Land Use Systems

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Morphological Diversity of Springtails in Land Use Systems

Morphological Diversity of Springtails in Land Use Systems

ABSTRACT: Springtails (Collembola) are soil organisms with wide morphological diversity and are sensitive to alterations in the soil, regardless of whether they are human-caused or not. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of land use on the morphological diversity of springtails and verify their relationships with soil physical, chemical, and microbiological properties. Samples were collected in the eastern region of Santa Catarina, in three municipalities: Joinville, Blumenau, and Timbó. They included the following land use systems (LUSs): native forest (NF), Eucalyptus plantation (EP), pasture (PA), integrated crop-livestock (ICL), and no tillage (NT). Samples were collected to determine soil properties, and pitfall traps were set in the winter and summer at the same points. The captured springtails were counted and morphotyped, observing features such as presence or absence of ocelli and setae, pigmentation, antenna length, and furcula length. The data were analyzed based on abundance, the Shannon-Wiener (H’) and Margalef diversity indices, Pielou’s evenness index (J), morphotype richness, modified Soil Biological Quality index (QBS), and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Springtails abundance was higher in ICL and PA, whereas morphotype richness was higher in NF and ICL in the winter. The Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices were higher in the winter in NF. In the summer, only H’ differed significantly among the LUSs and was higher in NF. The QBS values did not precisely follow the human intervention gradient in either of the two periods. The PCA showed difference among the periods and LUSs. In the winter, the occurrence of morphotypes was related to soil microbiological and chemical properties, whereas in the summer, the distribution of morphotypes was explained by soil physical and chemical properties. Morphological diversity analysis is a good alternative to study springtail distribution and soil biological quality, especially when associated with multivariate techniques.
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Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in Agricultural Land Use Systems in Subtropical Environments

Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in Agricultural Land Use Systems in Subtropical Environments

These practices alter the structure of the prey community; species more sensitive to such changes are forced to migrate to other sites and species less-dependent on environmental resources remain. Stenroth et al. (2015) found strong association of the Linyphiidae family with agricultural areas when evaluating the relationships between riparian predators and aquatic insect distribution patterns. This partially corroborates our results, since this family was more associated with CLI areas (Figure 2b) and ER (Figure 2d) during the summer. It is noteworthy that there was no distribution pattern of this family among the land use systems, suggesting that these individuals migrate according to the availability of resources in the sampling time, since during the winter Linyphiidae was more associated with NF. Association of Lycosidae with agricultural areas was reported by Stenroth et al. (2015), corroborating our results. Individuals of this family were mostly collected in areas of NT (Figure 2a), CLI (Figures 2b and 2e), and ER (Figure 2d). Environmental stress factors, together with global climate change, can be a critical factor in loss of biodiversity (Mantyka-Pringle et al., 2015). The relationship between spider diversity and vegetation type has already been reported by Baldissera et al. (2008), especially in araucaria and eucalyptus areas. Figure 2. Principal component analysis (PCA) for spider families (in italics) and environmental variables (in red) in native forest systems (NF), eucalyptus reforestation (ER), pasture (PA), crop-livestock integration (CLI), and no-tillage annual crops (NT) in western Santa Catarina in two seasons: winter and summer. Two methods of collection (traps and manual collection). OM = organic matter; Mg = magnesium; RP = resistance to root penetration; WMD = weighted mean diameter; Micro = microporosity; Macro = macroporosity; COT = total organic carbon; Al = aluminum; Bd = soil bulk density; Ca = calcium; Bio = biopores; N = nitrogen; PC1 = main component 1; PC2 = main component 2.
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Morphological diversity of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) as soil quality bioindicators in land use systems

Morphological diversity of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) as soil quality bioindicators in land use systems

Springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) are an important and abundant soil microarthropod as interacts with ecosystem physiochemical processes, decomposing and mineralizing significant organic matter amount by the litterfall fragmentation and fecal production (Madej et al. 2011, Ruggiero et al. 2015). Moreover, the presence of springtails in soil is used for predicting and controlling primary decomposer actions such as bacteria and fungi and secondary decomposer actions such as nematodes and protozoa (Filser 2002, Petersen 2002, Jeffery et al. 2010, Paul et al. 2011, Chang et al. 2013). Springtails are frequently abundant and sensitive to changes in the physical and chemical soil properties and natural micro-habitat characteristics after agricultural and forestry activities. This sensitivity can be used for indicating pollution levels in different land use systems (Eaton et al. 2004, Larsen et al. 2004, Sousa et al. 2006, Baretta et al. 2008, Rieff et al. 2014). In this sense, different springtails communities have been widely used as soil environmental quality bioindicators in studies of environmental pollution related with the land use systems (Parisi et al. 2005, Ponge et al. 2006, Oliveira Filho et al. 2016, Winck et al. 2017, Santos et al. 2018). The springtails communities are divided in edaphic, hemiedaphic and epigeic organisms. Edaphic and epigeic organisms are generally found in soils that contain litterfall and deeper layer, respectively, whereas hemiedaphic organisms are generally found in both surface and deeper layers as an intermediate vertical distribution (Gisin 1943, Petersen 2002, Querner et al. 2013, Oliveira Filho & Baretta 2016). This vertical stratification is important to predict the soil environmental quality level since the decrease of litterfall affects much more the epigeic organisms than edaphic organisms.
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Rapid evaluation of ant diversity in land use systems in southern Bahia, Brazil.

Rapid evaluation of ant diversity in land use systems in southern Bahia, Brazil.

ABSTRACT - We aimed to compare the soil ant diversity in different land use systems from Atlantic Forest area, in Southern Bahia state, Brazil. The ants were sampled in 16 sites: two primary forest sites (un-logged forest); three young secondary forests (<8 years old); three intermediate secondary forests (8-20 years old); three old secondary forests (>20 years old); three Eucalyptus grandis plantations (3-7 years old), and two introduced pastures. Each site was sampled in three sampling points 15 m apart, and distant over 50 m from the site edge. In each sampling point we gathered the litter from a 1 m 2 and
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Oxidizable fraction of organic carbon in an argisol under different land use systems

Oxidizable fraction of organic carbon in an argisol under different land use systems

Oxidizable or labile fraction is intended to describe the biologically active components of soil organic matter (MOS), being a constituent part of organic compounds more rapidly mineralizable in reactions catalyzed by microbial enzymes present in the soil, and thus directly associated with CO 2 release into the atmosphere (TAVARES, 2010). According to Powlson et al. (1987), labile carbon is susceptible to alterations brought about by changes in the environment. More prone to variations than total soil organic carbon, it enables greater applicability for detection of impacts brought about by different land use systems, in connection with soil and air quality.
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within agroforestry and traditional land use systems in semi-arid Northeast Brazil

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within agroforestry and traditional land use systems in semi-arid Northeast Brazil

The experiment was initiated in February 2006 and followed a split-plot randomized block design, with four replicates. The main plots consisted of two treatments: presence or absence of trees. The split plots consisted of three land use systems: 1) traditional agricultural cultivation, intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) + beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), 2) pasture planted with perennial herbaceous buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) and 3) prickly pear, also known as opuntia (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.). Each main plot had dimensions of 10 × 30 m and each split plot 10 x 6 m. Tree main plots (agroforestry plots) were planted with alternating rows, 6 m apart, of maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg.), a native caatinga Euphorbiaceae species, and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud), an exotic Leguminosae species introduced several years ago to the semi-arid area of Northeastern Brazil. The trees were at spaced 1 m intervals along the rows. Maize + beans, maize and opuntia were planted at 1 m intervals between rows with 50 cm between plants, and buffel grass was planted at 50 cm intervals between rows with 10 cm between plants.
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OCCURRENCE AND DIVERSITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN TRAP CULTURES FROM SOILS UNDER DIFFERENT LAND USE SYSTEMS IN THE AMAZON, BRAZIL Patrícia Lopes Leal1 ; Sidney Luiz Stürmer2 ; José Oswaldo Siqueira3

OCCURRENCE AND DIVERSITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN TRAP CULTURES FROM SOILS UNDER DIFFERENT LAND USE SYSTEMS IN THE AMAZON, BRAZIL Patrícia Lopes Leal1 ; Sidney Luiz Stürmer2 ; José Oswaldo Siqueira3

The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species diversity in soil samples from the Amazon region under distinct land use systems (Forest, Old Secondary Forest, Young Secondary Forest, Agroforestry systems, Crops and Pasture) using two distinct trap cultures. Traps established using Sorghum sudanense and Vigna unguiculata (at Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB) and Brachiaria decumbens and Neonotonia wightii (at Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA) were grown for 150 days in greenhouse conditions, when spore density and species identification were evaluated. A great variation on species richness was detected in several samples, regardless of the land use systems from where samples were obtained. A total number of 24 AMF species were recovered using both methods of trap cultures, with FURB´s traps yielding higher number of species. Acaulospora delicata, A. foveata, Entrophospora colombiana and two undescribed Glomus species were the most abundant and frequent species recovered from the traps. Number of species decreased in each genus according to this order: Acaulospora, Glomus, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Archaeospora, Scutellospora and Paraglomus. Spore numbers were higher in Young Secondary Forest and Pastures. Our study demonstrated that AMF have a widespread occurrence in all land use systems in Amazon and they sporulate more abundantly in trap cultures from land uses under interference than in the pristine Forest ecosystem.
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Land use systems in the Amazon: Impacts on ant biodiversity

Land use systems in the Amazon: Impacts on ant biodiversity

In addition to the dynamic changes that are leading to the expansion of the agricultural frontier in the Amazon, another threat to biodiversity in the region is the unsustainable management of agricultural and forestry systems within the areas that have been cleared for decades. There are many different land use systems in the Amazon region and most of them do not have any sustainable management planning. Over the last decade, the critical role of the agricultural matrix in conserving biodiversity has been recognized by the scientific community (Donald & Evans 2006; Harvey et al. 2008; Hughes et al. 2000; Kumawat et al. 2010; Moorhead et al. 2010; Perfecto & Vandermeer 2002, 2008; Perfecto et al. 2009; Ricketts 2004; Scherr & McNeely 2008; Vandermeer & Perfecto 2007a). In particular, it has been demonstrated that in fragmented landscapes, the agricultural matrix plays a critical role in the conservation of biodiversity by facilitating or hindering migration of organisms to forest fragment (Perfecto & Vandermeer 2008, 2010). Diverse agroforestry systems that do not use toxic chemicals and resemble forests allow organisms to move through the agricultural matrix and migrate to forest fragments, while intensive annual monocultures that use toxic chemicals, eliminate ground cover and extend over very large areas, prevent forest organisms from migrating from one forest fragment to another. Without the necessary gene flow and immigration, forest organisms are bound to local extinctions and with the recolonization potential minimized, those local extinctions will eventually become regional or even global (Perfecto et al. 2009).
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A influência do sistema de manejo do solo sobre a fauna edáfica e epígea na região oeste catarinense

A influência do sistema de manejo do solo sobre a fauna edáfica e epígea na região oeste catarinense

ABSTRACT - The aim of this study was to evaluate the abundance of soil and surface litter fauna in the western region of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, in the following land use systems (LUS): no-tillage crops (NT), integrated crop-livestock (ICL), pasture (PA), Eucalyptus plantation (EP) and native forest fragments (NF). Sampling was done in three counties in the western region of Santa Catarina: Xanxerê, Chapecó and São Miguel do Oeste, in two seasons (winter and summer). The evaluation of soil/litter fauna in each LUS was performed by installing nine “pitfall traps” per sampling grid (3 x 3). The counties are true replicas. The soil for the chemical attributes was collected at the same sampling points for soil fauna. Altogether, 17 taxa were identified in the five LUS. The presence of groups of fauna was influenced by the type of soil management used. The LUS NF and EP provide better soil conditions for the development of a higher diversity of soil fauna groups compared to other LUS, which showed varying degrees of human intervention, regardless of the sampling season (winter or summer). However, annual crop systems NT and ICL groups showed greater richness and total abundance when compared to the perennial systems (EP and PA). Principal component analysis is an important tool in the study of biological indicators of sustainability because it allows use of soil attributes (chemical and physical) as explanatory environmental variables, which helps in the interpretation of ecological data.
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Abundance and Diversity of Soil Macrofauna in Native Forest, Eucalyptus Plantations, Perennial Pasture, Integrated Crop-Livestock, and No-Tillage Cropping

Abundance and Diversity of Soil Macrofauna in Native Forest, Eucalyptus Plantations, Perennial Pasture, Integrated Crop-Livestock, and No-Tillage Cropping

In view of the importance of soil macrofauna for soil biodiversity and quality, further studies are needed on this topic, especially to expand the evaluation of land use systems in eastern Santa Catarina. This region is characterized by diversified farms, with predominance of family farms, under environmental conditions that indicate vulnerability of the soil in response to changes in land use. Furthermore, soil physical and chemical properties are affected by human activities, motivated by the need for management practices for agricultural production. These can significantly modify the structure of the biological communities, resulting in a reduction of the activity of important organisms for various processes, such as mineralization of organic matter, aggregate stability, porosity, and nutrient cycling. The objective of this study was to determine the abundance and diversity of soil macrofauna and its relation to the chemical and physical properties of land use systems in the eastern region of Santa Catarina and to detect physical and chemical properties that influence the distribution of groups of these soil organisms.
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Diversity of soil spiders in land use and management systems in Santa Catarina, Brazil

Diversity of soil spiders in land use and management systems in Santa Catarina, Brazil

Abstract: The ability of spiders to spread over contiguous areas (Arachnida: Araneae) is directly related to soil management conditions. The objective of this work was to study the effect of land use system (LUS) on the abundance and diversity of soil spider families and their relationship with soil physical and chemical properties. The evaluated LUS were: native forest, eucalyptus reforestation, pasture, crop-livestock integration, and no-tillage crop. Samples were collected in three municipalities of Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina, considered as true replicates, during winter and summer. A total of 270 samples was taken in each area and season. The sampling points were arranged in a grid of 3 × 3 m, spaced by 30 m. We evaluated soil physical, chemical, and microbiological attributes and the abundance and diversity of spider families, collected by soil monolith and soil traps. A total of 448 spiders were captured, 152 in winter and 296 in summer, distributed in 24 families and 52 species/morphospecies. There was a seasonality effect related to the land use systems and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index was recorded in the native forest in both sampling periods. Most families of spiders have a direct dependence on soil physical and chemical properties, such as microporosity, exchangeable aluminum, calcium, magnesium, and potassium during the winter. Organic matter, nitrogen, pH in water, weighted average diameter, soil density, and microbial biomass carbon exhibited dependence during the summer. Vegetation type and soil management are the factors that seem to affect most the occurrence of spiders. The families Theridiidae and Nemesiidae are dependent on sites with low human intervention.
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Assessment and kinetics of soil phosphatase in Brazilian Savanna systems

Assessment and kinetics of soil phosphatase in Brazilian Savanna systems

Soil phosphatase is a primary indicator of soil quality in various land use systems (Dick 1997, Vinhal-Freitas et al. 2013). Although many studies have examined enzymes in Brazilian soils (Vin- hal-Freitas et al. 2010, 2012, Pavanelli and Araújo 2010), they have not explored Michaelis-Menten constants. Kinetic parameters can provide impor- tant information on the enzymatic mechanisms and soil functions in ecosystems (Nannipieri et al. 1982, Marx et al. 2001, Vinhal-Freitas et al. 2013). Enzyme kinetic parameters are affected by specific soil conditions such as metabolite concentration, microbial community, salinity, metals, and soil pH (Nannipieri and Gianfreda 1998, Marx et al. 2001, Nannipieri et al. 1982). These conditions are great- ly affected by the land use, including soil manage- ment practices (Nannipieri et al. 1982). Soil en- zyme analysis also varies with the pH, reaction buffer and substrate concentration (Malcom 1983, Nannipieri et al. 1982).
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Acácio Aparecido Navarrete (2) , Rodrigo Gouvêa Taketani (3) , Lucas William Mendes (4) , Fabiana de Souza Cannavan (2) , Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira

Acácio Aparecido Navarrete (2) , Rodrigo Gouvêa Taketani (3) , Lucas William Mendes (4) , Fabiana de Souza Cannavan (2) , Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira

The Amazonian landscapes were identified by satellite images and selected according to the vegetation cover, soil use and management practices (Table 1, Figure 1). The dominant use and land cover in the six different landscapes studied were: primary forest, secondary forest, crops and pasture. In this region, the agricultural systems of indigenous people are primarily based on slash-and-burn, annual crops in shifting cultivation and a long fallow period, which involves the abandonment of areas to allow natural regeneration which involves a fallow period for approximately three years (Fidalgo et al., 2005). Some pasture areas are also present as a consequence of governmental policies implemented in the 1970s. Amendments, fertilizers and pesticides were not applied in any of the land-use systems.
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LAND-BASED MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

LAND-BASED MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

Mobile mapping has been using various photogrammetric techniques for many years. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile mapping systems using laser scanners available in the market, partially because of the improvement in GNSS/INS performance for direct georeferencing. In this article, some of the most important land-based mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems are reviewed. Firstly, the main characteristics of MLS systems vs. airborne (ALS) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) systems are compared. Secondly, a short overview of the mobile mapping technology is also provided so that the reader can fully grasp the complexity and operation of these devices. As we put forward in this paper, a comparison of different systems is briefly carried out regarding specifications provided by the manufacturers. Focuses on the current research are also addressed with emphasis on the practical applications of these systems. Most of them have been utilized for data collection on road infrastructures or building façades. This article shows that MLS technology is nowadays well established and proven, since the demand has grown to the point that there are several systems suppliers offering their products to satisfy this particular market.
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DEVELOPMENT OF HETEROGENEITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND USE PATTERN AND TRAFFIC CONGESTION

DEVELOPMENT OF HETEROGENEITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND USE PATTERN AND TRAFFIC CONGESTION

There is a close association of land use and traffic congestion (Indian Road Congress, 1990). In research investigations related to urban system, the quantifying approach merely is not adequate. Formulation of policies and planning for the functioning of urban system requires k nowledge acquired from direct observations (Lwin et al., 2012). Therefore, in the present research investigation, rigorous field survey was done to identify different existing main land use classes i.e. Commercial, Residential, Industries, Urban services and sub-classes i.e. Shopping Centre, General Business, Neighborhood Commercial, Mixed Commercial (Commercial), Single Family Housing, Low Density Infill, Low Density Redevelopment, Apartments, Single Family Rural Housing (Residential), Institutional Services, Health Services, Low Industrial Zones, High Industrial Zones (Industries), Urban Service Zones, Urban Utility Zones, Urban Facility Zones (Urban services) that can influence flow of traffic. Further, different physical characteristics of traffic f low, i.e. free f low time, total travel time, average speed, stopped time were collected in the field using Moving Obser ver Tech n ique (Taylor, 1992). Different land use classes and subclasses that can potentially affect the f low of traffic in the study area as discussed above are shown in the Fig. 2. The methodology (Fig. 3) employed in the present research investigation comprises three different parts. The first part comprises discussion on the quantification of the heterogeneity of land use on the basis of weights computed from Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and knowledge based weights. The second part is comprised of computation of the
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Current extent and trends of agroforestry in the EU27

Current extent and trends of agroforestry in the EU27

Databases providing an estimate on the extent of agroforestry in Europe are already available. The CORINE land cover classification contains land cover data for Europe and includes the land cover class “agroforestry” (European Environment Agency 1995). According to the CORINE database, agroforestry covers about 3.3 million hectares in Europe, mainly in Spain, Portugal and Italy with some smaller areas in France and Austria. However other studies have demonstrated that agroforestry is practiced on a wider scale than this and that the CORINE database is underestimating the agroforestry area. The agroforestry system of wood pastures has the largest areal extent in Europe and they are found in all climatic zones ranging from the Mediterranean to boreal zones (Bergmeier et al. 2010, Plieninger et al. 2015). Oak tree systems in the Mediterranean and reindeer husbandry in northernmost Fennoscandia in particular cover large areas (Eichhorn et al. 2006, Jernsletten and Klokov 2002). There are also other systems. Fruit tree agroforestry systems are particularly found in the central (Herzog 1998) and Mediterranean regions of Europe, with large areas of olive agroforestry in the Mediterranean region (Eichhorn et al. 2006). A recent literature study summarising the currently available data sources estimated that agroforestry in Europe is practiced at least on an area of 10.6 million hectares equivalent to 6.5% of the utilized agricultural area in Europe (den Herder et al. 2015).
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Land usecover classification in the Brazilian Amazon using satellite images

Land usecover classification in the Brazilian Amazon using satellite images

into multispectral data was only slightly improved by  1.8–3%. When spatial resolution increases to 5–10 m,  as in Spot HRG and Alos Palsar L‑band data, overall  accuracy  improved  by  5–8%.  In  particular,  the  role  of  textures  from  radar  data  is  more  important  than  those from optical sensor data in improving land use/ cover classification accuracy. When spatial resolution  increases as high as 0.6 m in the fused QuickBird image,  the incorporation of textural images increased overall  accuracy  by  11.6%  in  an  urban‑rural  landscape. The  comparison  between  the  segmentation‑based  method  and  the  MLC  indicates  that  the  former  is  especially  valuable for very high spatial resolution images, such  as  QuickBird,  but  much  less  effective  for  medium  spatial  resolution  images,  such  as  Landsat.  This  research implies the importance of incorporating spatial  information into multispectral bands to improve land  use/cover classification. As spatial resolution increases,  the  spectral  variation  within  the  same  land  cover  is  enlarged. Use of texture measures or segmentation can  reduce  spectral  variation  and  improve  classification  accuracy.
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SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS IN GRANULOMETRIC FRACTIONS UNDER USE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS WITH SWINE AND POULTRY MANURE

SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS IN GRANULOMETRIC FRACTIONS UNDER USE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS WITH SWINE AND POULTRY MANURE

OC concentrations in the soil particulate fraction were influenced by use and management systems, especially in the 0-5 cm depth, ranging from 46.3 to 94.3 g kg -1 in P15 and NF, respectively (Table 3). This indicates that the POC is a sensitive indicator to the changes caused by the management systems, making it possible to verify short term effects (BAYER et al., 2001, 2002). At 5-10 cm depth, M20 and P3 had the highest carbon content in the particulate fraction in relation to the other treatments, and were similar to the NF. In the 10-20 cm depth only YM20 and P0 differed from the NF. In all treatments, the particulate OC concentrations decreased in depth, showing that the carbon of this fraction was influenced by plant residues or manure added to the soil surface.
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Status Check of the Mining Hub of India: Examining the LandUse Pattern Observed in the Forest –Agricultural Ecosystem of Dhanbad

Status Check of the Mining Hub of India: Examining the LandUse Pattern Observed in the Forest –Agricultural Ecosystem of Dhanbad

The geographical information of forest ecosystem across India for a particular time series is analyzed. Simultaneously, the degradation of this ecosystem is examined by the anthropogenic activities, which has gradually or steeply increased in these zones at the same time period. Based on this intersection of data, the hot spot is selected and investigated. Satellite remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) have been widely applied in identifying and analyzing land use/cover change.GIS provides a flexible environment for displaying, storing and analyzing digital data necessary for change detection. Using GIS (Geographical Information System) tool, the land use data of agriculture and forest ecosystem in the years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 were extracted as the basic data of land use/cover change analysis. Land use/cover change is a major factor for global change because of its interactions with climate, ecosystem processes, biogeochemical cycles; biodiversity, and, even more important, human activities (Vogelmann and Howard, 1998; Xiao et al., 2006), research on land use/cover change has become an important aspect of global change. Geographic information system (GIS) has been widely applied in identifying and analyzing land use/cover change. GIS can provide multi-temporal data that can be used to quantify the type, amount and location of land use change. GIS also provides a flexible environment for displaying, storing and analyzing digital data necessary for change detection (Wu et al., 2006).
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Land Use and Land Cover Change Detection and Urban Sprawl  Analysis of Panamarathupatti Lake, Salem

Land Use and Land Cover Change Detection and Urban Sprawl Analysis of Panamarathupatti Lake, Salem

Land cover is the physical material at the surface of the earth. Land covers include grass, asphalt, trees, bare ground, water, etc. There are two primary methods for capturing information on land cover: field survey and analysis of remotely sensed imagery. Land cover is distinct from land use despite the two terms often being used interchangeably. Land use is a description of how people utilize the land and socio- economic activity - urban and agricultural land uses are two of the most commonly known land use classes. At any one point or place, there may be multiple and alternate land uses, the specification of which may have a political dimension. The origins of the „land cover / land use‟ couplet and the implications of their confusion are discussed in Fisher et al. (2005). One of the major land cover issues (as with all natural resource inventories) is that every survey defines similarly named categories in different ways. For instance, there are many definitions of „Forest‟, sometimes within the same organization, that may or may not incorporate a number of different forest features (stand height, canopy cover, strip width, inclusion of grasses, rates of growth for timber production). Areas without trees may be classified as forest cover if the intention is to re-plant (UK and Ireland), while areas with many trees may not be labelled as forest if the trees are not growing fast enough.
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