The Metropolitanregion of São Paulo, RMSP, is located at 23 o S and 46 o W in the southeastern region of Brazil. It covers an area of 8,051 km 2 , with about 21 million inhabitants. The RMSP oc- cupies about 0.1% of the Brazilian territory and is the third largest urban conglomerate in the world, responsible for 1/6 of the gross national product . According to CETESB, the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of São Paulo, the RMSP suffers from all kinds of environmental problems. The main contributions to atmospheric emissions come from about 2,000 highly pollut- ing industries and an ever increasing 7 million vehicle fleet . Nine public parks of São Paulo, covering different regions of the city, were studied (Fig. 1).
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has spread rapidly across cities in the metropolitanregion of Belo Horizonte. The aim of this study was to investigate VL dynamics in a prospective cohort study of dogs in Juatuba, between 2010 and 2011, to confirm the incidence of Leishmania infantum, and to assess possible risk factors associated with infection. An observational and prospective closed cohort study was performed using serology testing in dogs, randomly selected from the whole municipality. All seronegative dogs, or dogs with inconclusive results were monitored using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) at 6-month intervals. The dog’s owners completed a semi-structured questionnaire to assess possible causal factors of seroconversion, and the responses were assessed using logistic regression. The canine incidence coefficient was 206/1,000 dogs per year (CI: 178–238), and a cluster was identified in an area with a high concentration of seropositive dogs, but a low overall canine population. Large dogs were identified as a risk factor and the following variables were identified as protection factors: dogs aged over 4 years, daily peridomicile cleaning, and better socioeconomic conditions. VL is spreading over a large area in Juatuba in a short period of time.
VEHICULAR EMISSIONS INVENTORY FROM METROPOLITANREGION OF CAMPINAS (MRC), SP, BRAZIL. The degradation of air quality in great urban centers is noted by frequent critical episodes of air pollution and public health issues, and vehicles are a great source of pollutant emissions, mainly derived from combustion processes. A database is needed to direct mitigation of emissions. The main objective of this work is to present it as an emissions inventory. The results show that vehicular sources of CO, HC and NO x represent over 75% of total emissions in the MRC. Besides, the proposed methodology presented results
On the other hand, to describe the real changes in demographic scenario of the metropolitanregion, I have analyzed the population growth rate in table 6 for Monterrey and its metropolitanregion. Table indicates that during 1930-50 the metropolitan population was growing at 7 percent per annum and in the same period the city center region was growing more steadily than the peri-urban region. For example, urban population in Guadalupe and San Nicolas de los Garza was growing more than 12 percent per annum. But the city center region could sustain this growth rate till 1970, after that the pressure of population growth shifted to peri-urban region. Data indicates that currently peri-urban population is growing at more than 20 percent per annum. However, it is necessary to pointed out that San Pedro Garza Garcia (-0.63 in 2005) and San Nicolas de los Garza (-0.80) are currently have negative population growth rate. In San Pedro Garza Garcia the reason of declining population is fall in fertility rate. Data reflects that in 1970 the fertility rate was 2.4, which declined to 1.8 in 2005. It is significant to note that San Pedro Garza Garcia is the only municipality in the state, which has below replacement fertility rate, but in case of San Nicolas de los Garza, urban land saturation and environmental pollution are responsible for out migration and negative population growth.
The relevance of consuming raw or undercooked beef in the transmission of toxoplasmosis is unclear due to the high resistance of cattle to infection. However, this possibility needs to be considered in endemic areas, such as the Amazon, where the consumption of beef is frequent. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitanregion of Belem, Pará state, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 500 animals of both genders in a licensed slaughterhouse in Belém. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with a cut-off titer of 1:64. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 203 animals (40.6%), with a titer of 64 in 112 animals (55.2%), 128 in 68 animals (33.5%), 256 in 15 animals (7.4%), 512 in 5 animals (2.5%), and 1,024 in 3 animals (1.4%). No significant difference was observed between males and females (p > 0.05). The high frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies observed in beef cattle slaughtered in Belém indicates that the meat of these animals may be an important source of infection for humans and carnivorous domestic animals when inadequately cooked beef is consumed.
Sodium and lead also distinguished by particular behaviors in epiphytes. The first by its high concentrations in epiphytes of the urban site (RJ), particularly in T. usneoides. This species showed Na concentrations higher than P. crinitumin Botanical Garden, as well as around five times higher than the epiphytes of the other sampling sites. The affinity of T. usneoides for Na can be attributed to anatomical particularities (Koz et al. 2010), but relatively high concentrations of Na have also been reported for epiphytes in the metropolitanregion of São Paulo, the largest Brazilian city (Figueiredo et al. 2007). In this study, the presence of a spatial gradient in Na concentrations was described as follows: Rio de Janeiro (RJ) >Guapimirim (GP) >Teresópolis (TR) > Nova Friburgo (LU).This pattern is explained by the fact that the Botanical Garden (RJ) is located in the coastal area of the city of Rio de Janeiro,
This article tries to appoint the results of a research in which the objectives were to identify the framed picture of the inequality of the inhabitations conditions associated to the intra-urban structure of the Fortaleza MetropolitanRegion – FMR – defined according to its social-occupational characteristics. In the first part, we intend to present the FMR within the national context, as much as emphasize some aspects associated to its recent process of urban growth. Next, following a methodology commonly adopted within the research network, we propose the social-espacial structure, formed with seven different typologies, describing them in their social-occupational context associated to the urban elements which structure the FMR, as we have as main variable the density of the different social-occupational categories residing in each of the areas that compound the types. For last, we try to analyze the picture of the inequality among the referred typologies, regarding to the inhabitation conditions, as well as the differences inherent to them, considering the parts of which it is formed, focusing on the spaces occupied by squatter settlements, opposite the presence of formal real estate enterprises and social interest inhabitational programs.
This is a retrospective analytical study. A total of 409 chil- dren aged 8–12 years old (55.2% female and 44.7% male) who attend public schools in the metropolitanregion of Curitiba participated in an extension project of the Pharmacy Course of the Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR). The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of UFPR (CAAE: 57571316.7.0000.0102). The following data were collected from all 409 children: age, gender, and the results of a CBC and Hb electrophoresis. Samples obtained by venipuncture were col- lected from March to December 2015 and processed using the ABX Micros 45 hematology analyzer. Anemia is characterized by an Hb level of <11.5 g/dL according to the World Health Orga- nization (WHO) criteria. 1 Hb electrophoresis was performed at
Abstract: Aim: This paper describes some limnological variables of four reservoirs with different trophic status (Billings, Guarapiranga, Jundiaí and Paiva Castro) of the MetropolitanRegion of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to characterize the water quality in these reservoirs. Methods: Water sampling occurred between October 2011 and September 2012, on subsurface, at the pelagic compartment. Physical and chemical characteristics of water were evaluated, and the Trophic State Index (TSI) was calculated. Multivariate Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to ordinate sampling sites and periods in relation to environmental data. Results: Two reservoirs were classified as eutrophic (Billings and Guarapiranga), one as mesotrophic (Jundiaí) and one as oligotrophic (Paiva Castro). The highest concentrations of total phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll a were recorded in the eutrophic reservoirs. The lowest values of dissolved oxygen concentration were registered at Guarapiranga reservoir. Residence time in Paiva Castro reservoir was very low (one day); on the other hand, the highest value was recorded in Billings reservoir: 428 days.
As the concentric zone model considered social areas as ecologically structured, it was assumed that people sharing similar attributes undertook internal migrations within the metropolitan. These migratory movements, spatially directed toward outlying areas, enabled the establishment of new sec- tors. These territorially based structures were visible through the treelike form that daily mobility took in space (planned travel to areas designated for work, services and consump- tion, and recreational use), which in turn would bear an influ- ence on residential migrations. In another respect, by drawing metaphorically on the force of gravity, the case was made that rational behavior patterns were determined by cost eval- uation and the least effort principle. Adams (1969) tried to show instead, through his theory of directional biases, the individual motives behind mobility. He argued that day-to- day practices build the image of the city, which in turn con- tributes to residential location choices. These directional biases contain particular spatial structures that, to a certain degree, can reconcile the zonal and sectoral representations as they consist of successive residential areas located within a territory shaped as a cone and connected by a central axis. Adams further expanded Hoyt’s sector theory by including the role played by the familiar images of everyday spaces found in and around the neighborhood. This notion, bor- rowed from Kevin Lynch (1960), was used to explain how a double structure was created on an everyday basis and repro- duced over a long period of time. Using this approach, a case study was recently conducted in Montréal. It demonstrates that the francophone population of working-class back- ground residing in the east end of the City of Montréal has migrated to the same suburb located off-island in the north- eastern areas of the metropolitanregion. The ecological structure of a residential migration axis was thus verified (Landry, 2006).
It was also cited by the nurses that the characteristics of Nephrology are as those of a restricted area. Unlike other specialties, Nephrology requires specific knowledge, which are not offered during the graduation of Nursing. Thus making it necessary to enter with previous experience in the area. The present study, however, goes against that statement of nurses because the data show that 85.7% of the sample started to work without being a specialist in Nephrology. Also strengthening this assertion is the fact that some nurses develop interest in the specialty after an internship in the area and also that the dialysis clinics are the practice field for graduate students and residents. Thus the hemodialysis clinics of Recife and MetropolitanRegion do not show as closed fields, but offer opportunity for growth area for Nursing.
Human beings are exposed to ionizing radiation from many natural sources. Radon and its progeny have been recognized as the most important contributors to the natural radioactivity dose, accounting for about half of all human exposure to ionizing radiation. Radon (222Rn) is a a-radioactive noble gas derived from the natural series of uranium (238U), which occurs in a wide concentration range in all geological materials, especially, in rocks, soils and waters. By diffusion and convection, radon migrates from the rocks and soils to atmosphere and through fissures, pipes and holes it may enter the dwellings and other buildings. Another important radon source in dwellings is its emanation from the construction material. The radon progeny concentration in dwellings has been receiving considerable global attention due to its potential effect in causing lung cancer if it deposited in upper respiratory tract when inhaled. This paper presents radon concentration distribution in dwellings in MetropolitanRegion of Belo Horizonte - RMBH. The effective dose estimate is also presented for the RMBH inhabitants. The geological settings of the area are Archean rocks of Granitic Gnaissic Complex and of metasediments sequences of the great Precambrian unit of the Iron Quadrangle of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Radon concentration measurements were carried out with continuous detector AlphaGUARD PQ200PRO (Genitron), in passive mode and with passive detectos E-PERM Eletret Ion Chamber-EIC. The radon progeny concentration was carried out with a solid state alpha spectroscope, the DOSEman PRO (Sarad). It was found an indoor radon concentration varying in a large range from 18.5 to 2671.4 Bq/m-3, with an average value of 148.0 Bqm-3 and geometric mean equal to 128.2 Bqm-3. The variable results are due mainly to region geological factors and building material composition of dwellings. The equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny were determinated in dwellings, as 0.3 in average.
The Gender, Alcohol and Culture, an Interna- tional Study (GENACIS) Project is a multicentric study carried out in over 35 countries. Its general objective is to investigate how both individual and social features are associated with the consump- tion of alcohol for men and women inserted in their different cultures. With the support of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), American countries such as Canada, the USA, Mexico, Costa Rica, Belize, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil have already taken part of the project. In Brazil, the sample included 2,083 adults living in the metropolitanregion of São Paulo from November 2005 to June 2007.
The search for the sustainability of human settlements, mainly urban areas, and of ecosystems as a whole, involves the adoption of integrating territorial strategies that take into account environmental, economic, social, and cultural aspects. The focus on ecosystem services can be an ally in strengthening the integrated vision of metropolitan territory and water as a key integrating element. In this context, this study aimed to propose a set of indicators for the assessment of natural capital and the supply and demand of the ecosystem water supply service for metropolitan regions, with the MetropolitanRegion of Curitiba (MRC), Paraná, as the main focus. The set of indicators was selected from a theoretical basis based on literature review and subsequently validated by specialists using the Delphi method, with
METHODS: Information about TL in the metropolitanregion of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, was provided by the electricity companies and mapped out using geographic information system (GIS). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from the 2000 Census and added to the GIS in another layer. Households and their inhabitants that were located at a distance from the TL that was sufﬁ cient to generate a magnetic ﬁ eld ≥ 0.3 μT (microteslas) were deemed to be exposed. The prevalence was estimated according to the area of the corridors of exposure along the TL. Two approaches were used to delimit the corridor width: one consisted of widths that were predeﬁ ned by the TL voltage, and the other consisted of calculation of the magnetic ﬁ eld. The socioeconomic information on the exposed and non-exposed populations were compared by applying the two-proportion test ( α = 5%).
Background: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is characterized by impaired development of motor coordination, with impact on daily life activities and academic performance. The Motor Coordination and Dexterity Assessment (MCDA) was created to offer Brazilian rehabilitation professionals a valid and reliable instrument for detecting DCD. Objective: To examine the MCDA criterion validity. Methods: One hundred and eighty one children aged 7 and 8 years from the metropolitanregion of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, pre-selected using the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-Brazil), were evaluated with the MCDA and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-II). Concurrent validity was assessed using Spearman correlation index and the predictive validity was calculated using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. ROC curves were constructed to determine the optimal cutoff point of MCDA. Results: Spearman correlation between the total scores of MCDA and MABC-II at 7 and 8 years were 0.596 (p=0.000) and 0.730 (p=0.000), respectively. The cutoff points defined by the ROC curves approached the 40 th percentile, corresponding to a sensitivity of 0.91 and 0.74 and specificity of
Located in the MetropolitanRegion of Porto Alegre (MRPA), EPABG has an area of 136,935 ha, covering the municipalities of Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Gravataí, Viamão and Glorinha. According to Nielsen (1994), it comprises 07 geomorphological units. It stands out in the corridor that connects the bathed, the presence of plains and lagoon terraces, and of the luvio-coluvionar depression. In relation to the geology, the presence of deposits of lagoon plains, deposits of lood plain, alluvial deposits and peat bogs (Figure 1) stands out.