The Cerrado biome has outstanding territorial relevance in the state of Piauí, in which weather conditions, relief and favorable soil has made this region one reference in food production. This study focused to evaluate the effects of different land uses, management systems and their respective terms on organic carbon content and physical properties of a Latossolo Amarelo (Oxisol) in the Southwestern Piauí state. The study was performed in the city of Uruçuí, situated in the southwestern Piauí state. We assessed nine farming areas with different backgrounds regarding land-use, management system and run time. The treatments consisted of areas under no-till for 3 and 6 years (NT3 and NT6), under pasture for 2 and 5 years (PA2 and PA6), under eucalyptus plantation for six and twelve years (EU6 and EU12), under conventional tillage for two and 8 years (CT2 and CT8) and under native Cerrado (NC), which represented a reference condition. Conversion of the native Cerrado into no-till and grazing areas increased soil organic carbon content over time.
The higher richness of organisms in DC and CO plots is related to food selectivity since in DC, it is used for grazing animals in drought years, making the food availability in this area different. Portilho et al. (2012) describe that Coleoptera fauna benefits from animal excrement in pasture areas, altering the diversity and abundance of coleopteran soil fauna. Price and Young (2006) described that in corn cultivation, Coleoptera benefits from the availability of decaying plant material, favoring mainly organisms with detritivorous habits. Thus, the occurrence of adapted taxa and selective habits related to the quantity and quality of the straw in CO, made this treatment present the highest Shannon diversity value (H’ = 3.107). We highlight that the Shannon diversity index (H’) quantifies the diversity of an area by the number of species and their relative abundance (Magurran, 1988), demonstrating that in CO, many groups of soil Coleoptera fauna occur and this occurrence is related to the food selectivity of these organisms, resulting in lower Pielou equitability (J’ = 0.777). Silva et al. (2018) studying the diversity of soil fauna on different land uses andmanagement also found higher Shannon values related to SO and CO crops. Cajaíba and Silva (2015) studying Coleoptera fauna in an area of the Amazon Rainforest found Shannon values ranging between 2.09 and 2.51 at the edge and inside the forest plot. Lima et al. (2015) studying the Coleoptera fauna under natural vegetation and cultivated field, found Shannon values of 2.54 and 1.62, respectively, demonstrating the decrease in Coleoptera diversity associated with landuseandmanagement. Pompeo et al. (2016) described Shannon values of 1.77 for the no-tillage system and 1.28 for natural vegetation for the beetle fauna sampled in southern Brazil.
Abstract: The ability of spiders to spread over contiguous areas (Arachnida: Araneae) is directly related to soil management conditions. The objective of this work was to study the effect of landuse system (LUS) on the abundance and diversity of soil spider families and their relationship with soil physical and chemical properties. The evaluated LUS were: native forest, eucalyptus reforestation, pasture, crop-livestock integration, and no-tillage crop. Samples were collected in three municipalities of Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina, considered as true replicates, during winter and summer. A total of 270 samples was taken in each area and season. The sampling points were arranged in a grid of 3 × 3 m, spaced by 30 m. We evaluated soil physical, chemical, and microbiological attributes and the abundance and diversity of spider families, collected by soil monolith and soil traps. A total of 448 spiders were captured, 152 in winter and 296 in summer, distributed in 24 families and 52 species/morphospecies. There was a seasonality effect related to the landuse systems and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index was recorded in the native forest in both sampling periods. Most families of spiders have a direct dependence on soil physical and chemical properties, such as microporosity, exchangeable aluminum, calcium, magnesium, and potassium during the winter. Organic matter, nitrogen, pH in water, weighted average diameter, soil density, and microbial biomass carbon exhibited dependence during the summer. Vegetation type and soil management are the factors that seem to affect most the occurrence of spiders. The families Theridiidae and Nemesiidae are dependent on sites with low human intervention.
In order to improve soil conservation and to maintain or restore crop productivity in tropical and subtropical Brazilian regions, large changes in landuseand soil management were initiated in the 80’s (MIELNICZUK et al., 1983). Elimination of crop residue burning, adoption of conservation tillage, and introduction of crop residues management, including legume cover-crops for N supply, are examples of soil conservation strategies adopted (MIELNICZUK et al., 1983). Consequently, SOM increased due to both reduced losses through biological decomposition and erosion, and increased plant residue additions on soil surface (BURLE et al., 1997; BAYER et al., 2000). The highest SOM increase was reported mainly on surface layers but SOM storage in total soil profile was also positively affected (BURLE et al., 1997).
The data available to develop the application software and the thesis, was provided by the web-based GIS developed for the environmental strategic evaluation of the multi-sectorial plan for landusemanagement of the Zambezi River Valley project. The data cover 17 topics, from which hydrology, communications, geology, demography and socio-economic data, are a part of. The web-based GIS has a total of 130 geographic data layers available to display, within the 17 topics. Since the project is not complete, this number might change. The 130 layers can be separated into two data formats, vector and raster format. The vector format layers available in the web-based GIS, can be classified into point, line or polygon feature type layers, depending on what these represent. Since the application software developed to integrate the web-based GIS project for the Zambezi River Valley, the data used in the development of the application was retrieved from the web- based GIS. This helped keeping the application’s development focused on what data formats and types would be used in it. Although some data was obtained specifically for this project, some data came from other sources, like CENACARTA (CENACARTA, 2015). This institution, as part of the Agriculture department of Mozambique, has a geo-spatial data repository online, available for public download.
In terms of the territorial planning since 2007 the National Program on Politics for the Territorial Planning assumes that preventive risk management is a priority vector for the spatial planning politics and a major conditioning factor within the Portuguese territorial model at all planning levels. Nevertheless, the landuse regulation for both public institutions and private owners is only effective at the municipal scale. For landslide hazard the restrictions of landuse have been safeguarded by the inclusion of areas sus- ceptible to landslide occurrence in the public utility restric- tion legal ﬁgure named ‘National Ecological Reserve’ (NER), which includes the typology “Slope instability prone areas ” (Decree-Law 166/2008 of August 22nd, changed and republished by the Decree-Law 239/2012, of November 2nd).
Elements at risk located over the Very high/high landslide susceptibility classes are more prone to suffer damage resulting from landslides. These include in the study area: critical power, water, gas distribution and storage facilities, industrial areas, national road networks, industrial areas and 2 buildings of educational institutions.
Depletion of SOC by conversion of primary FO into cropland is the second largest C source of human- induced emissions (Don et al., 2011). The magnitude of SOC depletion in soils of tropical agroecosystems may be as much as 75 % or more (Lal, 2004). Reduction of SOC below the critical level exacerbates degradation of soil structure, increases bulk density (BD), decreases aggregation, reduces soil moisture storage, decreases aeration (Fageria, 2012), and adversely impacts grain yield (Fuentes et al., 2009). Loss of SOC can be reversed by using less intensive cultivation practices, and by changing from monoculture to complex rotations (West & Post, 2002). In addition, NT restores soil structure and increases SOC by an average of 0.43 Mg ha -1 yr -1 at the 0-10 cm depth in
The conceptual framework presented in Fig. 3 allows these questions to be situated and considered within the framework of the working of complex systems. The higher level shows the individual perspective, in other words the needs, values, socio-cultural conditioning factors of the participants involved in the change in landuse such as farmers and their actions at farm level. The next level shows the way in which the participants who intervene directly and indirectly in landuse (farmers, farming specialists, official services) are organised. The socio-economic framework expressed by demography and by the different methods of economic organisation is dealt with in the next analysis. For example, at this level, the implications of the population exodus from the regions studied can be analysed in terms of the implications on the decrease in labour force. The different technologies applied in landuseand the resources available should also not be forgotten. Lastly, the environmental level should approach the different processes of environmental change which can be seen in the natural system, and which have implications in terms of landuse, within a framework of global changes whose factors are of a natural and anthropic nature.
The net LULCC flux is the most uncertain of the directly estimated terms in the global carbon budget, and this un- certainty propagates into estimating the residual flux. Since the net LULCC flux is not directly observable on the global scale, models are an essential tool to estimate it. However, model differences induce a major uncertainty in net LULCC flux estimates: of the 13 studies on LULCC emissions in Houghton et al. (2012), and five in Le Quéré et al. (2013a), the underlying model estimates differed particularly with re- spect to the assumed rates of deforestation (partly but not entirely dependent on driving data), the carbon densities for vegetation cleared, and the inclusiveness of management ac- tivities. Some of these uncertainties may be reduced in the future due to increasing data availability: for example, esti- mates of biomass can be derived from observations, which recently have become available on a spatially explicit basis for large regions of the world (Baccini et al., 2012); however, they are still subject to considerable uncertainty and will not be available for the pre-satellite era. In addition, process- based models simulate vegetation biomass as a prognostic variable and as such depend on simplification and parame- terization of various processes. Differences due to input data and processes included in models have been described and
The dynamics of landuseand cover at different spatial and temporal scales allows us to evaluate changes in landscapes, socioeconomic system and impacts on the natural environment. Landuseandland cover changes and socioeconomic activities of the Northern Region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil were analyzed over a 20-year scale. Using images from the Landsat 5 sensor TM, landuseandland cover maps were obtained for 1991, 2001 and 2011, in which agricultural uses, native vegetation and pasture presented a significant difference between the years. We identified two scenarios for the region: the northern portion presents a reduction in agricultural areas and an increase in pasture and native vegetation, while the southern portion presents a constancy of agricultural areas. The predominant agricultural uses and socioeconomic factors determined the major changes in landscape structure. The effects of these changes resulted in a reduction in the area of agricultural uses and expansion of native vegetation and pasture areas. Keywords: replacement use, rural exodus, environmental legislation, agricultural uses, environmental management.
The landscape is the identity of a territory and it contributes to human well-being promoting important cultural, ecological, environmental and social functions . In this context, landscape should be the target of constant evaluations due to political, socioeconomic and territorial decisions that are taken at the macro scale (e.g., distribution of social funds and agricultural development strategies and guidelines for the regional territory) with direct implications in LUC and natural ecosystems. Portugal has benefited from European Union (EU) funds for agricultural, forestry, transportation infrastructure, among others, allowing the development of large projects that culminated in LUCC in very large areas, especially in the Alentejo region [90,91]. In this sense, the results presented are important to estimate the potential implication of economic decisions to the economical (corporations and state) and political strategy to develop profitable economic sectors (e.g., Eucalyptus forest, vineyards, olive trees, rice crops). These decisions have inevitable consequences on the employment, electricity and energy consumption, volume of exports and gross value added. In addition, studies about the driving forces that control LUCC and possible implications on society, economy, environment and territory are important to the implementation of new landmanagement guidelines and develop more effective strategies for ecosystems protection .
mesothermal (Cfa), with mean annual temperature around 18–20 °C, rainfalls distributed along the year, and hot summers (Alvares et al., 2013). The landuse systems (LUS) evaluated in each municipality composed a gradient of landuse intensity, namely: native forest (NF), Eucalyptus plantation (EP), perennial pasture (PA), integrated crop-livestock (ICL), and no-tillage (NT). The municipalities were selected based on their type of soil, history of management, and geographic characteristics, being considered as true replicates of LUS, totaling 15 study areas. The altitudes of the areas vary from 593 to 746 m above the sea level (Table 1) and the soils in these sites were classified as Red Latosols.
E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, The increasing use of natural resources in a disor- derly way has been demanding constant monitoring and ecological-economic zoning. The knowledge on landuseand cover allows that measures that guarantee the preservation, maintenance of the environment and space management be appropriate to the reality, since through these factors it is possible to follow the probable environmental impacts and the socioeconomic development of a place in several contexts. The Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing techniques have been applied to landuseandland cover mapping. This study aimed to analyze the conversion of landuse from different perspectives, concerning geoprocessing techniques, in the southeastern of Roraima State, Brazil, in two distinct periods. In order to verify the landuseand cover, two analyses were conducted, using the Spring and TerraView softwares. Great part of the cultivated areas was converted into capoeira, what probably denotes an ending of profitable agriculture, as well as its abandonment caused by the nutritional deficiency of the soil, that became inappropriate for cultivation in the subsequent years. A fuzzy logic would possibly fit well to the types of data analyzed, because the attribute query is overly complex.
Achieving the Brazilian mitigation of deforestation targets present co- benefits and adverse side effects. The higher crop yields associated with the policy prevent climate variability and the lower food prices enhance food security. From this perspective, the policy presents socioeconomic benefits for the consumer and for the producer. These results should enhance the wiliness to adopt such policies because of individual benefits beyond the global public benefit of preventing global warming. The lower pasture yields and lower net-trade are the adverse side effects related to the policy, both associated with the producer perspective. It is noteworthy that technological change implementation for crop yield increases is more robust than for pasture yield. Pasture yield do not capture dynamics on land scarcity and efforts to improve pasture management but restricting land expansion in Legal Amazon has been associated to increasing cattle productivity in some specific municipalities (KOCH et al., 2019). The lower pasture yields in the presence of the policy might be rather a model artifact coming from the different implementations than a robust result. If this is the case, lowering pasture yields may not be an adverse side effect but the result of a MAgPIE’s limitation. The implementation of diverse livestock production systems andland competition as an input for determining pasture yields in MAgPIE are fundamental improvements in order to overcome the current limitations. Moreover, other researches using global land-use models have not evaluated the impacts of deforestation mitigation policies on yields, therefore the present results are not directly comparable to others.
Concerning territorial management, was collected all the significant data on municipal territorial partition like urban space characteristics, indentifying the constructions, the most relevant activities, the spatial distribution of uses and the construction potential coefficient (COS – Coeficiente de Ocupação do Solo) by use; and the effective constraints as ecological, natural and agricultural reserves, forest and wood production areas, protection area to the transportation infra-structures (airport, aerodrome, railway, metro and road), preservation area to patrimonial constructions, etc.. In fact there was a common constraint between territorial managementand noise, the Noise Classification Zones.
The Lake Tana basin is densely populated with a total population of about two million (Surur, 2010). Gilgel Abbay watershed which is one of the sub watersheds of Lake Tana basin is densely populated with an annual growth rate of 2.3 % according to CSA (central statistics authority). This causes various effects on resource bases like deforestation, expansion of residential area, and agricultural land. Gilgel Abbay watershed which is one of the sub watersheds of Lake Tana basin is facing these types of effects. Deforestation is a day to day activity of the people living in the watershed. The watershed is also facing high erosion by the effects of intense rainfall of the watershed which aggravates the land cover change of the watershed. This continuous change in land cover has impacted the water balance of the watershed by changing the magnitude and pattern of the components of stream flow which are surface runoff and ground water flow, which results increasing the extent of the water management problem. Therefore, a strong need is identified for the hydrological techniques and tools that can assess the effects of land cover changes on the hydrologic response of a watershed. Such techniques and tools can provide information that can be used for water resources management at a watershed.
Abstract Chestnut plantations for fruit production in Northern Portugal have been subjected to intensive management system, including soil tillage, mineral fertilization and pruning. Some of these practices have no positive effect on productivity and soil– plant–water relations. Other systems (e.g., no tillage with maintenance of grass cover) have been adopted, aiming a multifunctional landuse, exploiting nuts, pasture and edible mushrooms. Thus, an experimental trial was installed to assess the effects of such systems on productivity, sustainability and annual net income, as compared with the conventional system, over a six-year period. The treatments were: conven- tional soil tillage (CT); no tillage with permanent spontaneous herbaceous vegetation cover (NV); no tillage with permanent rainfed seeded pasture cover (NP); and as NP but with irrigation (NIP). Production of nuts, forage and edible mushrooms were measured