Methods of performance appraisal

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Communication in organizations and 360-degree evaluation: what is the relationship between the two concepts?

Communication in organizations and 360-degree evaluation: what is the relationship between the two concepts?

The 360-degree evaluation could be relevant to overcome some limitations of traditional performance appraisal (i.e., top-down evaluation). Firstly, it is important to note the confidentiality of the process. Confidentiality is crucial to increase participation of the individuals. However, the evaluation of traditional performance does not include this confidentiality, because it is made by the superior of the employee who prepares an analysis of the strengths and areas for improvement, discussing with the employee which may be the possible future action plans (Caetano, 2008). This aspect can be also seen as an obstacle of traditional performance appraisal, because when the evaluation process is not confidential, may develop conflicts between evaluators and evaluated people. This is because disagreements may arise between them (Craig & Hannum 2006). Considering the aspects mentioned above, 360-degree evaluation is seen as advantageous. The 360-degree evaluation is a confidential and anonymous process, unlike other evaluation methods (e.g. traditional performance evaluation) (Carson, 2006; Craig & Hannum, 2006; Gillespie & Parry, 2006; Kline & Sulsky, 2009). This confidentiality and anonymity mean that there is greater acceptance of this evaluation by the individuals who are evaluated (Heijden & Nijhof, 2004).
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Transfer of performance appraisal practices from MNC parent to subsidiaries in Serbia

Transfer of performance appraisal practices from MNC parent to subsidiaries in Serbia

The analysis of parental control over MNC subsidiaries elaborated the following aspects: the extent to which the parent company participates in the decision- making process regarding general operations of the subsidiary, the extent to which the parent supervises the operations of the subsidiary, and the extent to which the parent formulates the plans to be applied by subsidiaries. For the purpose of the analysis it was assumed that all of these criteria have equal impact on the degree of parental control over foreign subsidiaries. Hypothesis 6 found strong support (p<0.01). The relationship found between parental control over subsidiaries in Serbia and the level of transfer of PA practices and policies was positive: subsidiaries with a higher level of parental control were more likely to accept parent PA practices and policies. Analysis of the performance appraisal process through its individual practices showed that the degree of parental control over the subsidiary affected all four PA practices, with the strongest influence on the frequency of conducting performance appraisal. The correlation between parental control over subsidiary and level of transfer of PA methods and criteria was found to be statistically meaningful at p<0.05, while the relationship between the level of the transfer and the frequency or the way of conducting the PA process was significant at p<0.01. When each dimension of control was approached individually, even though all the dimensions were found to influence the transfer, imposing plans on subsidiaries by the parent was found to be the strongest predictor of this transfer (significant at p<0.01), both when analysing performance appraisal as a whole or its particular practices. Regarding individual performance appraisal practices, the relationships were found between each practice and each individual dimension of parental control over subsidiary, except for parent supervision of subsidiary operations.
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A phylogenomic appraisal of the evolutionary relationship of Mycoplasmas

A phylogenomic appraisal of the evolutionary relationship of Mycoplasmas

While on the one hand our results suggest that the ML and NJ approaches perform better than the MP approach to resolve topologies in a genomic scale, recent simulations have on the other hand shown that heterogeneously evolv- ing genes can bias ML methods but not MP methods (Kolaczkowski and Thornton 2004, but see Gadagkar and Kumar 2005). Therefore, it is not yet clear how sensitive the different inference methods are to a wide range of evo- lutionary factors, especially in real datasets. Consequently, we think that further analysis must be performed with sev- eral real genomic datasets trying to better understand the basis for these differences in the performance of the meth- ods and how to minimize them (e.g., Phillips et al. 2004). Currently, our best alternative seems to follow Opperdoes’ (2003) suggestion that a tree should be considered robust and thus reliable only when broadly different methods infer similar or identical tree topologies, and when such topolo- gies are supported by good confidence values (i.e. more than 95%).
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Project Appraisal: A reflection

Project Appraisal: A reflection

Nardini (1997) refers that the ideal appraisal process should contemplate: a strength and weakness balance sheet, knowing that the decision is a trade-off between conflicting criteria; comparing alternatives as a prerequisite to obtain a negotiated solution; scenario creation about the future allowing the choice of “the alternative that, in the most probable scenario, has the best performance”; evaluation indices as a way to represent quantitative and qualitative impacts (that should permit the construction of an alternative top ranking); an analysis of all different impact categories and of each alternative, connecting all affected people, and making all aspects as quantitative as possible; negotiation as a process of conflict resolution; cost-benefit analysis; and public participation. As a process leading to decisions, Ghotb and Warren (1995) present two methods that study qualitative and quantitative aspects together: Analytic Hierarchy Process is a simple way to combine qualitative ratings with quantitative measures to obtain priorities for the alternatives; Fuzzy Decision Methodology uses common words to construct the rating and transform these linguistic variables into fuzzy sets to subsequent operations. On the other hand, Lefley (2000) presents the Financial Appraisal Profile model that includes the main aspects of investment decision: financial aspects, risk features and strategic concerns.
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Impact of performance appraisal on employees’ motivation

Impact of performance appraisal on employees’ motivation

Some problems appeared during the process of questionnaire administration. First of all, many participants felt reluctant to take part in the study since there was no incentives what eventually affected the total response rate. Secondly, a relatively large number of questions and the duration of the survey’s filling had a significant impact on the completion rate. Thus, 103 respondents didn’t finish the survey and quitted it (1 respondent (0.97%) on the questions 1-4; 51 (49.51%) on the questions 5-22; 41 (39.80%) on the questions 23-37; 9 (8.75%) on the questions 38-49; and 1 (0.97%) on the 50 th question). Also in three surveys it was noticed a central tendency, where all the answers were at the middle rate. Thereby, since abovementioned problems cannot be overcome in online survey, they have been left unchanged. It ought to be noted as well that the possible increase in completion rate would significantly escalate the final sample. It should be mentioned that ethical issues concerning participant’s anonymity and voluntarism, the confidentiality of recovered data and informed consent, as well as plagiarism were envisaged in this study. At the beginning of every survey each respondent was informed that he/she participates in the research study. Participants were apprised regarding the purpose of the study, the use and implementation of collected data as well as their non-identified status. Accordingly, in order to guarantee the ethical principle of anonymity neither names nor identified information was required from the participants. The statement of voluntary engagement was given at the survey’s cover page. Therefore those surveyed could stand back at any stage of the questionnaire filling in. Respondents confirmed their participation in research by completing the survey. In case of questions, or any regards, the contact details were provided and included e-mail, skype, and LinkedIn account. For the purpose of avoiding of academic dishonesty the used information from other theses, dissertations, textbooks, etc. was sited in a befitting way through in-text references and bibliography.
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Performance of methods for estimation of table beet water requirement in Alagoas

Performance of methods for estimation of table beet water requirement in Alagoas

The experiment was carried out in the experimental area of the Arapiraca Campus of the Federal University of Alagoas (9° 45’ S, 36° 39’ W, 264 m), under field conditions, in the months of March and April 2014. The climate of the region, according to the classification of Köppen (1948), is As tropical. The rainy season starts in May and continues until early August, with mean annual rainfall of 854 mm, and the months from May to July are the rainiest ones, whereas months from September to December are the driest ones (Xavier & Dornellas, 2010).
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Rev. adm. empres.  vol.41 número4

Rev. adm. empres. vol.41 número4

As organizations “internationalize”, that is, as they move outside of the domestic environment, crossing international borders to find new markets and new resources, they often seek to implement their management practices in familiar ways, using methods, processes and procedures which are perceived to have previously contributed to success domestically (Daniels and Radebaugh, 1998). This includes transferring Human Resource Management (HRM) practices and policies to new cultural environments. Likewise, firms based outside the USA frequently attempt to import foreign management practices perceived to improve success (Wood Jr. and Caldas, 1998). Such cross-cul- tural transfer of management technology is problematic because many practices are culturally bound. But while virtually all authorities admit that national culture is a major influence on the sensible management of human systems, it is not at all clear which management practices transfer well from one culture to another, which do not, and why this is so.
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Methods of projects’ performance estimation in the public sector of economics

Methods of projects’ performance estimation in the public sector of economics

he solution of socially important problems by providing budget investments is a prerequisite for the successful development of a country as a whole as well as of a particular region. In terms of a limited budget there is a problem of projects selection. In the paper basic methods of public sector projects performance estimation (cost — beneit, cost — efectiveness, cost — utility) are compared. It is determined that these methods can help to increase the eiciency of scarce budgetary resources usage. However they cannot be applied in Russia without necessary adjustments since there are market imperfections, high costs of collecting necessary information, and other factors. hus further development of performance estimation methods in the public sector of economics is needed.
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DNA barcoding of recently diverged species: relative performance of matching methods.

DNA barcoding of recently diverged species: relative performance of matching methods.

Recently diverged species are challenging for identification, yet they are frequently of special interest scientifically as well as from a regulatory perspective. DNA barcoding has proven instrumental in species identification, especially in insects and vertebrates, but for the identification of recently diverged species it has been reported to be problematic in some cases. Problems are mostly due to incomplete lineage sorting or simply lack of a ‘barcode gap’ and probably related to large effective population size and/or low mutation rate. Our objective was to compare six methods in their ability to correctly identify recently diverged species with DNA barcodes: neighbor joining and parsimony (both tree-based), nearest neighbor and BLAST (similarity-based), and the diagnostic methods DNA-BAR, and BLOG. We analyzed simulated data assuming three different effective population sizes as well as three selected empirical data sets from published studies. Results show, as expected, that success rates are significantly lower for recently diverged species (,75%) than for older species (,97%) (P,0.00001). Similarity-based and diagnostic methods significantly outperform tree-based methods, when applied to simulated DNA barcode data (P,0.00001). The diagnostic method BLOG had highest correct query identification rate based on simulated (86.2%) as well as empirical data (93.1%), indicating that it is a consistently better method overall. Another advantage of BLOG is that it offers species-level information that can be used outside the realm of DNA barcoding, for instance in species description or molecular detection assays. Even though we can confirm that identification success based on DNA barcoding is generally high in our data, recently diverged species remain difficult to identify. Nevertheless, our results contribute to improved solutions for their accurate identification.
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COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING METHODS

COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING METHODS

The new financial performance measurement trend that uses non-financial indicators has brought about severe criticism towards the financial indicators, including criticism towards their aggregated form, too slow in offering useful information that would aid the managers in understanding the deep causes of the issues or that would help them initiate quick corrective measures. In the last years, a growing number of companies have started to lay stress on the measurement of certain non-financial aspects that have a financial impact, which had not yet stirred the interest of the managers, such as the clients’ loyalty, the satisfaction degree of the employees or other aspects concerning performance improvement, but which are not financial and have a later impact upon productivity.
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What are you feeling? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the modulation of sensory and affective responses during empathy for pain.

What are you feeling? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the modulation of sensory and affective responses during empathy for pain.

Background. Recent neuroscientific evidence suggests that empathy for pain activates similar neural representations as the first-hand experience of pain. However, empathy is not an all-or-none phenomenon but it is strongly malleable by interpersonal, intrapersonal and situational factors. This study investigated how two different top-down mechanisms – attention and cognitive appraisal - affect the perception of pain in others and its neural underpinnings. Methodology/ Principal Findings. We performed one behavioral (N = 23) and two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments (N = 18). In the first fMRI experiment, participants watched photographs displaying painful needle injections, and were asked to evaluate either the sensory or the affective consequences of these injections. The role of cognitive appraisal was examined in a second fMRI experiment in which participants watched injections that only appeared to be painful as they were performed on an anesthetized hand. Perceiving pain in others activated the affective-motivational and sensory-discriminative aspects of the pain matrix. Activity in the somatosensory areas was specifically enhanced when participants evaluated the sensory consequences of pain. Perceiving non-painful injections into the anesthetized hand also led to signal increase in large parts of the pain matrix, suggesting an automatic affective response to the putatively harmful stimulus. This automatic response was modulated by areas involved in self/other distinction and valence attribution – including the temporo-parietal junction and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Conclusions/Significance. Our findings elucidate how top-down control mechanisms and automatic bottom-up processes interact to generate and modulate other-oriented responses. They stress the role of cognitive processing in empathy, and shed light on how emotional and bodily awareness enable us to evaluate the sensory and affective states of others.
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Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr.  vol.38 número3

Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. vol.38 número3

In terms of limitations to our study, the small sample size restricts the generalization of our findings, and precluded analysis of MCI with/without executive func- tioning deficits, which can affect self-awareness. We did not investigate anxiety symptoms that could be asso- ciated with memory complaints. Our use of a clinical control group may have diminished the differences in level of awareness among the groups; however, the inclusion of this control group was important to reproduce a clinical setting. Further, we did not discriminate between early- and late-onset MDD.
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Appraisal of H.264 Codec

Appraisal of H.264 Codec

Abstract- H.264/AVC, the latest video Codec standard is the most popular among Video professionals owing to its exact and unambiguous guidelines for dealing with the input stream to be transported from one place to another, having minimum loss in the transit and a very good compression ratio, both attributes highly sought after in today’s world of high quality multimedia broadcast and reception. Another parameter is the bit rate with which the data has to be transmitted. This paper is an attempt to show how various input parameters affect the output of the H.264 Codec. The input video file is a .yuv file, which after encoding becomes a .264 file, which is also called a stream file because this file has to be sent as a stream to various locations owing to its small size. At the receiving end, this stream file is decoded back into .yuv file. In the entire process, there is some loss in the quality of the video transmitted. This loss has to be minimum and is indicated by a parameter called PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio). Apart from PSNR, there are some other parameters as well like sequence parameter set, picture parameter set, information about different frames as regards slices and macroblocks, all ensconced in different files. PSNR being an important parameter will be dealt with here. There are three different input profiles namely, baseline profile, main profile and extended profile for H.264. In this work, variation of bit rate versus PSNR is studied in all the three profiles. A higher PSNR for a given constant bit rate is rated as a better performance. Here, the input sequence is a yuv file (foreman_part_qcif.yuv) with one reference frame. The quantization parameter for the I, B and P slices has been set at 30. The PSNR is plotted against bit rate and it is observed that they show a striking similarity with each other.
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Otimização e validação de método de ensaio quantitativo e confirmatório para determinação de multirresíduos de -lactâmicos e tetraciclinas em rim por CLUE-EM/EM

Otimização e validação de método de ensaio quantitativo e confirmatório para determinação de multirresíduos de -lactâmicos e tetraciclinas em rim por CLUE-EM/EM

This work optimized and validated a test method to determine quantitative and confirmatory multiresidue of β-lactams and tetracyclines in poultry, bovine, equine and swine kidney, using UPLC-MS/M. The validated methodology was based on the extraction, using a mixture water /acetonitrile (8:2), of analytes tissue and extract purification with hexane and phase dispersive BOND ELUT C18. The extract was concentrated to 2 mL at 40°C, filtered through 0.22 µm membrane and analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The method has wide linear range of work, being evaluated were selectivity, matrix effect, CC α, CCβ, precision, trueness, LOD, LOQ and robustness. The detection limit was set between 2.5 to 25.0 mg/kg and the quantification limit between 5.0 to 50.0 mg/kg. The method showed repeatability and intermediate reproducibility conditions tested. Trueness was evaluated by the recovery values ranging between 98 and 107%. In assessing the robustness, the changes made in the extraction procedure were relevant level of concentration studied. The measurement uncertainty was estimated taking into account the uncertainty of the calibration curve and intermediate reproducibility of the data.
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Sleep Stage Classification: A Deep Learning Approach

Sleep Stage Classification: A Deep Learning Approach

EEG is mainly intended for recording cerebral activity, yet other extra electrical activities are also recorded. These extra activities are usually considered harmful artefacts that can be either physiological like EOG, EMG and ECG or extra physiological like power line interference. EOG measures are captured mainly by frontal electrodes, but they are strong enough to also affect other electrodes. About the EMG, the degree and type of contamination depends on the contracted muscle, the recording purpose and the environment [91]. However, EMG and EOG, which have significant power spectrum overlap with EEG, are not easy to remove requiring careful consideration [91]. The state of the art in EEG denoising is quite broad. The most classic methods used in the last years are regression (especially for ocular interferences), blind source separation or component base techniques [98] and Wiener and Bayes filtering methods [97]. Also adaptive filtering [97], wavelet denoising [99] and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) [100] are among the most widely used denoising techniques. A great range of studies pay particular attention to the improvement of the existing methods or using more objective performance criteria [101].
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Performance of different methods for reference evapotranspiration estimation in Jaíba, Brazil

Performance of different methods for reference evapotranspiration estimation in Jaíba, Brazil

Alencar et al. (2015) concluded, for various cities of Minas Gerais, that when only air temperature data are available, the performance of the FAO Penman-Monteith method was superior to that of Hargreaves-Samani. However, in the present study, these two methods showed very similar confidence coefficient and were thus considered as with the same performance (“Good”).

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Competency and Human Resource Management

Competency and Human Resource Management

MBO was proposed in 1954 by Peter Drucker, in his book “The Practice of Management”. The book was written based on the results of Drucker’s study of managerial practices at GM. Though the method is quite old, it’s still considered relevant. The tool incorporates the joint participation of both the employees and their superiors. Unlike traditional methods, MBO redefines the role of the manager (or maybe leader?!) from a judge to a helper. Then, this technique focuses on what the employees produce as a result of their performance and shifts the employees’ orientation toward future actions instead of past behaviors, which is of crucial importance in today’s modern companies.
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Arq. Bras. Cardiol.  vol.98 número5

Arq. Bras. Cardiol. vol.98 número5

an experimental chamber with glass base and bathed in buffer containing the following composition (in mM): 136.9 NaCl; 5.4 KCl; NaH2PO4 0.37; 0.57 MgCl2; 5 Hepes; 5.6 Glucose; 1.0 CaCl2 (pH 7.4). The cardiomyocytes were viewed on a monitor via a camera (Myocam, Ionoptix, frequency of 240 Hz) attached to the microscope using an image detection program (Ionwizard, Ionoptix). The cardiomyocytes were stimulated at a frequency of 1 and 3.0 Hz (10 Volts, lasting 5 min) using a pair of steel electrodes and an electric field stimulator (Myopacer, Ionoptix). The movements of the longitudinal edges of the cardiomyocytes were captured by the edge detection system and stored for later analysis. Contraction measurements employed only those cardiomyocytes that were in good condition, with the edges and well-defined sarcomeric striations, at rest, with no voluntary contractions. Contractions were measured using a home software application developed on the Matlab ® platform.
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Appraisal of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) extract on production performance, internal organs, and gut microflora of japanese quail

Appraisal of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) extract on production performance, internal organs, and gut microflora of japanese quail

spleen and Bursa of Fabricius as lymphoid tissues. Nasir and Grashorn (2010b) examined the effects of EP in drinking water on growth performance, immunity and stress characteristics of broilers. Roth-Maier, Bohmer, Maaß, Damme and Paulicks (2005) found that supplementation with Echinacea cob, which has similar compounds including caffeic acid derivatives, decreased BW. Hassan, Askar and El-Shourbagy (2004) reported an improvement in FCR due to the dietary supplementation of herbal additives. Plants have a wide range of secondary metabolites, especially, isoprene derivatives and flavonoides with antioxidant characteristics, which have positive effect on gastrointestinal tract function (Shin, Lee, Hwang, Kim, & Suh, 1995).
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