Physic nut (Jatrophacurcas) is a plant cultivated for biofuel production. Pericarp is a potential livestock food source by-product. However, its use may be limited due to the presence of toxic compounds, mainly phorbol esters. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate pericarp toxicity. Twenty sheep were divided in four groups, one control group which did not receive the plant and three experimental groups which received pericarp in 15% (G15), 30% (G30) and 45% (G45) concentrations for 23 days. After 10 days of treatment, pericarp ingestion produced food intake decrease, diarrhea, dehydration and loss of body condition. All treated groups showed decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity. G30 animals presented reductions in urea and total protein concentrations, and increase in potassium and sodium levels. G45 animals showed increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and in albumin, creatinin, total and indirect bilirubin levels. Anatomohistopathologic findings included ascites, hydropericardium, congestion of the gastintestinal tract and lungs, pulmonary edema and adhesions in the thoracic cavity, renal tubular cells and centrilobular cytoplasmic vacuolation and lymphohistiocytic pneumonia and lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic enteritis. On the physiochemical analysis 0.3845mg of phorbol esters/g of pericarp were detected. It is concluded that J. curcas pericarp is toxic and is not recommended for sheep feeding.
The various extract of leaves Jatrophacurcas Linn. belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae were investigated for its physicochemical and phytochemical screening. Ash value (total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash), extractive values, Loss on drying were studied dry weight. Ash content analysis was showed total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash [7.40 %, 4.42 % and 6.12 % respectively]. The moisture content was found to be 1.70 %. Preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids, tannins and carbohydrate.
O ácaro branco Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) tem sido relatado como uma das pragas mais importantes do pinhão manso Jatrophacurcas L. no Brasil. No entanto, não existem informações sobre o potencial de desenvolvimento desta praga nos principais acessos de pinhão manso plantados no território nacional. Além disso, o controle de P. latus tem sido realizado utilizando-se acaricidas, sem o conhecimento das densidades populacionais, devido à inexistência de um sistema amostral desenvolvido em plantas de pinhão manso para esta praga. Assim nesse trabalho se propõe estudar os parâmetros biológicos de P. latus, seu potencial de crescimento populacional em acessos de pinhão manso, a susceptibilidade de acessos de pinhão manso a P. latus, os ácaros predadores e ainda determinar um plano de amostragem para P. latus neste hospedeiro. As informações obtidas foram distribuídas em três capítulos. No Capítulo 1, avaliou-se a biologia de P. latus e seu potencial de crescimento através da taxa intrínseca de crescimento populacional (r m ) em laboratório e da taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional
ABSTRACT - In recent years, the areas cultivated with physic nut (Jatrophacurcas) have expanded in Brazil, aiming at its use in biofuel production. However, one of the problems faced by the producers is the lack of studies on its tolerance to the herbicides registered in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the tolerance of physic nut genotypes to herbicides applied at pre-emergence. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications, in a factorial design, 3 x 6. Factor A was composed by the genotypes (Filomena, Gonçalo and Paraguaçu), and factor B by the herbicides (isoxaflutole, oxyfluorfen, sulfentrazone, pendimethalin and tebuthiuron), plus one non-treated control. Intoxication by the herbicides was evaluated at 19, 32, 40, 48, 56 and 64 days after treatments (DAT). Height, leaf area, and plant dry matter were evaluated at 64 DAT. It was verified that the jatropha genotypes have different tolerance to the herbicides studied. Isoxaflutole and tebuthiuron caused severe injuries to all genotypes and negatively affected all the variables evaluated. On the other hand, oxyfluorfen and pendimethalin proved to be selective to the crop and should be evaluated in further studies to be recommended to the crop.
Jatrophacurcas L. is a species of oleaginous plant that arouses economic interest because it is an alternative source for biodiesel production although little is known about the biology of the development of this plant organism. This knowledge can serve as a basis for the domestication of this species and the discovery of probable solutions for seed toxicity due to the presence of the phorbol esters in the seeds, for example. J. curcas seeds are made up by the embryo, endosperm as well as the surrounding seed coat. The latter is derived from the development of both outer (oi) and inner (ii) integuments. It is known that the ii may act as a transient storage tissue providing carbon and nitrogen sources for the development of the filial tissues, endosperm and embryo. Scientific reports indicate that during ii development the cells undergo programmed cell death (PCD). The aimed at observing the changes in the ultrastructure of the ii during its development and confirm the PCD characteristics by assessing the gene expression pattern for seven different hydrolases (arabinofuranosidase, glucanase, peptidase cysteine tailed RDEL, peptidase cysteine tailed KDEL, aspartic peptidase, serine peptidase and subtilisin) and two inhibitors (inhibitor peptidase cysteine and serpin). The stages used in this study (ovule and seeds at 5, 10 and 25 DAP) were selected based on the morphological changes in the ii observed in light microscopy. The vacuolization and cell expansion were the most conspicuous characteristics observed in the early development of the ii. Furthermore, the first related morphological changes related to PCD were observed at 5 DAP, including rising the periplasmic spaces and ricinossomos and collapse of tonoplasto. In later stages, at 10 and 25 DAP, it was observed enlargement of the cell volume, followed by less dense cytoplasm, presence of peroxisomes, lobed nucleus, condensed chromatin, invaginations and disruption of the plasma membrane and finally cell wall breakdown as well as the rising of gerontoplasts (25 DAP). In the early stages (ovule, 5 and 10 DAP) the expression pattern of genes encoding cysteine peptidase tailed KDEL, serine peptidase and subtilisin it was higher at 10 DAP if compared to the calibrator (ovule). In the ii proximal region of seeds with 25 DAP the expression of all peptidases (other than aspartic peptidase), the arabinofuranosidase and glucanase was statistically superior when compared to the distal region. The correlation of the ultrastructural findings and the transcriptional expression pattern indicates that the occurrence of CCM in the internal integument can act in the supply of carbon and nitrogen sources for the development of the embryo and endosperm. Keywords: Ricinosomes. Gerontoplasts. Programmed cell death. Peptidase.
Jatrophacurcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) é uma espécie oleaginosa, conhecida popularmente como pinhão manso. É originária da América Central, considerada como uma planta rústica e encontrada nas mais diversas condições edafoclimáticas (Dias et al., 2007; Tominaga et al. 2007). Autores como Heller (1996) apontam o México como o centro de origem; os índios que migraram da América do Norte para a América do Sul, há mais de dez mil anos, seriam os responsáveis por sua distribuição do México até a Argentina, incluindo o Brasil. O pinhão manso é uma planta de grande valor econômico, sobretudo por suas sementes constituírem matéria-prima para a produção de óleo e obtenção do biodiesel. Esta característica tem contribuído para o aumento da exploração comercial desta cultura, haja vista o crescente interesse por parte de produtores no seu cultivo. Trata-se de um arbusto de desenvolvimento rápido, podendo iniciar sua produção já no sétimo mês de plantio, permanecendo produtiva por período de aproximadamente 40 anos (Dias et al., 2007;).
Jatrophacurcas é uma planta rústica, com uma grande plasticidade, resistente a longas estiagens, bem como à pragas e doenças, sendo adaptável à condições edafoclimáticas muito variáveis. Possivelmente é nativa de áreas tropicais da América do Sul e, atualmente, encontra-se amplamente cultivada em áreas tropicais da África e Ásia (OPENASHAW, 2000). Desenvolve-se bem tanto em regiões tropicais secas como nas zonas equatoriais úmidas, assim como em solos pedregosos, arenosos e salinos, podendo suportar longos períodos de seca. Há ainda os benefícios de produção que se inicia a partir do segundo ano do plantio e perdura de quarenta a cinquenta anos, produzindo de quatro a cinco quilos de semente por individuo a partir do quinto ano de plantio (KUMAR & SHARMA, 2008).
Jatropha (Jatrophacurcas L.) is a promising plant for biodiesel production because its seeds are rich in excellent quality oil that exceeds even the Colza oil quality that currently used for biodiesel production in Europe. In addition, the by-products generated in the production phase have the potential to be used in chemical, pharmaceutical, steel and animal feed industries. However, there is little technical information, such as agroclimatic zoning, available on the cultivation of this crop. This technical information suggests an aptitude for cultivation in a certain region.
In this work was determined, for the first time, the volatile composition from fresh and dried leaves of six accessions (named PM-2, PM-7, PM-10, PM-11, PM-12 e PM-14) and a cultivar (EPAMIG, named here EMB) of Jatrophacurcas L. The volatile compounds was extracted by hydrodistillation and then analyzed by GC- MS. Thus, it was possible to observe that the (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol was the major compound in the fresh leaves (>70% in all accessions). Alcohols also predominated in the dried leaves, mainly (Z)-2-penten-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, but others constituents were identified in significant proportions included benzenoid compounds such as benzaldehyde. The influence of drying on volatile composition from leaves of J. curcas was evaluated on the PM-2 accession. Besides, this work also describes the development of a High Performance Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC) method for differentiation of six accessions and a cultivar (EPAMIG) from fresh and dried leaves of J. curcas. The methanol extracts of the leaves were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and after stages of optimizations, we obtained the fingerprint chromatograms. For a comparative analysis of the accessions and a cultivar, were applied chemometric tools of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), which it was possible to discriminate the samples from dried leaves according to their origins. The methanol extracts of the leaves were submitted to cytotoxicity assay against four tumor cell lines (HCT-8, HL-60, SF-295 and MDA-MB435), presenting IC 50 values of 25.13 µg/ml, against HL-60 cell line for EMB sample considered promising by National Institute of Cancer, USA (NCI). The biological activity of this extracts was evaluated on the development of Spodoptera frugiperda, considered as a primary pest in corn crop. It was observed 60% larval mortality.
O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o sistema de reprodução de 30 progênies de uma população base de Jatrophacurcas L, utilizando marcadores microssatélites. A população base foi estabelecida em forma de teste de progênies, em Selvíria-MS, utilizando o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com 30 progênies, três repetições, cinco plantas por parcela, no espaçamento 3 x 2 m. Todas as árvores do teste forma amostradas para análise de microssatélites. A estimativa da taxa de cruzamento multiloco populacional foi alta, mas significativamente menor do que a unidade ( = 0,888) e variou entre as árvores matrizes de 0,645 a 0,986, o que demostra que a taxa de autofecundação foi maior em algumas árvores. A estimativa da taxa de cruzamento entre parentes foi substancial e significativamente maior do que zero ( = 0,426), sugerindo que as populações de origem das progênies apresentam estrutura genética es- pacial. A correlação de paternidade foi alta e significativamente maior do que zero ( = 0,646), indicando alta proporção de progênies de irmãos completos. O coeficiente de coancestria dentro de progênies foi superior ao esperado em progênies de meios irmãos (Θ= 0,237) e o tamanho efetivo foi menor que o espe- rado em progênies originadas de populações panmíticas ( = 2,03). Portanto, a coleta de sementes para fins de melhoramento florestal, conservação genética ex situ e recuperação ambiental deve ser realizada em pelo menos 74 árvores matrizes.
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estimar os parâmetros genéticos de caracteres morfológicos, cres- cimento de plantas, produção de frutos e sementes e teor de óleo, além de prover uma fonte de material genético superior para continuidade do programa de melhoramento em Jatrophacurcas. Para tanto, foi instalado um teste de progênies de polinização aberta da espécie Jatrophacurcas na Fazenda São Ma- nuel, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas – UNESP. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 30 progênies, três repetições e oito plantas por parcela linear. Foram avaliados os caracteres: altura de plantas (ALT), número de ramos por planta (NRP), número de inflorescências por planta (NINF), número de frutos por planta (NF), peso de frutos (PF) e sementes (PS) e o teor de óleo % (TO). A estimativa dos parâmetros genéticos foi realizada pelo programa SELEGEN. As estimativas dos coeficientes de variação genética individual (CV gi ) e coeficiente de variação genética de progênies (CV gp ) aos 24 meses foram de 26,7% e 13,4% para altura e 21,2% e 10,6% para número de ramos. Aos 48 meses os coeficientes de herdabilidade entre as médias de progênies (h 2
ABSTRACT - The physic-nut (Jatrophacurcas L.) is a versatile plant that has lately been an option in several areas and in folk medicine. Studies have demonstrated their potential for the treatment of constipation, parasitic diseases such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antiviral and antioxidant activity against some tumor cell lines. Among the various extrinsic and intrinsic factors identified as responsible for the emergence of cancer, one of the most discussed have been currently free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS), chemically reactive unstable molecules produced during normal cellular metabolism, however can cause oxidative stress has been described as a major precursor of diseases such as atherosclerosis, cataracts, neurodegenerative diseases and in particular cancer. Antioxidants are molecules which have the property blocking, inhibition or delay the oxidative deterioration by reducing action of free radicals. The anticancer therapeutic options are currently available non-specific leading to the death of cancer cells, as normal cells triggers the onset of side effects. Thus, new compounds that exhibit selectivity are required chemotherapy and recently of natural origin have been introduced in the treatment of cancer, which validates the search for new pharmacological targets from natural products mainly directed to plants used in folk medicine. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity and antitumor action of ethanol extracts of Jatrophacurcas L., in tumor cell line in vitro. For that were prepared fresh and dried extracts of root, stem, leaf and seeds of two extraction methods (maceration and use of Soxhlet) was then performed to identify groups of phytochemicals and extracts of these
Jatrophacurcas L. é uma das oleaginosas mais promissoras para biodiesel e bioquerosene e encontra-se em processo de melhoramento genético. Neste estudo, é apresentada a primeira simulação de seleção de indivíduos e clones com base em dados de plantas com 48 e 60 meses de cultivo, no conjunto de dois anos de produção (2012/13 e 2013/14). Simulou-se a seleção dos melhores indivíduos (valor genético aditivo) e clones (valor genotípico), considerando-se a produtividade de óleo (PO), em kg ha -1 , em 121 famílias de J. curcas. O experimento foi instalado em Araponga, MG, em látice 11 x 11, com três repetições e quatro plantas por parcela, totalizando 1452 plantas, no espaçamento de 2 x 2 m. Os resultados evidenciaram ganhos genotípicos preditos (66%), superiores aos genéticos aditivos (56%), indicando maiores possibilidades de sucesso com a implantação de plantios clonais. Na seleção dos 20 melhores indivíduos para semente, sete foram coincidentes para clone. Os resultados aqui apresentados demonstram o potencial da população de J. curcas para fins de melhoramento genético.
Abstract. The objective was to identify by means of physiological tests genotypes of Jatrophacurcas L. promising for breeding programs. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions. Seeds of four wild accessions of J. curcas germplasm bank of UFV, from the states: Minas Gerais (MG), Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Pernambuco (PE) and São Paulo (SP) were sown in containers (one plant per container) containing four liters soil, sand and manure in the ratio of 3: 1: 0.5 respectively. The plants were irrigated daily to maintain soil at field capacity. Analysis ((Rate of net carbon assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (g s ), transpiration (E) ratio of the concentrations and internal environment of CO 2 (C i /
Jatrophacurcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) has been of interest for biodiesel production in Brazil. Although this species was initially considered to present low incidence of diseases, recent studies have found the opposite (1). Diseases like rust caused by Phakopsora arthuriana Buriticá & Hennen (4) and powdery mildew (PM) caused by Oidium sp. Sacc. (3) have been reported in J. curcas. The importance and the epidemiology of diseases affecting this host, as well as control forms, have not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of diseases affecting J. curcas and the efficiency of some natural and chemical products in their management.
Tolerance to drought remains poorly described for Jatrophacurcas accessions from different geograph- ical and climatic origins. To address this issue we studied the response of two J. curcas accessions, one from Indonesia (wet tropical climate) and the other from Cape Verde islands (semi-arid climate). Potted seedlings (with 71 days) of both accessions were subjected to continuous well watered conditions (con- trol) or to a drought stress period followed by re-watering. To mimic natural conditions in which drought stress develops gradually, stress was imposed progressively by reducing irrigation (10% reduction every 2 days, on a weight base), for a period of 28 days, until a ﬁeld capacity of 15% (maximum stress) was achieved, followed by one week under well-watered conditions. We measured soil and plant water sta- tus, growth and biomass partitioning, leaf morphology, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll a ﬂuorescence. Both accessions maintained high leaf relative water content (70–80%) even at maximum stress. Net pho- tosynthesis (A n ) was not affected by mild to moderate stress but it abruptly dropped at severe stress. This
ABSTRACT – Because the human activities of mining, inadequate waste disposal, and exaggerated use of chemical pesticides, soil contamination problems from heavy metals have been increasingly recorded, occupying agricultural land that could be used for food crops. Among the techniques used to decontaminate areas polluted with metals, there is phytoremediation, which is a technique that uses plants to extract or retain metals from soil. The physic nut (Jatrophacurcas L.) is a species that was identified in many studies as tolerant of low soil fertility and high concentrations of heavy metals, and thanks to these characteristics, could be used in phytoremediation programs. However, data on growth, tolerance, accumulation of metals and changes in mineral composition of this kind are still scarce, requiring that more studies be carried out to prove that potential. In order to analyze the potential of J. curcas species for use in areas contaminated by nickel and copper, six experiments were carried out by applying 0; 6.5; 13; 30; 70 and 100 mg Kg -1 Ni, and 0; 17.5; 35; 60; 200 and 400
O trabalho experimental foi desenvolvido no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Alagoas, município de Rio Largo – AL, Brasil (09º 27’55’’ S, 35º 49’31’’ W, 130 m). Plantas de Jatrophacurcas L. de aproximadamente 9 meses de idade, oriundas de sementes e cultivadas em vasos de 15 kg, foram mantidas em estufa por forma a se desenvolverem adequadamente. Antes do início do ensaio foram efectudas regas em dias alternados, por forma a manter o solo à capacidade de campo. A água a ser reposta foi estimada a partir do cálculo da evapotranspiração potencial. Foram feitas adubações regulares de macro e micronutrientes, de modo a manter as plantas num bom nível nutricional. Efectuaram-se também tratamentos fitossanitários para evitar infestações de pragas e doenças.
Abstract: A limitation in improvement of jatropha (Jatrophacurcas) has been the low genetic variation among the available germplasm. An alternative to create genetic variability and incorporate desirable traits is through wide cross- ing. Due to reproductive barriers, wide crossing in jatropha has had limited success. In this experiment, intergeneric hybridization between jatropha and castor bean (Ricinus communis) was performed. In both direct and reciprocal crosses, a few stigma-compatible pollen grains were found. The pollen tube grew normally and reached the style base within an hour after pollination, but the embryo aborted a few days later. This indicated that the hybridization barrier was post-fertilization and thus the ovules were excised, cultured in MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L -1 IAA, and subcultured every four weeks. Finally we
growing, low cost of deployment and maintenance, high production and does not require large amounts of rain to produce, besides being a perennial. This study was to evaluate the physiological aspects, after pruning of Jatrophacurcas irrigated with saline water, by application of different levels of salinity. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in the agricultural area belonging to the Centre for Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (CAAC), Campus II of the State University of Paraiba (UEPB), Lagoa Seca, Paraíba. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design in split plot in space, with five treatments and three replications, totaling 15 plots. Each plot containing 18 plants (9 x 7.5 / m) has a total area of 67.5 / m2 and a floor area of 15.0 / m2 with four plants. An evaluation of variables: initial fluorescence (Fo), variable fluorescence (Fv), maximal fluorescence (Fm), efficiency of photosystem II (Fv / Fm ratio), transpiration 'E', stomatal conductance 'gs' rate leaf net photosynthesis 'A', CO2 concentration, intrinsic efficiency of water use (A / gs) and instantaneous efficiency of water use (A / E). This study concluded that the salt concentration had a significant effect on the parameters of photosynthetic capacity and gas exchange J.curcas L..