Despite its importance, most ichthyoplankton studies in the South-Southeastern coast of Brazil, have been accomplished on the continental shelf. Regarding the beach environment, recognized as a nursery, little is known about the ichthyoplankton. We analyzed 288 samples collected with a 18 by 2 m seine net, 1 mm mesh and a conical plankton net, with a mesh of 300 µ m and a 60 cm mouth. Eucinostomus argenteus comprised 78 % of the larvae and juveniles caught in the samples. The occurrence of gerreids was strongly concentrated in the summer, while the Menticirrhuslittoralis, Menticirrhus americanus and Umbrina coroides were present during all seasons. M.littoralis was most abundant during spring, while M. americanus and U. coroides dominated during winter. For all species, the largest captures occurred during low tide. Environmental preferences are indicated in the principal component analysis, with the larvae and juveniles of E. argenteus and E. gula positively correlated with smaller waves and smaller morphodynamism, whereas M. americanus, U. coroides and M. furnieri seem to prefer periods with lower temperatures and larger morphodynamism.
ABSTRACT. The diet and foraging strategy of juvenile Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Menticirrhuslittoralis (Holbrook, 1847) were studied, testing the existence of trophic overlap between these species and within different seasons (spring and summer). Individuals were sampled using a beach seine in the surf zone near Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Based on Morisita’s Simplified Overlap Index and Bootstrapping technique, trophic overlap between species was considered high during the spring (Cik = 0.97 ± 0.07) and low during the summer (Cik = 0.37 ± 0.14). Juveniles shared the same food resources during the spring (FO of amphipods > 0.75), with the M. americanus diet presenting lower prey diversity (N = 7) when compared to M. littoralis (N = 13). In the summer, M. americanus presented a more varied diet (N = 13) than during the spring, suggesting a non-specialized opportunistic diet, whereas M. littoralis continued to show a diversified diet (N = 14). During the summer, M. americanus presented a generalist- opportunist feeding strategy, whereas juvenile M. littoralis tended to be more specialist.
Samples were obtained from the Cidreira’s fishing pier (30º 08’ S; 50º 11’ W) located on the Northern Coast of Rio Grande do Sul, where sport fishing is conducted throughout the whole year. A total of 807 individuals of Menticirrhuslittoralis (323 females; 484 males) were caught from June 1997 to May 1998. A voucher specimen is deposited at the Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia, PUCRS: MCP 17269. Captures were exclusively made by sport fishermen using hook-and-line with hooks of different sizes (7.6 mm to 24.4 mm in width) and varied baits (mainly Annelida: cf. Diopatra; Mollusca: Mesodesma mactroides; Crustacea: Emerita brasiliensis, Sergio mirim, Farfantepenaeus paulensis, Artemesia longinaris).
A ecomorfologia e os hábitos alimentares de juvenis de Trachinotus carolinus e Menticirrhuslittoralis capturados na zona de arrebentação de praias arenosas em Niterói, RJ, foram investigados entre julho de 2006 e Maio de 2007. Ambas as espécies diferem morfologicamente, mas apresentam semelhanças em sua dieta, sugerindo uma possível sobreposição alimentar. A importância dos itens alimentares foi avaliada utilizando o índice alimentar de Kawakami e Vazzoler. Variáveis morfométricas foram correlacionadas à dieta observada para diferentes classes de tamanho, para cada espécie. Um total de 210 peixes (Trachinotus carolinus - 122, Menticirrhuslittoralis - 88), variando entre 24.2 mm e 112 mm de comprimento total, foram analisados, mas apenas 84.8% continham alimento. Trachinotus carolinus apresentou mysidáceos, poliquetas e Emerita spp. como os itens predominantes na dieta. Formicidae e Isopoda foram os itens mais importantes para a classe I de tamanho dos indivíduos, enquanto que mysidáceos e Emerita spp. foram importantes para as classes II e III. Indivíduos da classe I também apresentaram itens de menor tamanho (anfípodos e isópodos) bem como larvas de peixes clupeídeos na dieta. Emerita spp. dominou a alimentação de Menticirrhuslittoralis, independentemente da classe de tamanho. Poliquetas, o segundo item mais importante, foi mais bem representado na classe II e III de tamanho dos indivíduos. As principais variáveis morfométricas correlacionadas com essas diferenças incluíram a posição da boca e o diâmetro do olho.
Poucos trabalhos citogenéticos nesta família relatam aspectos estruturais do cariótipo como a presença e localização de RONs, impedindo assim sua utilização como um marcador citotaxonômico. A localização das RONs em regiões pericentroméricas, em um único par, é considerada basal nos Perciformes, sendo compartilhada na família Sciaenidae por representantes como Menticirrhus americanus, Ophioscion punctatissimus e Pareques acuminatus (presente estudo), Menticirrhuslittoralis (Reggi et al., 1986), Plagioscion squamosissimus (Feldberg et. al, 1999), bem como em outras famílias da mesma Ordem, dentre elas Serranidae (Aguilar e Galetti, 1997) e Notothenidae (Ozouf-Costaz et. al, 1997). Com isso, verifica-se que os sciaenídeos analisados, compartilham a mesma posição intersticial de RONs. Porém, eles diferem entre si na posição das mesmas no cariótipo, sendo encontradas no primeiro par acrocêntrico em Menticirrhus americanus e Plagioscion sp. (Feldberg et al.,1999), no décimo par em Ophioscion punctatissimus, no segundo par de Pareques acuminatus e no vigésimo quarto par de Plagioscion squamosissimus (Feldberg et al.,1999).
We found some differences between F. littoralis and congeneric species F. erythronotos and F. grisea, in terms of nest composition. For the latter, E.C. Mendonça (unpublished data) and Silva (1988) reported the presence of bryophytes in the external area of the nests. This material was absent in the 12 nests we found in the present study. The dried and dead leaves, lichens, and the cotton- like material we found in F. littoralis nests were not recorded for F. erythronotos or F. grisea.
Although several studies have related sexual dimorphism in head size with sexual differences in diet composition (e.g., Schoener, 1967, 1968; Schoener & Gorman, 1968; Preest, 1994), the larger heads of male C. littoralis at Barra de Maricá are probably more related to sexual selection since males with larger heads would have some advantage over smaller males during disputes for females and in territorial defense, as suggested by Vitt (1983) for a population of C. ocellifer in the Brazilian caa- tinga. The same relationship has already been described for another teiid (Ameiva ameiva) by Vanzolini et al. (1980) and Zaluar & Rocha (2000), who suggest that males with bigger jaws have higher reproductive success than those with smaller jaws. This contention seems valid for C. littoralis at Barra de Maricá but only additional studies could pro- ve this hypothesis.
To assess if female mosquitoes ingest haemolymph from S. littoralis larvae when they landed, 3 rd instar larvae were fed using artificial food (described above) mixed with the colour pigment Xylene cyanole FF until the food medium became strongly blue. When they reached the late 5 th instar, two larvae were placed in a 1 liter container together with about ten 10–12 days old female A. aegypti, non-blood fed but sugar-fed (n = 8). After 48 h, the mosquitoes were dissected in order to assess the presence of the blue dye in their digestive tract, indicating a haemolymph meal.
Six subspecies of island fox (Urocyon littoralis), diminutive descendants of the mainland gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus), are found on the Channel Islands located off the mainland coast of southern California, USA  (Fig 1). Northern island subspecies include the San Miguel Island (SMI) Fox (U. l. littoralis), Santa Rosa Island (SRI) Fox (U. l. santarosae), and Santa Cruz Island (SCZ) Fox (U. l. santacruzae), and southern island subspecies include Santa Catalina Island (SCA) Fox (U. l. catalinae), San Nicolas Island (SNI) Fox (U. l. dickey), and San Clemente Island (SCI) Fox (U. l. clementae). Predation, disease, and other factors led to catastrophic declines in fox numbers to < 1,500 for all six subspecies combined in 2002 [1,2], and all northern island subspecies (SMI, SRI, SCZ), and one southern island sub- species (SCA), were listed as endangered in 2004 . Population recovery of all 4 federally endangered subspecies is occurring, but no subspecies have been delisted or down-listed to date .
neem treatment in R. ferrugineus pre-pupae, although they found this abnormality after the treatment of Culex pipiens larvae with Echinochloa stagninum (Poaceae) petroleum ether extract (BREAM et al., 2010). Intermediate larva-pupae were observed when the treatment with azadirachtin was applied in the last instar of the larva of Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera mauritia, Ephestia kuehniella, Manduca sexta and Spodoptera littoralis (GUJAR; MEHROTRA, 1983; JAGANNADH; NAIR, 1992; MARTINEZ; EMDEN, 2001).
Comprehensive analysis of the recovered DNA revealed a relatively simple but distinctive gut microbiota that co-develops with the host; both the composition and metabolic activity sustainably shift throughout larval stages. Overall, pyrosequencing reads were dominated by taxa from Proteobacteria and Firmi- cutes. A similar pattern has recently been described in fruitfly larvae . Notably bacteria from these phyla are widespread in the gut of turtle ants, bees, moths and butterflies, suggesting that they may represent the chiefly phyla in insect herbivore gut microbiota [25–27]. The simplicity of this community, comprised of 22–42 OTUs, is especially apparent compared to the gut microbiota of insects from orders such as termites of Isoptera, or vertebrates, which often harbor hundreds of phylotypes [28,29]. Strong alkalinity in the gut, considered an important determinant of community structure in beetle larvae, could also be the case in Spodoptera, which has a midgut pH .10 [22,30]. Other key factors, including a fast food throughput and immune system function, may also account for this taxonomically restricted gutflora . However, three families, including Enterococcaceae, Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, are particularly rich and active, and these are likely the core functional populations living inside the gut. Furthermore a clear developmental change (early-instar vs. late- instar) is found. Not only do they consistently occur throughout the whole larval lifespan, these bacteria are also persistently identified from different sampling batches of normal larvae, indicating they are the indigenous gut residents and may be the true symbionts of S. littoralis.
40 grasshoppers is H. littoralis (I BRAHIM , 1983 & E L –S HAZLY , 1991). Essential oils are volatile, natural, complex compounds characterized by a strong odor and are formed by plants as secondary metabolites. In nature, essential oils play an important role in protection of the plants as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, insecticides and also against herbivorous by reducing their appetite for such plants. They also may, attract some insects to favor the dispersion of pollens and seeds or repel undesirable others (B AKKLI et al, 2008). The discovery and use of synthetic insecticides have reduced the interest in plant origin products. However, widespread use of these insecticides in public health and agriculture for the control of vector and pest species has created different problems, such as the development of physiological resistant in major vector species, environmental pollution and toxic hazards to human and other non- target organisms due to their broad spectrum of activity (W HO , 1992; 2005; H EMINGWAY & C RIAG , 2004; K OUL et al., 2008). As a result , there has been an increased interest in developing potential alternative or additional control methods or materials that are effective against the target vector species, environmentally safe, biodegradable, with low cost and can be used by individuals and communities in specific situation (R EEDWANI et al., 2002). One of these potential alternatives or additional control methods or tools in the use of selective botanical derivatives against the target insect species (P ERICH et al., 1995). Therefore, the use of essential oils extracted from aromatic plants to control insect pests has been investigated and is well documented (I SMAN , 2006; K OUL et al., 2008; R AJENDRAN & S RIEANJINI , 2008). For
En cuanto a la viabilidad de huevos, existe una reducción significativa en las combinaciones en que el macho procede de larvas tratadas con flufenoxurón y en las combinaciones que al menos uno de los miembros procede de larvas tratadas con lufenurón. El tratamiento por ingestión de lar- vas L 5 de S. littoralis con flufenoxurón tambien originó reducción de viabilidad de huevos en las combinaciones donde la hembra procedía de larvas tratadas (Aldebis et al. 1988), aunque el mayor porcentaje de reducción lo originaron los machos procedentes de larvas tratadas. Es probable que el flufenoxurón y el lufenurón originen
Background: Recovering endangered species would benefit from identifying and ranking of the factors that threaten them. Simply managing for multiple positive influences will often aid in recovery; however, the relative impacts of multiple threats and/or interactions among them are not always predictable. We used a series of experiments and quantitative observational studies to examine the importance of five potential limiting factors to the abundance of a state-listed endangered hemiparasitic annual forb, Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis (C.r.l., California, USA): host availability, mammalian herbivores, insect seed predators, fire suppression, and exotic species. While this initial assessment is certainly not a complete list, these factors stem from direct observation and can inform provisional recommendations for management and further research. Methodology and Principal Findings: Studies were conducted at five sites and included assessments of the influence of host availability, exotic species, exclusion of mammalian herbivores and insect seed predators on C.r.l. productivity, and simulated effects of fire on seed germination. C.r.l. was limited by multiple threats: individuals with access to host species produced up to three times more inflorescences than those lacking hosts, mammalian herbivory reduced C.r.l. size and fecundity by more than 50% and moth larvae reduced seed production by up to 40%. Litter deposition and competition from exotic plant species also appears to work in conjunction with other factors to limit C.r.l. throughout its life cycle. Conclusions and Significance: The work reported here highlights the contribution that a series of small-scale studies can make to conservation and restoration. Taken as a whole, the results can be used immediately to inform current management and species recovery strategies. Recovery of C.r.l. will require management that addresses competition with exotic plant species, herbivore pressure, and availability of preferred host species.
Contrary to ApolPDE or PjapPDE, which were only expressed in males [5,10,11], SlCXE7 expression was also faintly observed in adult female and in larval antennae. S. littoralis females are able to detect their own sex pheromone  but their antennae are mostly specialized in plant volatile detection [29,30], because these components play a crucial role for host plant selection before egg laying. S. littoralis larvae are also known to detect green-leaf volatiles . In situ hybridization on male antennae suggested that SlCXE7 transcripts were located in long but also in short trichoid sensilla responding to plant’s odorants. These data suggested that SlCXE7 could putatively hydrolyze other odorants than sex pheromones, in larvae and adults of both sexes.
Disease is a significant threat to conservation-dependent wildlife species, particularly for genet- ically and geographically isolated populations . The Santa Catalina Island (SCA) fox (Uro- cyon littoralis catalinae) is one of six distinct subspecies [2,3] native to the Channel Islands off the coast of Southern California (SCA: 33°24’ N, 118°24’ W). In 1999, a suspected distemper epidemic decimated 85–90% of this population, and the remaining ~100 foxes in this subspe- cies were listed as federally endangered [4,5]. Intensive management actions including translo- cation, captive breeding, and vaccination successfully averted extinction and contributed to rapid population growth to an estimated population of 1,114 in 2012 [6, 7]. Although the pop- ulation is now increasing, disease epidemics remain a primary threat to the continued existence of the SCA foxes [8, 9].
Only at 0.1 ppm azadirachtin and above did S. littoralis show anomalies during the larval and pre-pupal stages (Tables 4 and 5). The moulting period was prolonged in a dose- dependent manner. At 0.1 ppm azadirachtin, 2.5% of the larvae died during moult. With 0.5 ppm azadirachtin added to the diet, 25.0% of the larvae went through moult which was extended by between one day to more than one week, leading to 22.5% mortality during the process. At 1 ppm azadirachtin, prolonged moulting occurred in 92.5% of the insects and was followed by death in 75.0% of the cases. In an analogous study, S. frugiperda larvae had 95% ecdysis inhibition after feeding on diet treated with 1 ppm azadirachtin for ten days (Kubo & Klocke 1984).