Governance refers to the means and processes that are used to produce effective results. It cannot be an isolated action of the civil society looking for greater spaces of participation and influence. On the contrary, the concept comprises the joint action of State and society in the search for results and solutions to common problems. It is undeniable that the emergence of non-state actors is central to the development of governance practice. The action of global cities consists of a new type of authority that has gradually become more important, assuming itself as a new form of organisation, which is more horizontal and has no central power and hierarchy among members. City networks are a form of governance and today they take on new characteristics in paradiplomacy, although their creation is not a new phenomenon, as we have observed. Currently, they have been developed by the need of local governments to talk to each other in order to find solutions to the common problems they face. One of the main objectives of network organisation is to achieve better results than what the agents involved would if working separately, such as municipalities. By working in a network, they are better positioned to face situations involving international actors and to interact and exchange experiences with other members.
ratios are smaller than 1. this means that males have smaller chances of having voted once (as compared to not have voted) than females. the same goes for respon- dents with an immigrant background. they also have smaller chances of having voted once (compared to not have voted) than native respondents in any of the six cities (the reference category). remarkably, the coefficients of educational level are not significant. this means that, contrary to the findings of many other studies, educational background in our survey appears not to be relevant for the chances of respondents to have voted once (compared to not have voted). finally, we see large differences in the outcomes between the different cities. there seems to be no diffe- rence in voting behaviour between respondents in Warsaw (reference category), Bil- bao, Lisbon, and rotterdam. However, respondents in thessaloniki and particularly those in Vienna have much higher chances to have voted once (compared to not have voted) than respondents in the other four cities. a possible explanation may be that, of the six cities participating in the research, Vienna and rotterdam have the highest shares of naturalized immigrants in the sample. On the other hand, we included only respondents in the analyses who were eligible to vote. in Vienna, voter participation is generally high (in international comparison), although lower among naturalized migrants.
government, since government implies activities supported by a formal authority with coercive powers, whilst in governance objectives are achieved not necessarily through formal authority but through common and shared goals by all those who are part of the system (Rosenau, 2000). Therefore, governance is more comprehensive than government and its objectives and ways of achieving them are longer lasting. Thus, city networks are examples of governance without government, as there is no central authority in this type of organisation and the relationship between its members is horizontal; its common objectives and symmetrical cooperation enable its existence. City networks fall into the concept of governance in two different ways, although they may differ in their scope of action. First, horizontal cooperation, consensus-based decision-making, a lack of hierarchy among members, and therefore a central authority, demonstrate how governance functions as an organisation and a form of order. Global networks, such as United Cities and Local Governments, focus on broader issues in the international scenario, whilst regional networks, such as Mercocities, strive to find solutions to regional and local problems. These two examples also demonstrate the networks’ intention and objectives to maintain horizontal cooperation and no hierarchies of any kind, whether political, economic or cultural. 15 On the other hand, the international
Along the past two or three decades, the international dimension has become an integral part of education activities and scientific research, giving rise to the notion of internationalization. In this article, the internationalization rationale and mechanisms implemented by the top graduate programs in Brazil those which have received scores 6 and 7 in the 2010 triennial evaluation of recognized graduate programs are examined. Graduate directors of 322 programs were asked to respond to a web questionnaire organized in three content sections that deal with different aspects of their internationalization efforts, namely: meaning(s) and justifications; strategies, initiatives and partners; and facilitating and inhibiting factors. After validation, 66 remained valid questionnaires and form the dataset used to develop the study. A prevalence of an activity-oriented conception of internationalization was detected amongst those programs. Outward mobility is seen as the main mechanism to boost international experience, network building and research collaboration. Albeit incipient, initiatives to attract foreign scholars and efforts towards “internationalization at home” are gaining momentum. The presence of faculty members who are trained abroad, and can mobilize their networks to establish scientific exchanges and partnerships, is considered a key condition for internationalization. However, the lack of a national strategy, appropriate administrative systems and institutional policies in most Brazilian higher education institutions hamper the development of those connections into more meaningful and sustained cooperation.
A – Within the Smart City scope and since we are responsible for the management of the public space, which is everything that involves sidewalks, streets, urban equip- ment and garbage collection, we decided to create an application. After meetings with our teams and several companies, we concluded that the municipality of Braga suffered from the existing bureaucracy. When something was wrong, the citizen could present a complaint to the city council via Facebook’s chat, by email or at the city council’s desk. But these occurrences had the bureaucratic part: between the complaint and the resolution of the problem the citizen had no idea of what was happening. So, in this application, citizens can take a photo with georeference, and report the problem, for example, a hole in the street, a broken drinking fountain or a broken light post. All municipal technicians have access to the back office of the application and filter the occurrences that are under their control. Users can access the application without reporting a problem, but to see the status of all complaints made: if the problem has already been dealt with (green status), if the problem is being processed (blue status) and if the problem is still not being addressed (red status), all to avoid duplication of complaints. Once the reported problem is solved, the user that made the complaint receives a message reporting it.
Brazil is situated on the east coast of South America and it borders every country in the subcontinent, except for Ecuador and Chile. Comprising 26 states and 1 Federal District, Brazil, whose capital is Brasília, is the largest country in Latin America and the world’s ifth largest country in both geographical area and population. It has the largest economy in Latin America and is also one of the world’s fastest growing economies. The Brazilian territory is recognized as having the greatest biodiversity in the world with diferent ecosystems, such as the Amazon Rainforest, Atlantic Forest, Pampa and Cerrado. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) divides it into ive regions composed of three or more states, according to common geographic, economic and social aspects as follows:
A total number of 722 questionnaires were distributed by RSF post during a five-month period, followed by 217 phone contacts in order to supply complementary information and increase the final rate of answers. Finally, it was possible to come up with a final sample of 66 respondent firms, corresponding to a final answer rate of 18.3% from the initial, planned sample (n = 361). As mentioned by Vicente et al. (1996), the representativity of a sample is not a matter of its dimension; rather, it is a matter of whether or not the non-respondents’ answers differ from the respondents’ ones. Since it is expected that the non-answers are mainly due to the entrepreneurs’ lack of availability and awareness regarding the cooperation in these sorts of research initiatives, it is assumed that the non-respondents’ opinions do not bias the representativity of the final sample.
As the drivers of globalization are removing barriers which traditionally segmented the competitive environments of small and large firms, firms of all sizes are joining internationalnetworks (Dana, 2001). While some sectors often need to internationalise their activities, especially sales, at a very early stage of their development because of limited domestic markets (Cantwell, 1995; Keeble, Lawson, Smith, Moore, & Wilkinson, 1998), others do it in search of technical advances. Nachum and Keeble (2003) argue that firms need to identify a successful balance between localised sources of interaction and those in wider geographic areas, and to establish linkages at these different geographic scales in order for them to compete successfully.
that the city and the region attract and fix population means or has underlying the fact that the city or region has satisfactory and competitive responses (compared to other alternatives) to the questions asked. When one is led to consider the possibility of moving, do it long before the fact, using all the information available. That is, the city and the region must be able to predict as early as possible before its occurrence, the main changes expected, in what areas of activity and their respective causes, and, based in this representation of reality, take the necessary strategic actions. This can be done developing what one could call a sensory system of the city or region - or nervous system of the city - that continuously captures the relevant signals that determine the feeling of the inhabitants and forecasts the future sentiment of the population for the three attitudes identified, influencing what one might call the IC of the region or city. This development is inspired by what seems to happen with the human body and brain in which a sensory system that covers the entire body captures the basic data and forwards it to a central system where it is processed. A particularly important aspect of this process appears to be associated with the construction of mental images - see (Kosslyn, 1996) and (Damásio, 2010) - or mental models - see (Johnson- Laird, 1983, 2010).
Slavoj Žižek, a social scientist and Slovenian philosopher, recently redeemed and disseminated the phrase in his book “Living in the End Times” published in 2012 by Editora Boitempo, in which the author singles out elements that foretell the final crisis of capitalism: “the ecological crisis, the consequences of the biogenetic revolution, the imbalances of the system itself (intellectual property problems, the upcoming struggle for raw materials, food and water) and the exploding of social divisions and ruptures”.
Our study of the northern state of Espírito Santo also analyzed the number of notifications of hepatitis B stratified by gender in the three cities with the highest number of cases. In these cities females had higher rates of hepatitis B notification than males, which clashes with national data in which males were responsible for the largest incidence of the disease in Brazil (Brasil 2012). Previously, Clemens et al. (2000) found that the difference between the genders was not significant in Brazil and in the Southeast. However, in our study, a significant difference was found (p < 0.0106) when comparing the city of São Mateus (highest number of notifications) with the citiesof Pedro Canário and Jaguaré.
As one example of how such a network might operate: we are establishing a new network of soil experiments called iSEN (international Soil Experiment Network; Fig. 1), guided by the question: what are the effects of global warming on whole soil profile ecosystem services? The structure of iSEN is similar to a franchised business. The network develops the framework of core measurements and manipulations, pro- vides the “recipes” – the protocols for experimental manip- ulations, basic measurements, and data formats – and the structure for shared resources such as databases. The prin- cipal investigator (PI) for each site obtains their own funding and may add experimental manipulations and measurements onto the core framework. The proposed network will define a minimum standard for the protocols and treatments needed to qualify to participate in the network, while allowing indi- vidual sites to add treatments reflecting their context. A key benefit of the network is that the data will be comparable across sites, allowing for robust synthesis and meta-analysis. Currently, the proposed core manipulations are warming and the addition of 13 C-/ 15 N-labeled litter with optional wa- ter and nitrogen manipulations. Another feature that sets this network apart from other soil experiments (or networks) is that measurements and manipulations will not be limited to only surface soil; our goal is to study responses across the en- tire soil profile or at least to 1 m. The initial focus is on SOC cycling, but many teams will also examine nutrient dynamics and other questions related to ecosystem services that soils provide. As a network of independent PIs, we envision the network will evolve in membership, protocols, experimental manipulations, and priorities, shaped by new environmental problems and new opportunities.
This paper has examined a few popular worries about Hong Kong’s future from a historic perspective and discussed Hong Kong’s long-term development in a forward- looking manner. The rise of Hong Kong coincided exactly with the fall of Shanghai, but the re-rise of Shanghai need not to spell the demise of Hong Kong whose growth rests on China’s development. Shanghai cannot surpass Hong Kong in terms of per capita income in the near future nor will it replace Hong Kong as an only Chinese international finance hub. It is likely, however, that Hong Kong will be overtaken by Shanghai if it continues to ignore the education of its population or to be reluctant to cooperate with the mainland. Due to non-overlapping hinterlands and economic structure differences, the two cities are not a substitute for each other in regional development; their relationship is largely complementary, having no direct competi- tion since, unlike Hong Kong, Shanghai does not rely on services alone for growth. Through further integration with the low-cost prd economy, Hong Kong can stay competitive by shielding itself from low-cost competition posed by Shanghai and the yrd. To extract complementarity requires the two cities to cooperate with strong inter-government coordination. Given its governance system, we are not optimistic about Hong Kong’s industrial modernization. We have reasons to conjecture that it will stick more closely to services without major breakthrough in its industrialization, unless its government has firm determination and great vision. The paper also has provided certain policy recommendations, the most important of which is Hong Kong government system reform with a change to its minimalist policy approach. We believe that, if all goes well, Shanghai could become a city like New York in the u. s., while Hong Kong would evolve into a city like London in Europe.
Linked demonstrates how information technologies will connect everything to everything. It explains the structure ofnetworks (social networks, business networks, living organisms) and how that structure determines the capability to process information and acquire new information resulting in improved individual and network performance. Core concepts of network science such as scale-free networks are explained in detail.
The article describes some results of the survey carried out in the spring of 2013 in the city of Chelyabinsk and that is aimed to reveal the peculiarities of educa- tion and employment practices of young specialists who have higher education and who deal with the economy of the city in different posts.
One example of this is the community bank, that without public funds cannot go on, even with a fee on each credit that it gives. This kind of dependence affects an autonomous and sustainable process of development. Moreover the relationship with Dow Chemical is not clear and puts into subordination the community, even if Dow gives funds independently with the finality of the project. It is owner of the majority of the isle, and when the network will be strength enough it can happen that Dow will prevent its actions. Until now the rock salt mine is exploiting natural resources of community for its private profit, and it is, without any doubt, a way of having a control on the territory. Il Segno has benefited only of public goods, such as land to cultivate and it tries to engage a sustainability on its own, with the sale of products. Matarandiba is so far very weak and activities without funding are not durable on time. This affects the relationship with the territory and the social sustainability. Il Segno is a social cooperative, and for this it has an economic sustainability, even if so far weak. It has to improve its sells even on local territory.
As this was a cross-sectional study, one should bear some limitations of this type of study design in mind, such as the recall bias. To minimize this limitation, the questions used in this study about the major outcomes were restricted to the last year and the outcome referred to physician- diagnosed asthma. The prevalence of current asthma and current wheezing was similar, which may indicate that the prevalence of asthma was not overestimated in this study. The prevalence of current asthma found in this cohort corresponded to 12.8%. Using the same methodology, at four years of life, an 18.4% 10 prevalence had been observed, which demonstrates a significant reduction (p = 0.005) in the prevalence of asthma among these children at 4 to 6 years of life. The occurrence of wheezing in the last year was also lower at 6 years, showing that, if asthma was underdiagnosed in these children, it was not responsible for the decrease in the prevalence, since symptoms were alleviated. Werneck et al. also found a higher prevalence of asthma and its symptoms in the youngest children of the samples analyzed in Minas Gerais. 5