to use gas as the alternative to electric energy have been installed in two 3* and 4* hotels in Starigrad. Although for this purpose the free credit was obtained from the Fund, the investment has still not paid off. Energy costs have dropped by 55%, and even some new projects in environmental protection have been implemented (Ranogajec, 2008). Guests often agree to higher service costs if environmental protection is at stake, but implementation of renewable energy sources also requires considerable financial means, which requires the necessary support of the relevant Ministry and other institutions (Ranogajec, 2008). Authors' research was undertaken within the tourist destination of Kvarner in December 2007, by data collecting on survey research ofmanagement on the sample of 11 hotels within narrower tourist destinations of Lovran, Opatija, and Rijeka. The results showed 36% of hotels used RES in mostly one of its components, i.e. solar energy, in conversion into thermal energy for DHW and heating, and rarely used photovoltaic systems for conversion into electric energy. 64% of hotels neither used any form of RES, nor had intention to implement them ( Krstinić Nižić, 2008). The worrying attitude of managements must be accentuated, while the reasons for such a response can possibly be found in additional financial expenses and human effort required to introduce any changes, including new technologies. The reasons for such a great indifference ofmanagement can be located in insufficient education ofmanagement, but also of the entire local community, thus including tourist destinations, on the advantages and benefits obtained by renewable energy sources.
The first part of this work intends to investigate the potential impact of the IWM in the motion control of EVs and its active safety systems. The contributions made by systems like ABS and electronic stability program (ESP) to vehicle safety are widely recognized by drivers, the automobile industry and governmental authorities . These systems are, in general, designed around a technologically mature and reliable actuator, the friction brakes, having a good track record in crash avoidance . Consequently, when we consider EVs endowed with IWM, the wisest approach is to retain the current versions of ABS and ESP algorithms, based on friction brakes, and disable the IWM whenever these systems become active . However, this is not the most effective option because, besides ignoring the greater energy efficiency of the electric motor, it also denies one of IWM’s main advantages: the quick and precise torque response. As pointed out in , the IWM inclusion will not require the re-invention of the control algorithms associated with the vehicle dynamics systems, but it is now clear that, in order to take full advantage of the potential offered by the distributed electric propulsion, the above-mentioned safety systems will have to be reformulated. The key issue in this redesign is to find a suitable strategy to split the braking torque between the IWM and the friction brakes. On one hand, this sharing strategy should use, as much as possible, the IWM, to maximize the energy efficiency, and take advantage of its fast torque response to improve the bandwidth and effectiveness of the safety control system. On the other hand, compared with the friction brakes, the electric motor has a smaller torque range and there are periods of time (e.g., when the energy source is fully charged) where regenerative braking is impossible, introducing important constraints that must be taken into account in the controller design. Up to now, the majority of studies about the electric/friction torque splitting have focused on ”normal” braking manoeuvres, i.e., with negligible tyre slips, in mono- or bi-motor topologies (see top part of Figure 1.2 and [12, 43]). However, these studies do not address the powertrain configurations with IWM or the braking allocation suitable for emergency operation, when the ABS (and also ESP) is enabled. To the best of the author’s knowledge, with the exception of the reference , in the specialized literature very little can be found on this subject. One of the main goals of the present study is to address this lacuna.
Decision making in electricity sector has become more difficult than in the past, due to several challenges and factors, including growing competition, rising complexity and uncertainty. Consequently, the entities involved in this field must act quickly and rethink their business models, strategies and behavior in order to take proper decisions and survive. The huge increase of RES and the EVs mass penetration will change the current landscape of electric power systems permanently, on one hand bringing unparalleled benefits, on the other hand giving way to problems never realized before. In this context, the SG plays an important role by enabling to incorporate all of these new changes, in a sustainable, secure, efficient and intelligent way. The new concept of VPPs and aggregating entities, widely discussed in this thesis, can provide the flexibility and security SGs needs. These entities largely rely on ERM tools to obtain a reliable operation with reduced operation costs. In this scope, this thesis presented a large variety of different decision support methodologies to address several issues regarding ERM, namely in day-ahead operation, where the identified needs were more critical. The proposed methodologies have been integrated in an innovative DSS, which effectively strikes the identified problems that compose the main topic addressed in this work.
Energy consumption in High Performance Computing (HPC) has become an important issue in the past few years. The performance gain obtained by these environments is matched by a proportional increase ofenergyuse. Example of such environments are computational grids, which are used in several academic and enterprise projects. Given this scenario, researchers have been trying to reduce the energy consumption while minimizing performance loss at the same time. This work proposes the useofenergy-aware scheduling for energy efficiency management in compu- tational grids. Our solution exploits the main existing approaches in the literature to reduce energy consump- tion in HPC environments: managementof idle resources and energy-aware scheduling algorithms. We evaluate our proposed approach in a simulation environment and the algorithm was compared to other five traditional scheduling algorithms that do not consider energy features. Results show an energy reduction of up to 182.90% combined with a performance loss up to 27.78% in the best cases.
Power losses during the transmission in agricultural tractors are due to the passive resistance and friction, together with the power absorbed by the hydraulic circuit, which can reach more than 50% (Molari & Sedoni, 2008). However, the percentage losses and energy demand of the hydraulic remote control system, provided by the high number of remote control valves in use, are low due to the low oil temperature and working pressure in this system. Therefore, studies are necessary to determine possible interferences from implements, which require high hydraulic power, and their causes in the performance of the moto-mechanized set.
This paper focuses on the prosumer level, as it is found to con- tribute clear and directly to consumers’ economical savings, thus developing the consumers’ awareness of the efficient useof elec- tricity. It develops the integration of two types of Smart Meters (SM): (i) consumer owned SM and (ii) distributor owned SM, in a SCADA system (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) that supervises a network of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) in order to optimize the electricity consumption. The SCADA sys- tem/PLC network integrates different types of information coming from the several technologies present in modern buildings—BAS (Building Automation Systems).
landfill use are new Member States (Cucchiella et al., 2014). The European Council Directive on waste landfills requires Member States to plan strategies for reducing the amount of biodegradable MSW transferred to landfills to only 35% of that produced in 1995 over a 15-year period (EU, 1999). Moreover, according to the Directive 2006/12/EC, “the useof waste as a source ofenergy” must be encouraged by Member States as a good manner to avoid landfill and to prevent pollution (Novarino and Zanetti, 2012). The compliance to the above Directives, as well as the fact that new landfill sites are difficult to find, because of shortage of utilisable land and opposition of people living nearby, is diverting the useof the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) to other purposes (Rimaityt÷ et al., 2010; Novarino and Zanetti, 2012). The high moisture content and low calorific power of OFMSW do not allow energy reclaim by its direct combustion (Chang et al., 1995; Rimaityt÷ et al., 2010). Furthermore, as OFMSW is a biodegradable material, the alternative management methods to the disposal at landfills or incineration are biological processes, such as aerobic composting and AD (Pognani et al., 2009; 2012).
A theoretical coalitional game approach, for the cooperation between households and load serving entity in a smart community, is presented by Fan et al. in . The authors, considering the potential demand response ability of air conditioning units, aim to use them in order to decrease the energy costs of a smart community. The proposed air conditioning controller is designed to reduce the amount of electricity purchased from the main grid by controlling air conditioning units. This is made possible by an online air conditioning energymanagement algorithm, based on Lyapunov optimization, that considers both the air conditioning energy consumption and the thermal comfort level of consumers. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed coalitional game has significant potential to serve as an effective means of improving the profitability of the load-serving entity and cutting the expenses of householders.
First, the maximum power usage is established depending on the strategy implemented. After- wards, the entire charging period divides itself into three sections. During the first minute, the system calculates the difference between the allowed power and the user consumption to see how much power is available to use. If there is power available to charge every ESS, all charge except flywheels. These technologies only charge in the last minutes because it has high self-discharge, which means the more time it stands idle, the more energy is lost. Consequentially, flywheels do not charge during the second period of charge, so that it does not stand idle for multiple hours.
In 2010, the INE (Instituto Nacional de Estatístisca), the Portuguese statistical national institute, executed an national survey on energy consumption in the domestic sector [ 30 ]. Among other things, the study provides information about energy consumption discriminating it by type and areas of usage. By other side, ERSE also provides data about energy consumption on the Por- tuguese LVN. An accurate stipulation of the number of domestic customers on the LVN, ensures that is also possible to have a good approximation to the number of total household appliances functioning on the grid. However, it is a complex calculation, because a domestic costumer is not constricted to any BTN class, as he is free to chose his contracted power on the energy market, as well as very different consumption behaviour and annual consumption. Thereby, when simulating a load profile, all type of LVN costumers are included: residential, industry, business and hostelry. Summarizing, although it is know that most of domestic costumers fit on BTN C class, due to this class characteristics, but it is impossible to assume that BTN C load shape reflects only domestic clients. Howsoever, there are possible approaches considering average values for LVN load pro- files, annual and daily power consumptions, number of costumers, as well as the existing domestic costumers statistical data.
Insulation of the greenhouse can be achieved in two ways: insulation of the cover and useof (thermal) screens. Table 1 has already shown some examples of U-values of different covering materials. It has to be taken into account that these numbers are very general and in practice variable by the means of weather circumstances (mainly wind) and managementof the greenhouse climate as for instance humidity control. Kempkes et al. (2014) showed that for Dutch climate it’s possible to reduce the heat consumption by more than 50% by exchange the single glass by insulating thermopane, without effect on crop production. Drawback of many insulating covering materials is the reduction of light transmission, which can run up to 20-30%. As light is in most countries in wintertime a limiting factor, this has to be taken into account in the greenhouse design.
The exact definition of DG (also referred to in the scientific literature as Dispersed Generation, Decentralized Generation or Embedded Generation) varies somewhat between sources and capacities. According to Jenkins , there is no consistent and unified definition for DG: some countries use a definition based on voltage level or on maximum power rating, while others consider that DG comprises the generation sources connected to circuits from which consumer loads are supplied directly; certain definitions rely on the type of prime mover (e.g., renewable or CHP), while other definitions are based on the generation not being despatched. However, as pointed out in  and , some common ground can be found in order to define or categorize DG: (i) it is not centrally planned or dispatched; (ii) it is normally based on small scale generators, where capacity depends on connection voltage and grid characteristics; (iii) it is typically connected to the distribution grid, but depending on the size, it can be connected to the transmission grid; (iv) it can be based on RES to locally exploit a given energetic resource, but it is not limited to renewables (as in the case of CHP based applications). It can be powered by micro-turbines, combustion engines, fuel cells, wind turbines, geothermal, photovoltaic system, etc. Therefore, DG definition is quite broad in terms of technologies that can be connected to the grid. Nevertheless, the size of the DG units is generally below a few tens of kW due to the technical limitations of LV grids to accommodate high power injections.
management applied to industry. The energy issue is currently of great relevance, especially for the so-called energy-intensive industries related to high energy consumption and their associated environmental impacts. The present research is characterized as a basic, exploratory approach justified by the need to build knowledge on the subject ofenergymanagement in industry. The methodology provides for the useof a computational tool called CMap Tools, which assists in the graphic representation of the proposed conceptual map. The conceptual map based on the ISO 50001 standard and on successful energymanagement practices described in the scientific literature is directed toward a process design covered by the managerial discipline called Business Process Management. The conceptual map is intended to clarify the relationships that are established between the intra-organizational and main external stakeholders involved in an energymanagement system. Owing to the way internal areas and external organizations relate, the representation structure using a "Spider" is the most appropriate. The work developed presents an energymanagement system for an energy-intensive industry in a clear
Gamification is the useof game mechanics in non-game contexts. This allows users to work towards a pre-defined goal. Our implemented approach is based on public information about the student (users) presence in a room and the account of the energy consumed. The main idea is to create a collective behavior base on public information about user waste energy actions. One example is the problem of lights being left on after classroom use. There is a waste ofenergy until the beginning of a new lesson. For example, considering a class that finishes at 3 p.m. and the following one starts at 7 p.m., if lights were not turned off, we have 4 h of unnecessary energy consumption that can reach 4 kWh (considering our scenario of application). If we account for 40 students in the classroom, the system collected 100 Wh for each student, and 4 kWh for the teacher. With this approach, it is possible to account this metric (energy consumption) for week or month long periods and show them in university television circuits, with announcements of the top-ten most sustainable students (with the least energy accounted in the gamification platform) and the top-ten least sustainable (with more electricity consumption in their account). Additionally, when lights were turned off students win points related with the amount saved, consumption between two lessons in the same classroom divided by the number of presences. For example, in the previous example an amount of 100 Wh was saved, which was converted to points based on electricity price. Later, these savings (points) can be converted to save money on university services. With this approach, it is possible to enable and motivate consumers to change their consumption levels and to create more sustainable behaviors. The visualization board, in fact, creates a social comparison and serves to provide motivation towards reaching the pre-defined goal and the savings points can lead to a collective behavior changed.
In some systems it is possible to know future values of the refer- ence. For these systems MPC may use this data to compute the control law and allow the system to achieve quickly the new desired value. The reference vector ω(k + l) used in the objective function does not neces- sarily coincide with the current reference system. Typically, in practical applications, strategies are used to soften the reference changes, similar to the filters used in classical two-degree-of-freedom control structures. In practice all processes are subject to constraints. The actuators have a limited field of action and a determined slew rate. Constructive reasons, safety or environmental ones can cause limits in the process variables as states and outputs. The operational conditions are nor- mally defined by the intersection of certain constraints, so that the control system will operate close to the boundaries. The controller must anticipate and correct these violations so they do not happen, preventing the system being unstable. In this context MPC controllers are effective, since they have the ability to predict possible violations over the prediction horizon including constraints on the optimization problem .
As mentioned above, the system communicates through the local Wi-Fi network, making useof the MQTT (Message Queueing Telemetry Transport)  and TCP/IP protocols to effectively transmit its data. The data is all formatted in a simple protocol, with specific fields for information and action parameters, created for the system and called EGC (ElectroGes Command).
Environmentally friendly options for waste disposal and the need for expansion and diversification of the national and international energy matrix are relevant issues today. One technique that supports these goals is anaerobic biodigestion, which generates clean energy from biomass. Accordingly, our goal was to perform a quantitative and qualitative assessment of scientific publications on biodigestion in order to understand the evolution of the technique, which is essential for environmental and economic sustainability. Ninety-nine articles indexed in the Scientific Electronic Library Online between 1980 and 2015 were evaluated. The results showed a significant increase in scientific publications since 2000 which addressed, in addition to environmentally friendly waste management, the energy issue, with the useof biogas. This increase in the number of publications coincides with increased awareness on natural resource management and concern about global energymanagement. Most of the articles involved a general evaluation of the process, using mainly animal waste from pigs, and emphasizing biodigestion as waste management, since pig farming produces a large volume of waste and has a high environmental impact.
OSB/3 is also for load-bearing but in humid conditions and OSB/4 is for heavy duty construction in humid conditions. Irle, Barbu 56 OSB is usually made with thicknesses ranging from 10 to 32 mm. Often the most difficult test to pass for OSB/3 and 4 is the IB and MOR after Cyvling boiling and so manufacturers use moisture resistant resins like isocyanides (PMDI), phenolic based resins (PF, MUPF) or melamine reinforced UF resins (MUF). The MOR and MOE values observed parallel to the long panel edge are normally double those observed across the panel. This is an effect of the strand orientation in the face layer.
The first consisted of a floristic survey and forest inventory. The second study was the quantification and qualification of forest biomass to be allocated for energy generation, including the collection of branches in total biomass potential. The third study consisted of performing storage test of biomass in the field and in the forest and in an industrial yard, to estimate the improvement of the quality of biomass for energy generation. The results indicated that analyzed vegetation features: high floristic diversity, many individuals per unit area; small to medium trees; most individuals with small diameter and high biomass productivity per unit area. As for the energy quality of Caatinga biomass: the moisture content and ash content of newly felled trees were low and the net calorific value was high. As for storage: the cutting of trees during the rainy season and its field maintenance for the leave fall, for 10 days, it resulted in a significant increase in the moisture content of the biomass. Fifteen days of storage in piles in the yard were sufficient to trunks and branches of trees of Caatinga achieve high quality wood energy. The best biomass treatment strategies consisted of: performing harvesting and collecting logs and branches manually with the useof chain saws. The harvest should be done differently in the dry and rainy seasons. In the dry season, as much material from the branches should be removed from the area at the time of harvesting the logs. During the rainy season, the branches should not be removed from the field before the fall of leaves, with subsequent useof storage in piles, in the yard, to reduce the moisture content. The density; anatomical structure of wood; morphology of the trees and the presence of termites should be taken into account during treatment planning of biomass for the use in power generation, especially in the design of forest and industrial chippers. The storage of logs and branches should be performed separately due to the different behavior of drying the biomass depending on dimensions and shape thereof. The storage of logs and scrub of tree branches can be used as a tool for managementof biomass for power generation in order to improve the energyof wood.
Many examples of this exist: a typical laptop computer usually includes two different pro- cessing units (CPU and GPU), the highly integrated SoC present on a smart phone also includes various processing units (CPU, GPU, DSP, some times others), to high performance computing grids that use large amounts of processing units. All these systems are heterogeneous, since they employ different processing units with distinct characteristics and most of the times with different architectures.