First, duplicate studies were excluded. Then, the screening by title and abstract was performed. The articles were read in full, with the selection of the eligible ones. All steps were performed individually. In the end, both found the same ar- ticles, five in total. Many studies assessed functional capacity or quality of life and not functioning, as was the expected outcome, so they excluded. Some articles addressed function- ing in the microbiological aspects of mosquitoes. Figure 1 de- scribes the selection process.
To test the ICF model, the EF, PF, and HC domains were added to the partial model previously described, allowing the exploration of the paths between “function” (BSF, activity, and participation) and HC, EF, and PF (Figure 2B). In the complete model, the relationship between HC and function was not significant (standard coefficient =–0.12; p=0.128). Likewise, the subjacent construct of the BSF “sit-to-stand test” and subjacent constructs of the PF’s “physical activity”, “smoking habit”, “employment status”, and “relationship status” were also not significant. Left upper limb grip strength, back scratch test, and number of children obtained factor loadings values <0.3, and according to the criteria presented in the literature 37 , these were
According to Haddad et al. (2009), between 1991 and 2008 there was an increase of 458% in the number of courses in the health field in Higher Education Institutions both public and private, stimulated by the expansion- ist policy of the government. In research carried out by Lopes et al. (2010) between the years 2008 and 2010 there was an expansion of undergraduate education in Occupational Therapy in Higher Education Institutions, especially in public universities linked to Restructuring and Expansion of Federal Universities program, which created undergraduate courses in different parts of the country in order to balance the number of the distribution of these in all regions, however, the data from this study show that this fact is not yet a reality. The publication of national curriculum frameworks of bachelor’s Ministry of Education (2010) reveals that the Brazilian higher education is in singular situation: need to expand as social demand, but has a disproportionate distribution of- fering, whose expansion may compromise its social function. The disproportionality of supply manifests itself in two ways: a large concentration of vacancies in a few courses, with consequent deficiency in the others, and ex- treme spraying of courses across the country, making it difficult to identify training profiles attuned to the social and economic reality.
− Contextual factors - The contextual factors are the environmental and personal factors which either enhance or limit the individual's functioning. These factors are indirectly understood in the sections of evaluation of activities and participation; however, they are important to explain certain situations (e.g. two individuals with the same diagnosis/ physical function depreciation may have different limitations when it comes to activities and participation). The environmental factors are the physical, social or attitudinal world ranging from the immediate to more general environment. The personal factors entail elements that make people different and unique, such as life style, education level, sex, race, life events or psychological characteristics. Differences in mastering capacity are a possible explanation to why individuals with the same physical function depreciations do not have the same limitations when performing various activities. For example, when it is windy outside, some individuals will put up wind shelters, whilst others put up windmills. Dependent on whether one looks upon changes as strenuous or as a challenge which contains new options.
Included instruments assess the presence or absence of envi- ronmental factors (the CHeC, HACe, and NeWS), the intensity of the environmental factors impact (MQe), or the intensity and frequency of the environmental factors impact (the CHIeF and FAbS). The presence of a potential barrier in the environment does not necessarily mean that it impacts on the individual’s functioning. For example, stairs at the entrance of a supermarket may be a barrier to people using a wheelchair, but neutral to persons with a hearing problem. This compares with the ICF coding convention 1, as environmental factors are coded alone, without relating these codes to body function, body structures, or activities and participation. These instruments may be of value when making global assessments as they help to identify envi- ronmental factors that have the potential to be barriers, but they seem to be of little value when assessing a particular person. The assessment of the intensity or extent of the environmental factors impact gives an indication of the direction (barrier or facilitator) and intensity of the impact. However, it does not distinguish environmental factors that have a big impact but low frequency, from environmental factors that have a big impact every day. The instruments that assess the intensity and the intensity and frequency of environmental factors impact ask participants to consider how environmental factors influence their daily life, which is closer to ICF coding convention 2 (environmental fac- tors are coded for every component) and to the design approach of a direct assessment of environment-functioning interaction identified by Reinhardt et al. (17).
In both corpora,  found about 70 discourse markers, corresponding to words and expressions that occur mainly in spontaneous speech, being rare in written texts (e.g. ‘pronto’ and ‘bem’/well). This selection was build according to the prospection of the data, and included variations of the same marker, like então (so, then) and mas então (but then). This data-driven approach allowed studying discourse markers that, despite being very frequent in spontaneous speech, were still not described in the Portuguese grammar. Overall, discourse markers, both in LECTRA and in CORAL, account for 3% of the total number of words in each corpus. The LECTRA corpus has a total of 5,103 vs. 1,719 in CORAL.  also showed that the most frequent discourse markers are similar in both corpora, even though their selection is domain and speaker dependent. In the same corpus, there were speakers that tended to use the same discourse marker and those who varied among several structures.
Traditionally, speech-language pathologists and audiologists used a medical model to guide their assessment and treatment practices (7–9) . However, in recent years there has been a remarkable shift in practice beyond the medical model (10) ; seeing the state of health with a broader and integrated vision between the disease and the social environment in which the individual is inserted. The World Health Organization (WHO) created a biopsychosocial model, the InternationalClassificationof Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). ICF is a global and universal system that can integrate the medical and social models. Functioning and disability, according to the WHO, are related functions of the body’s functions and structures, activity and participation, and the interaction with contextual factors on the individual health status (11) . Instruments that assess the impact on functioning in 22q11.2DS specifically are non-existent. Based on the ICF we can define a spectrum of functioning and health domains by using a globally agreed upon language of functioning and health for specific conditions. This is important because it provides a framework for assessment, data collection and quantification of clinical findings of a large number of pediatric patients (12) .
Levi, McAlister and McFadden [20, p.464] ask for a classificationof all pairs (a, G) such that G is a-normalizing, and in  is proposed the more tractable problem of classifying the normalizing groups. The aim of this paper is to provide such a classification.
The difference between grades II and III was based on the frequency and intensity of the spasms and on how easily which spasms could be evoked or triggered. Grade II pa- tients include those with at least two or three characteristics of minor severity in the de- scription of spasms (mild, occasional, trig- gered); grade III patients are those with at least two severe characteristics (intense, fre- quent, spontaneous spasms). Grade IV dif- fered from grade III by the presence of hy- peractivity of the sympathetic nervous sys- tem in the former group. To characterize the presence of hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, the most frequent signs and symptoms were grouped into two catego- ries: major signs (oscillation of arterial pres- sure, arrhythmia and oscillation of heart rate), and lesser signs (generalized sweating, par- alytic ileum and other signs not described on the form, but that could be attributed to the condition). The presence of at least two ma- jor signs, or one major sign and two minor signs, was taken to indicate sympathetic ner- vous system hyperactivity.
In conclusion, a system design was devised and proved to be relatively precise in the classifica- tion of expiration recordings into both Normal and Abnormal labels and into Normal, Obstructive and Mixed labels. Some results of [ 13 ] and [ 6 ] were corroborated, such as the robustness of polynomial approximation of the expiration envelope. A study of several signal processing and machine learning methods was conducted and their characteristics were verified, such as, the use- fulness of LPC in envelope calculation and the high classification performance of Random Forest. There is significant room for improvement, starting with the collection of more recordings, with a higher repeatability quality. It would also be important to increase the number of record- ings of restriction and mixed abnormalities labels, to produce more accurate regression and classi- fication models. Also, further experiments could determine if other envelope generating methods could be removed without compromising both regression and classification results. Nevertheless, the methods that remain on the prototype are relatively simple and easy to implement on any smartphone app which makes the design feasible in practice. The results from this project seem promising and encourage further development.
has high potential of contribution due it has easiness and quickness of use, good reproducibility and accuracy, and its training can be done through photographs. It was found no study about its effectiveness in dental health management systems. After then, a randomized clinical trial was conducted to analyze its effectiveness in reducing the chance of divergence occurrence in a dental health management system, which was carried out in 3 phases: Phase 1 (baseline) - corresponding data collection previous 4 months; Phase 2 - training and calibration of auditors and data collection in the next 4 months; Phase 3 - random selection of 20 dentists among those who performed restorative treatment due to dental caries in the 4 months prior to the study, which has drawn up 10 to receive training and calibration (intervention group) and 10 did not received training (control group), followed by data collection concerning the following four months. We conducted bivariate association analysis with Chi-square test between the dichotomous dependent variable "Divergence" (1 = yes, 0 = no) and the independent variables: phase (baseline=phase 1, phase 2 and phase 3); group (auditor, intervention and control), tooth face (buccal, lingual/palatal, occlusal and proximal); specialist (1 = yes, 0 = no). The variables with p value <0.2 were enabled to be inserted in the initial model of multiple logistic regression, remaining in the model only variables with p value <0.05 (CI: 95%). The chance of the divergence occurrence decreased similarly after training and calibration of auditors and dentists, 47% and 52%, respectively. Dentists who have been trained presented chance of divergence occurrence of 33% less than the control group. The application of ICCMS TM
The field of wireless networking has been explored widely by a number of researchers who as a result have developed various algorithms. But an important challenge in the design of algorithms for a mobile ad hoc network is the fact that its topology is dynamic. Since the nodes are mobile, the network topology may change rapidly and unexpectedly, thereby affecting the availability of routing paths.
Definitions of pediatric obesity are statistical rather than risk based . Current definitions are based on arbitrarily chosen cut- points of BMI percentiles . Since the extent of overweight is increased , there is strong interest in identifying children with severe obesity (Sev-OB) in order to identify children who may deserve intensive treatment. There is still no uniform consensus on definition of Sev-OB in children. Methods based upon percentiles are widely used in clinical practice, and easier for patients and families to understand. Experts suggested that Sev-OB be defined as BMI $99 th percentile  or BMI $1.2 times the 95 th percentile , this latter corresponds to the definition of Sev-OB in adults (class 2, BMI $35 or approximately 1.2 times the BMI 30 cut point). Nowadays different BMI standards are available, the most employed being those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)  or the World Health Organization (WHO) . Values of BMI at the 99 th percentile specific for gender and age are available from both the CDC and the WHO systems: the former were extrapolated from the CDC-supplied lambda-mu- sigma (LMS) values estimated on nationally representative growth charts derived from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) ; the latter were provided from the newly statistically reconstructed curves that used the core sample of the original National Center for Health Statistics charts (NHES II and III and NHANES I) when obesity was not yet epidemic .
Game Theory is a mathematical theory that emerged with the aim of study- ing and modelling events between two people. The goal of this theory is to understand how to make the best choice of strategy when we are facing a conflict. There are many types of games but throughout this dissertation we focused in evolutionary games. These are games that are repeatedly infinitely. Over time there is a dynamic adaptation of the strategies, the equilibrium comes naturally and therefore, the players do not use their ra- tionality. Within this type of games there are a particular game between two people which is known as fictitious play. We focused our study in these type of games when both of the players have two strategies. Our goal was to show that, over time, the system will converge to the equilibrium. In or- der to better understand this interaction we developed a family of examples where we synthesized all the possible combinatorially types.
The problem of genre definition is not trivial. There are obvious questions that come up when one tries to map songs into specific musical genres: for example, should this mapping be applied to individual songs, albums or artists? The fact is that a considerable proportion of artists change the characteristics of their music along their career or at some point venture into musical genres that are not the ones that would characterize the majority of their work. Many musicians even escape categorization, when their music is a big melting pot of different and distant influences. And when defining a song’s genre, should only the musical aspects of the song be taken into consideration? Or also socio-cultural aspects? The musical genres (or subgenres) “Britpop” and “Krautrock” (the word “Kraut” is used in English as a colloquial term for a German person) suggest a decisive geographical factor in its name, and “Baroque” designates the music made in a specific period of the history, the classical music made in Europe during the 17 th and first part of the 18 th century. It is important to note that there is not a general agreement over the definition and boundaries of musical genres. According to , if we consider three popular musical information websites (Allmusic, Amazon and Mp3), we see that there are differences in their definition of genres: Allmusic defines a total of 531 genres, Amazon 719 genres and Mp3 430 genres. Of these, only 70 genres were common to the three. The very nature of the concept of “musical genre” is something extremely flexible: new genres are created through expressions coined by musical critics that “caught fire” and got popular (“Post-rock”, popularized by the critic Simon Reynolds is an example), or through the merging or separation of existing genres.
TD is essentially “dermatology a distance,” using one of many communication technologies to expand the reach of a dermatologist to those in need of their specialized knowledge. Most interactions to date are doctor-to-doctor, but some programs are offering interactions directly with patients. I t should be stressed that the same technologies may be multipurpose, serving also as an education tool. The primary requirements include a simple interface, sufficient communication systems, and trained users. TD today is performed by one of two main methods. The first uses “real-time” (synchronous) videoconferencing, with the patient and dermatologist meeting simultaneously but in different locations, usually with the referring healthcare provider present with the patient. The second is a “ store-and-forward” (asynchronous) method, in which images are transmitted electronically to a consulting dermatologist, such as via email or a web-based interface. I n addition, there are hybrid models integrating aspects of videoconferencing with store-and-forward (SF) systems which are designed to increase diagnostic reliability. However, a recent prospective clinical trial by Romero, et al., has shown that when training in digital photography is standardized, the diagnostic reliability of a hybrid system with audio is no better than SF alone [ 4] . Most international TD is store-and-forward in nature and this review will focus on this modality, which is more convenient and less costly than real-time TD. There are now many guidelines for practicing TD available; the most practical and technical standards have been promulgated by the American Telemedicine Association TD Special I nterest Group [ 5]
issue of goodness-of-fit versus model parsimony. This is also referred to as bias (systematic component) versus variance (random component) in an objective function. Many information criterions that are used to evaluate the optimality of a model incorporate such a consideration by including a penalty function, such as the Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion and Hannan-Quinn Information Criterion (Kapetanios, 2007). As observed in the Bayesian Information Criterion and Hannan-Quinn Information Criterion, an objective function that incorporates a logarithmic penalty function was used in Ahmad et al. (2004b) and Jamaluddin et al. (2007) to cater for the balance between predictive accuracy and model parsimony. However, the parameter values in the penalty function were set arbitrarily. The outcome was a promising balance between the two mentioned characteristics. This outcome is seen to have a potential for further improvement. Different penalty values impose different selective pressures in the population of solutions in constraint-abidance (Li and Gen, 1996). A suitable value of penalty function parameter is thus needed. In this paper, the effectiveness of the objective function is investigated by testing various penalty function parameter values on five simulated dynamic models in the form of a difference equations model. These models are linear and nonlinear autoregressive models with exogenous input (ARX and NARX) (Ljung, 1999). The benefit of using simulated models is the presence of an opportunity to compare the final model directly with the true model. The model structure selection stage requires a robust method that is able to search, within its search space, the model structure that exhibits both predictive accuracy and parsimony with a lower computation burden. This is found in evolutionary computation, which is comprised of genetic algorithm, evolution strategies, evolutionary programming and genetic programming (Sarker et al., 2002). The parameters are estimated using the least squares method.
The division of luminal group presents prognostic relevance, in that the luminal exhibits more favorable evolution. Approximately 90% of patients present life expectancy without signs of disease in five years. Whereas the B luminal behaves more aggressively, resulting in worse outcomes than the intraluminal A. Nevertheless, there is good therapeutic arsenal for the luminal B, since it is sensitive to hormone therapy and benefits from the use of Trastuzumabe when expresses HER2. The double therapy-targetsignificantly improves the prognosis. The response to chemotherapy is generally low in the luminal tumors, but is apparently higher in cancers of the lumen B type. 35,36-38