Fundamentally oleochemical products may be classified as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and glycerine, which are mostly obtained directly from plant oils with linear or branch carbon chains . Transforming unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleicacid (LA) to other groups could improve the oxidative stability, while attaching the alkyl side chains might improve low- temperature performance .
HM cells in 100 mm dishes were grown for 24 h in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 14% FBS prior to treatment with hsp90b1 RNAi or 17-DMAG. The three hsp90b1 RNAi sequences used were: 1). UUAGCAAGACGUGUUCGAUUCGAGU; 2). UUCUGCUGGACCCAGCCAUG AAGUA; 3).UCAAACU- GAGGCGAAGCAUUCUUUC (Invitrogen). Cells were treated with vehicle (Lipofectamine RNAi Max alone), a mixture of hsp90b1 RNAi (20 m M) and Lipofectamine-RNAi-Max, or 17- Figure 8. Mechanism of excessive NEFA contributing to pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. NEFA, such as linoleicacid (LA, an 18:2 n- 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) induces Ca 2+ efflux from mitochondria by activating a hsp90b1-dependent pathway (PIMCE). The LA responsive
Conjugated linoleicacid (CLA) has been indicated as one of the most potentially beneficial fatty acids (FA) for human health (Collomb et al., 2006). The most effec- tive strategy for multiplying the content of CLA in raw milk involves supplementing ruminant feed with differ- ent oils or oilseeds with high levels of linoleic and linole- nic acids (Hervás et al., 2008). Feeding ruminants under grazing conditions (natural and/or improved pastures) can also provide high CLA content in raw milk (Gómez-Cortés et al., 2009; Avilez et al., 2012).
The subject of research was 60 crossbred gilts, divided into 6 groups, fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleicacid (CLA) or sunﬂower oil (SFO) in amount: 0.5; 1.0; and 2.0 %, respectively. Animals were slaughtered with the body weight ca. 95 kg. The aim of research was to determine pH value of loin meat tissue (Longissimus dorsi) of right half-carcass in 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours and 24 hours after slaughter. Results were statistically elaborated using one-way variance analysis. Longissimus dorsi muscle pH values measured 45 minutes after slaughter in case of all groups of pigs were in range from 6.34 up to 6.47, what shows good meat quality. The lowest pH 1 (measured 45 minutes after slaughter) had meat of fatteners where addition of 2 % sunﬂower oil was
T he in vitro capacity to inhibit linoleicacid peroxidation could be correlated with the content of the major phenolic compound, rosmarinic acid. T he rosmarinic acid content and inhibition of lipid peroxidation of mints proved to be high, especially in M. spicata. T his later plant could be considered as a possible functional food, which makes it a promising
The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleicacid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleicacid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleicacid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.
Thirty rats remained in a period of adjustment for 7 days receiving water and the respective diets ad libitum. After this period the animals were divided into 3 groups in order to achieve body weight homogeneity within and among the groups. Group C (control) received linoleicacid; group AE received AdvantEdge® CLA; and group CO received CLA One®. The supplement concentration was 2% of daily feed consumption. Animals were supplemented daily for 6 weeks. Body weight and feed consumption were determined every two days. At the end of the study, part of the liver left lobe was excised, weighed, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80 °C before lyophilization for determination of total lipid content.
Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a combination of medium chain triglycerides (caprylic, capric, caproic and lauric acids), linoleicacid (essential fatty acid), vitamins A and E and soy lecithin, through a morphometric study, on the wound healing kinetics of experimental cutaneous ulcers. Methods: A total of 45 male Wistar rats were used, in which a skin flap of total thickness with an area of 4 cm 2 was removed. The animals were divided randomly into 3 groups of 15 rats each,
In the 1980's, the diet started to be consid- ered the factor that would solve almost all problems related to the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF) (1). The protein diet has been extensively studied, together with some other dietary components. Lipids and pre- cursors of some autacoids like prostaglan- dins and leukotrienes have also been impli- cated in the progression of CRF (2-4). Di- etary prostaglandin precursors are different in different parts of the world. Linoleicacid, common in the western diet, and eicosapen- tanoic acid, common in the diet of inhabit- ants of the far north, are examples of this
reproduction biotechnologies. Although countless pregnancies have been obtained, IVP embryos have lower quality and viability when compared with in vivo-produced embryos. Besides that, studies have demonstrated that IVP embryos are more susceptible to cryopreservation damages, which are associated to morphological and physiological patterns. Many quality differences can be related to culture conditions, especially to serum addition, which has been reported to be responsible for the increase in cytoplamatic lipid accumulation in IVP embryos. In order to solve this problem, some studies proposed the supplementation of in vitro maturation (IVM) medium and/or in vitro culture (IVC) medium with conjugated linoleicacid (CLA) to improve oocyte and embryo quality and cryotolerance, by modulating fatty acid metabolism. CLA isomers can affect the lipid profile and signaling of cells and thereby alter their function in vitro. Regarding changes in lipid metabolism and composition, CLA isomers have become relevant for the improvement of IVP embryos competence and cryotolerance. This review investigated the importance of CLA on oocyte and embryo development and cryotolerance. Overall, there is some evidence that inclusion of CLA to in vitro embryo growth media improves embryo outcomes. However, the effect of CLA on oocyte and embryo cryosurvival is variable and studies evaluating the effects of IVM and IVC media supplementation with CLA on pregnancy rates are needed.
43 Increased consumption of highly energetic food with high levels 44 of saturated fats have led to a threefold increase of obesity rates in 45 industrialized societies contributing to human premature morbid- 46 ity and mortality . Facing this worldwide health problem, new 47 compounds that might prevent or even reverse such scenario have 48 attracted scientific attention. One of the natural compounds most 49 studied in the last decades as a body fat reducing agent is the con- 50 jugated linoleicacid (CLA). CLA is a generic term for a mixture of 51 geometrical and positional isomers of linoleicacid (18:2n ! 6) 52 with conjugated double bonds in either cis (c) or trans (t) configu- 53 ration, found mainly in ruminant-derived foods . Being a dietary 54 fatty acid, CLA reveals an impressive range of promising health 55 benefits including reduction of body fat mass  but the mecha- 56 nisms by which CLA elicits its promising effects remain unknown. 57 It is known that CLA isomers rapidly incorporate into cell mem- 58 brane lipids [3,4], but their outcome on cell membranes and 59 changes in cellular function is still unexploited. Due to the poten- 60 tial anti-adipogenic effect attributed to CLA, it would be interesting
usually higher proportions of PUFA) than beef produced from more intensive production systems (Moloney et al., 2004; Descalzo et al., 2005). The pasture has major effects by decreasing SFA and increasing fatty acids considered as favourable for human health (18:1c9, 18:3n-3 and c9,t11 CLA isomer), compared to other diets, especially those based on maize silage and concentrates. Eriksson and Pickova (2007), point out that this higher PUFA percentage in meat from pasture-fed bulls could result from the higher protection of fatty acids in fresh grass from the ruminal biohydrogenation, relative to that of grain or silage. Moreover, this increase in meat PUFA percentage may be also due to the presence of secondary plant metabolites in spontaneous pastures that might inhibit microbial biohydrogenation activity within the rumen (Lourenço et al., 2008). Of particular interest is the use of grass and forages to increase the concentration of ΑLΑ in meat since lipids of green forage contain high proportions of 18:3n-3 (Razminowicz et al., 2006). According to these authors cattle eating forage-only diets can have a profound impact on the nutritive attributes of beef by altering the lipid composition of meat through lower concentrations of SFA and higher concentrations of LC-PUFA. Previous studies have also addressed that beef from grass fed ruminants contains increased concentrations of β-carotene and α-tocopherol, as well as higher concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleicacid, all substances reported to have favourable effects on human health. In contrast, concentrate diets based on grains and protein supplements have higher amounts of 18:2n-6, the precursor of the n-6 series of PUFA. These compounds, LA and ALA, can therefore be used as diet markers. However, grass is a variable feedstuff, according to the season of year and whether it is fed fresh or conserved as silage or hay (Wood et al., 2006). Feeding mixtures of forage legume and red clover relative to grass alone results in further enhancements in PUFA content, both 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. These responses in both SFA and n-3 PUFA contribute towards beneficial changes in increasing PUFA/SFA and decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratios (Scollan et al., 2006).
Linoleicacid peroxidation was induced by heating a sample of pure LA at 80 ºC for 4 h under stirring in a glass lask with O 2 atmosphere, obtained by continuously blowing O 2 from a cylinder into the headspace of the lask. Aliquots of LA were removed from the reaction lask 2 and 4 h after the beginning of the peroxidation reaction. Capillary ilms of non-oxidized and peroxidized LA were obtained between two calcium luoride (CaF 2 ) windows, which were mounted in special sample holder. IR spectra were obtained in the range 4000-1000 cm -1 using an FTIR
The high amounts of EFAs were detected in all species with a clear predominance of -linolenic acid, which was the most abundant fatty acid with contents of 34.87%, 32.49% 30.51% and 29.00 % for C. stellipilis, C. elazigensis, C. davisiana and C. paphlagonica, respectively. Other dominant fatty acid was palmitic acid, ranging from 19.10% (C. davisiana) to 28.23% (C. elazigensis). All extracts were contained significant amounts of linoleicacid (LA) and stearic acid with small amount of arachidic, behenic, myristic, lignoceric acid (Table 2). Interestingly, arachidic acid (6.19%) and lignoceric acid (5.07%) contents were considerably high in C. davisiana and LA content was significantly high in C. paphlagonica (19.44%). It was found the high concentration of phytol known as cancer preventive agent  especially in C. davisiana (10.18 %).
The β-carotene/ linoleicacid assay was conducted by evaluation of the inhibition of the peroxidation effects of NP 1 and NP 2, using a linoleicacid system determined by the β-carotene bleaching test (Matthäus, 2002; ,Kang et al., 2006), quantifying the difference between the initial and final (after 120 min) amount of β-carotene discolored by spectrophotometric measurements at 470 nm. First, an emulsion with 3.4 mg of β-carotene and 44 µL of linoleicacid was prepared using 364 µL of Tween 20 and 1 mL of chloroform for better solubilization; the solution was shaken and the chloroform was evaporated in a rotaevaporator at 40 ºC. After that, 100 mL of water was added and homogenized. A blank emulsion was also done containing just 44 µL of linoleicacid, 364 µL of Tween 20 and 100 mL of distilled water. Samples were prepared at a concentration of 1.6 mg.mL -1 of polymer
Abstract: Plants represent the best and most extensively studied source of natural antioxidants. The present study investigated the antioxidant and anti-glycation properties of different concentrations of essential oils obtained from fruits and branchlets of Juniperus oblonga M. Bieb., Cupressaceae, using different assays. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation of the branchlets of male tree (BMT), branchlets of female tree (BFT) and fruits of J. oblonga. Compositional analysis of oils was performed using a gas chromatography-mass method. Antioxidant activity was assessed using linoleicacid peroxidation, peroxyl radical mediated hemolysis of red blood cells (RBC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation assays. Anti-glycation properties of oils were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Seventeen, eighteen and i fteen compounds were identii ed in the BMT, BFT and fruit oil, which represented 82.51, 55.69 and 96.89% of the total oils, respectively. α-Pinene was the major component of all three oils. All three oils possessed antioxidant effects against LDL oxidation, linoleicacid peroxidation and peroxyl radical mediated RBC hemolysis. Anti-glycation activities against hemoglobin and insulin glycation were also observed from all tested oils. Overall, there was no unique pattern of dose-dependence for the antioxidant properties of oils in different employed systems. The i ndings of this study suggest that essential oils from fruits and branchlets of J. oblonga possess antioxidant and anti-glycation properties. Therefore, these oils might be of therapeutic efi cacy against diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Our group evaluated the effect of treatment with oleic and linoleic acids (0.44 g per kg body weight) for four weeks on lacerated gastrocnemius muscle regenera- tion in rats (unpublished data). Laceration per se causes an increase in the oleic/stearic and palmitoleic/palmitic ratio indicators of the desaturase activity and promotes a reduction of speciic isotonic and speciic absolute te- tanic forces. There is also a drop in resistance to fatigue and an increase in the area of ibrous tissue. These indings indicate incomplete regeneration and partial recovery of the contractile function of the injured muscle. Linoleicacid supplementation decreases the mass, speciic iso- tonic strength, fatigue resistance, and cross-sectional area of the contralateral and injured gastrocnemius muscle ibers, as well as increases the area of ibrous tissue in the injured muscle. Supplementation with oleic acid, on the other hand, does not modify the mass and the cross- -sectional area of the ibers of the gastrocnemius muscle; it suppresses the decrease in speciic isotonic force and the increase in the area of ibrous tissue induced by the injury, prevents tetanic forces (absolute and speciic), and increases the resistance to fatigue in the contralateral and injured gastrocnemius muscles. Based on these indings, we conclude that supplementation with linoleicacid compromises the regeneration of the injured skeletal muscle, causing muscle mass reduction, ibrous tissue elevation, and, consequently, impairment of contractile function. Oleic acid, in turn, attenuates incomplete repair actions, optimizing the regenerative capacity and the contractile function of the injured muscle.
The present analysis demonstrated that the ma- jority of fats in forced chicory leaves consisted of unsaturated fatty acids, among which are main α-linolenic (C 18:3, n-3) and linoleicacid (C 18:2, n-6). Saturated fatty acids are represented mainly by palmitic acid (C 16:0). The forced chic- ory showed itself to be a good source of essential α-linoleic fatty acid with an appropriate n-6/n-3 ratio. Although the fatty acid content in vegetables is rather low, they have an important nutritional value due to their favorable fatty acid balance.
highlighted. Similarly to extracellular vesicle fatty acids , oleic acid (C18:1) cell wall amounts were comparable in Pb3 and Pb18, whereas linoleicacid (C18:2) was more abundant in Pb18 than in Pb3. On the other hand, in a similar analysis recently performed by our group , total fatty acids identified in yeast cells were the same as in cell wall preparations, however with abundance differences: i) in Pb3 yeast C18:2 was more abundant than C18:1; ii) both C18:1 and C18:2 were more abundant in Pb3 than in Pb18, suggesting again that cell wall lipid preparations were enriched for this organelle. Previous data on fatty acids from various P. brasiliensis isolates described C16:0 , C18:1 , or C18:2  as the most abundant total fatty acids in yeast cells, suggesting that fatty acid composition can vary with the isolate and/or culture conditions.