This chapter explores the evolution of the debate on net neutrality starting from an international perspective, and then focusing on the Brazilian case, where the practice of sponsoring specific applications, the so-called zero rating, is analysed. Discussions on these issues have intensified considerably in recent years, covering the whole of LatinAmerica, and more specifically Brazil, where Law 12,965, known as the Marco Civil da Internet, and its regulation, decree 8,771 of 2016, have regulated the protection of several fundamental rights in the online environment and have guaranteed the protection of net neutrality in Brazil. Internet traffic discrimination practices, the diffusion of so-called zero rating models and, consequently, discussions about the principle of non-discrimination, called net neutrality, have taken on considerable proportions in the region. This popularization of the debate on net neutrality is due to the increasing awareness that a non-discriminatory access to the Internet is essential to preserve the full enjoyment of the fundamental right to communicate, and the possibility to share innovation and do business freely online. After a discussion on net neutrality, this chapter offers a critical analysis of zero rating practices exploring how they are regulated in the Marco Civil da Internet. Finally, it explores the potential negative effects of these practices and points to future ways to address Internet access issues in a sustainable manner.
The seroprevalence of hepatitis B was investigated in over 12 000 subjects in six countries of LatinAmerica: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Venezuela. Each study population was stratified according to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Anti- bodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were measured in order to determine hepa- titis B infection. The highest overall seroprevalence was found in the Dominican Republic (21.4%), followed by Brazil (7.9%), Venezuela (3.2%), Argentina (2.1%), Mexico (1.4%), and Chile (0.6%). In all the countries an increase in seroprevalence was found among persons 16 years old and older, suggesting sexual transmission as the major route of infection. In addi- tion, comparatively high seroprevalence levels were seen at an early age in the Dominican Re- public and Brazil, implicating a vertical route of transmission.
The symptom profile in MPS I is expected to differ across phenotypes, but not necessarily by region. Figure 4 displays the frequencies of key MPS I signs and symptoms reported in patients at the time of enrollment in the Registry, according to phenotype and region. Only those signs reported in at least 40% of Latin American patients, by phenotype, are presented. Several apparent regional differences in symptom frequency were seen. In Hurler patients, joint contractures were reported in 97% of LatinAmerica patients but in only 52% of patients in the ROW. Other clinical findings reported more frequently in Latin American Hurler patients compared to ROW included cognitive impairment (89 versus 62%), sleep disturbance (89 versus 64%), enlarged tongue (89 versus 49%), dysostosis multiplex (81 versus 60%), and enlarged tonsils (68 versus 39%). Conversely, cardiac valve abnormalities were reported in 73% of ROW Hurler patients but in only 35% of Latin American Hurler patients. In Hurler-Scheie patients, differences in symptom frequency were slightly less apparent. Joint contracture was reported in 90% of Latin American patients but in only 78% of patients in the ROW, and pneumonia was reported in 48% of Latin American patients compared to only 21% of ROW patients. Conversely, cardiac valve abnormalities were reported in
We use new data on cyclically adjusted primary balances for LatinAmerica and the Caribbean to estimate effects of fiscal consolidations on GDP and some of its components. Identification is conducted through a doubly-robust estimation procedure that controls for non-randomness in the ”treatment assignment” by inverse probability weighting and impulse responses are generated by local projections. Results suggest output contraction by more than one percent on impact, with economy starting to recover from the second year on. Composition effects indicate that revenue- based adjustments are way more contractionary than expenditure-based ones. Disentangling effects between demand components, we find consumption being in general less responsive to consolidations than investment, although nonlinearities associated to initial levels of debt and taxation might play an important role.
From a Resource-Based View perspective, many scholars conducting researches in LatinAmerica tried to build a common understanding based on the successful factors, strategies and technological novelties that led to a superior performance and competitive advantages (GROSSE, 1992; BRENES et al, 2008; CARVALHO, 2005; TARZIJÁN et al, 2008; HUMPHREY, 1995; CRAVIOTTI et al, 2010). For instance, some articles in our database focused on managers (RAMOS-GARZA, 2009; MORRIS & PAVETT, 1992; HOWELL et al, 2003) and support the idea that the company value might be affected by raising the proportion of outside directors inside the company (LEFORT & UZUA, 2008). In Mexico, support for innovation in terms of the organizational-level factor was a good predictor of individual behavior differences, indicating that it may moderate the impact of national value differences on the transferability of management practices. (GOMEZ & RANFTB, 2003)
Three major distortions marked structuralist thought. First, protectionism turned into a long-term strategy, instead of being a provisional policy for the take-off. Since the 1960s the infant industry argument had lost explicative power, but continued to be used to justify import substitution strategy, leading to inefficiency and rent-seeking. It lost ground in the academic and in the policy realms because manufacturing in LatinAmerica was turning mature, and due to a theoretical argument: the “principle of targeting” developed by Bhagwati (1971), which justified economic policy to be interventionist at domestic level, while, at the same time, adopting a free trade strategy. 14 Second, the deterioration of terms of trade argument, that was a good argument to legitimate state intervention to promote industrialization, did not hold up export pessimism, nor contradicted the potential advantages of free trade. 15 Third, waving the banner of Keynes’ effective demand, a classical sub-consumption theory, that had little to do with Keynesian macroeconomics, was adopted in order to justify chronic budget deficits, that ultimately gave rise to a fiscal crisis of the state in the
searched for articles related to “bat rabies” in Latin American countries between 1953 and 2012 in English and Spanish, a number of articles from this search were used as search effort in posterior analysis. Because several articles from Latin American journals were not available via Web of Science, Google Scholar was searched for articles, theses, and official sources available online using the same criteria. Publications including rabies diagnosis based on histopathology, direct fluorescent antibody tests, or molecular techniques were included. When multiple manuscripts source the same bat species or antigenic variants from the same country, only the older such reference was cited (Table 1). To date, the most valuable compilation of rabies-positive bat species in LatinAmerica was published by CONSTANTINE (2009), so part of this article’s analysis is based on his data. For preliminary bat distributional information, vector-format based maps (shapefiles) from IUCN 36 were used; maps were handled using ArcGIS 9.3 (ESRI). Chi-
Note that the largest portion of the data points is located in the third (too easy) quadrant. If a Central Bank does not suffer from inflation bias, then one would expect the monetary policy mistakes – here displayed in the second and fourth quadrants – would be symmetric. This is clearly not the case for LatinAmerica as the distribution of errors is heavily skewed towards “too easy” mistakes.
Clinical aspects - Cryptococcosis mainly affects the CNS, causing meningitis. In a lesser proportion it affects the lungs, and organs such as skin, eyes, prostate, and bone, among others (Maziarz and Perfect 2016). Classi- cally, patients with meningeal cryptococcosis present a clinical picture consisting of headache and fever, lasting approximately two weeks. Many of these patients also present with nausea, vomiting, cranial nerve involve- ment, and decreased visual acuity due to intracranial hypertension. If the disease progresses without treat- ment, mental changes, seizures, and a decreased state of consciousness leading to coma are observed (Limper et al. 2017, Williamson et al. 2017). In LatinAmerica, meningeal cryptococcosis is also the main form of clini- cal presentation, with headache as the cardinal symp- tom (Table I). Intracranial hypertension, one of the most feared complications, has been reported in several Latin American studies, in more than 50% of the cases (Table I), which suggests a high percentage of patients with ad- vanced forms of the disease. In autopsy studies conduct- ed in LatinAmerica, patients with neurocryptococcosis, most of whom were infected with HIV, predominantly had disseminated forms of the disease, with multiple or- gan involvement. Pure meningoencephalitic forms are less frequent, and the presence of cryptococcomas very rare (Reséndiz et al. 2008, Klock et al. 2009, Mantilla and Cárdenas 2009, Torres et al. 2016).
In LatinAmerica and the Caribbean there are some 16 000 hospitals, with a total of around one million beds. Nearly 70% of those hospitals have fewer than 70 beds each (2). Although Latin Amer- ica has many prominent public and private medical centers comparable to the most advanced anywhere in the world, many other Latin American hospitals would not pass an evaluation review for a mini- mum level of quality. In addition, many Latin American hospitals have great variations in quality among their services. Fortunately, accreditation can often be achieved without major investments in in- frastructure, which is an important consideration for the many nations in LatinAmerica carrying heavy loads of foreign and internal debt.
Our survey shows that the number of scientists in- volved in the development of gene therapy and DNA vac- cines in LatinAmerica is still very low. Progress in the field may encourage a growing number of doctors to engage some of their patients in multicenter clinical trials. How- ever, approximately 80% of the currently listed human clin- ical trials are based in the USA, UK, Switzerland, Germany and France, largely because phase III and IV clinical trials require industrial support to cover the costs of both supplies and logistics.
Foster care is one modality for the alternative care of children and teenagers without parental care. The objective of this study is to carry out a systematic review of foster care in LatinAmerica. The method used was the search in databases such as PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, PsycINFO, with information published between 2010 and 2017. Ninety-one evidences were included, observing that family fostering in LatinAmerica is being implemented. One of the crucial aspects is the terminology used by different countries. In the types of foster care in LatinAmerica, foster care in extended and surrogate families prevails. It was observed that each Latin American country has a regulatory body of public policies and protection. There are few scientific publications related to family fostering in Honduras, Nicaragua, Salvador, Bolivia, and Venezuela, from the Caribbean Islands, this is observed mainly in Haiti and other countries such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic. Otherwise, this is not observed in Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Guatemala, Peru, and Spain. Family fostering in LatinAmerica develops gradually. The countries analyzed have ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child, except Puerto Rico. Therefore, they recognize the right of the child to live with the family through the implementation of the Guidelines on alternative care.
“There are a lot of people who have been doing podcasts for years in LatinAmerica. What we have not seen much yet is the use of the medium in journalism, using all the tools it offers. The sound and narrative possibilities still have to be exploited far more,” said Carolina Guerrero, director of Radio Ambulante, a project that produces Spanish-language podcasts for Spanish-speakers in LatinAmerica and the United States. The organization travels the continent in search of stories to be shared in the form of audio documentaries.
was approved as an international but empty treaty (Con- grès International de l’Union Latine, 1956: 53, 82-85, 145-159). The cultural aspect was actually the only one preserved over the political and economic ones (Congrès International de l’Únion Latine, 1956: 51). Not even the vague request for a “gradual elimination of economic bar- riers existing between the Latin countries” previewed by the Brazilian draft was taken into consideration (Congrès International de l’Únion Latine, 1954b, 2, 27-49). By an astonishing coincidence, the debates were closed on May 15th 1954, the very same day the vessel Alfhem arrived in Guatemala bringing Czeck-Slovak weapons. The event would be exploited by Washington to justify a coup d’état a few weeks later, which brought to life the intentions previously announced in Caracas by the OAS Declaration of Solidarity and which started a new phase for the Cold War in the region.