an over-all national [r]

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