VEHICULAR EMISSIONS INVENTORY FROM METROPOLITANREGIONOFCAMPINAS (MRC), SP, BRAZIL. The degradation of air quality in great urban centers is noted by frequent critical episodes of air pollution and public health issues, and vehicles are a great source of pollutant emissions, mainly derived from combustion processes. A database is needed to direct mitigation of emissions. The main objective of this work is to present it as an emissions inventory. The results show that vehicular sources of CO, HC and NO x represent over 75% of total emissions in the MRC. Besides, the proposed methodology presented results
ABSTRACT - (Anomalous scales of Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. (Bromeliaceae) exposed in the MetropolitanRegionofCampinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, as air pollution markers). Tillandsia usneoides is an epiphytic bromeliad that has been used as a universal bioindicator. The species accumulates metals and presents foliar scale variations when exposed to air pollutants. This study aimed to use the variations in foliar scales as microscopic markers of pollutant effects in the MetropolitanRegionofCampinas (MRC), São Paulo State, Brazil. T. usneoides plants were exposed for 12 weeks during dry and wet seasons, totaling four exposures, at five sites in the MRC. Samples were selected before each exposure for initial evaluation of the plants (T0). Leaf fragments were fixed in glutaraldehyde and total scale density and anomalous scale percentage were evaluated. Plants exposed in the MRC showed anomalies and changes in number of subperipheral cells of leaf scales. When compared to T0, T. usneoides presented higher total scale density and anomalous scale percentage at disturbed sites, thus the species can be used as a pollution bioindicator for MRC.
1 Doutoranda/Departamento de Tocoginecologia/FCM/Unicamp, Campinas/SP, Brasil 2 Enfermeira/N úcleo de Estudos de Políticas Públicas/Unicamp, Campinas/SP, Brasil 3 Coordenadora do Núcleo de Estudos de Políticas Públicas/Unicamp, Campinas/SP, Brasil 4 Professora Titular de Obstetrícia/ Departamento de Tocoginecologia/FCM/Unicamp, Campinas/SP, Brasil
Los indicadores producidos y su distribución espacial han posibilitado identificar y caracterizar tres patrones principales de segregación socioespacial: a) en la escala regional, hay una diferenciación entre las zonas urbanas situadas al este y al oeste de la autopista SP- 330, siendo la porción oriental la principal zona de inclusión social de la RMC, mientras que en la porción oeste (desde Campinas a Sumaré y Monte Mor) se ha constituido la “macro periferia metropolitana”; b) en espacios intraurbanos, se verifica un patrón espacial de segregación en sectores de círculo, en el cual ocurre la concentración de condiciones de inclusión en el área central y extendiéndose a partir de éste a lo largo de una “faixa” o “cuadrante”, en general siguiendo importantes vías de tráfico, y; c) enclaves espaciales consolidados: de inclusión social en zonas predominante de exclusión y, principalmente, lo opuesto.
The owner of the stands grow the produce sold in outdoor markets because they are the fruit and vegetable producers. Whereas the organic produce sold in the supermarkets besides being more expensive, they have to travel long distance from producing places to the supermarkets, passing through a chain of intermediaries. Then the costs of commercialization of produce in the supermarkets becomes high. Pingali et al. (2005) enlisted several ways by which the cost of agricultural produce grown by smallholder farmers can be reduced. The outdoor market stand owners because they are also the producers of the products can offer them for cheaper prices than the supermarkets. Travelling for shorter distances, the organic produce offered in the outdoor markets reach the consumer’s hands fresher and within shorter time after harvest. Renting et al. (2003), Goodman and Goodman (2009), Coley et al. (2009), Akkerman et al. (2010), Van Passels (2010), and Maye and Kirvan (2010) discussed the effect on the quality and prices of the distance the food travels until reaches the consumers. The longer the travel the lower the quality and the higher the price of the food. This can be solved by adoption of Alternative Food Networks (AFN) which shorten the distance and time between food production and consumption (Renting et al. 2003; Pingali et al., 2005; Goodman and Goodman, 2009). In summary, purchasing organic produce at the outdoor markets the low income consumers can get fresher and healthier produce for affordable prices.
The thymus and spleen of backyard chickens of 20 different origins of Belo Horizonte metropolitan area were collected during 2008, and short-term stored frozen (-20°C) for subsequent DNA extraction. The positive control CAV DNA was extracted from the commercial vaccine AviPro Thymovac (Lohman Animal Health), and the negative control DNA was obtained from SPF embryos (Sadia S.A., Unidade Uberlândia, MG). DNA extraction was performed in pools according to origin and as described by Boom et al. (1999), by reaction with sodium iodide (NaI) and DNA absorption of in silica (silicon dioxide, Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO). Adsorbed DNA in pelleted silica was eluted by adding 50 µl TE (5 mM Tris-HCl pH 8,0, 0,5 mM EDTA pH 8,0), quantified at 260-280nm (NanoDrop ND-1000), and stored frozen (-20ºC) until use as template DNA.
According to Sigrist, Künsch and Stahel (2012) precipitation is a very complex phenomenon that varies in space and time, and there are many efforts to model its nonstationarity. Tsonis (1996) analyzed low-frequency variability of global precipitation over the past century and found that the fluctuations about the global mean have increased significantly, while the mean values have not changed. Thus, in this example, it is implied that the global precipitation process was nonstationary in the past century. Such a change in regime highlights a destruction of the stationary behavior of the system, even though the cause for this change has not been identified. Most theories of time series prediction assume that a predicted process is stationary, but in some instances,
The greatest production cost was observed for P2c, which had an AFC above two, lower productivity and stocking density. The observed differences in stocking density, rearing period and mean final weight reflected in a wide variation of both specific growth rate and AFC values. The M1c was the only viable enterprise, despite selling all its production to a fish processing plant, which is the marketing channel with the lowest remuneration. Moreover, this enterprise has the largest area destined to the production of the pattern curumim. In this farm, it was possible to observe both greatest stocking densities and productivities, such as lowest cycles, AFC and TOC. Its production is staged, which allows periodic harvests throughout the year. This positive economic result was achieved by its technical result, not by sales price. The manager of this propriety is a formed professional with fish farming experience, who managed to convert this knowledge into the highest productivity (17.50 kg ha -1 year) and the second better feed conversion (1,74), due to a staggered production and sufficient use of aerators and high quality feed.
fires occurred were in commercial, residential and educational institutions due mainly to overload in electrical installations and clandestine connections. The fires in multi-family residential buildings were 16% lower than in single-family homes. Despite the fact that most of these fires occurred in masonry buildings, it is in wooden buildings that the impacts are most disastrous, because of the lack of an isolation distance between one building and another, dozens of homes are affected by fire in a short interval of time and dozens of people are affected economically and socially after the accident.
Introduction: External control is the monitoring of fluoride concentration in the water supply that must be done by state institutions, and has been motivated to ensure the efficacy and safety of fluoridation. This study aimed to analyze the external control of municipalities with more than 50.000 inhabitants in the metropolitanregionof Curitiba in the years 2014 and 2015. Methodology: Health surveillance services of the studied municipalities provided external control data, which were analyzed according to the technical criterion of the CECOL for fluoride content. Results: Collection of water samples failed in some municipalities and months for an adequate number for the fluoride parameter. From the total samples analyzed, only 51.5% were in the best benefit-risk range for the fluoride concentration. Eight percent of the samples presented insignificant benefit and risk and 0.1% showed a high-risk fluoride concentration, without any benefit. Conclusion: the analyzed municipalities performed the external control, with periods of inadequate sample collections. Fluoride concentrations in the supply water of the study municipalities presented an unsatisfactory result. The main goal of external control is to maintain fluoride levels at adequate levels.
country. Its surface area is 293 km2, and it is inhabited by over 630 thousand of citizens. The whole Lower Silesia is situated in the river basin of Odra. WROCŁAW is situated in southwest Poland on the Odra River and is a typical large city in Central Europe. With its superb location in the heart of Europe, Wrocław is easily accessed by road, rail, air and even water. The city’s strategic location is enhanced by many international transport routes running across Wrocław (national road number 8 from Warsaw, national road number 5 from Poznań, motorway A4 from Cracow, Katowice to Berlin, Dresden).
At the present time, interregional inequalities remain quite noticeable in the State of Ceará. The microregions of Ceará are marked by the non-conformity of socioeconomic indicators and by unequal investments by the government. This article aims to survey the socioeconomic and environmental aspects such as: Water supply, Sanitation, municipal gross domestic product (GDP) and Electricity consumption in the metropolitanregionof Cariri over the years 2005 to 2015. Socioeconomic and environmental data used were collected from the database of the Institute of Research and Economic Strategy of Ceará - IPECE. The RMC has a large water supply coverage, the lowest rate observed was in Farias Brito in 2006 with a percentage of 63.47%, however in 2015 the rate in that municipality was already 99,1%. Even with all municipalities having over 95% coverage in 2015, only Caririaçu reached 100% coverage since 2013 and repeating in 2014 and 2015. The sewage system presented the most worrying data. In relation to municipal GDP, the municipality that stood out the most in the entire period of analysis was Juazeiro do norte, followed by Crato and Barbalha, respectively. It is evident that the creation of the RMC in 2009 did not significantly change the data in analyzes, since in most cases the growth trend was already observed before its creation.
The soil profiles were considered moderately deep (> 50 cm e ≤ 100 cm) to deep (> 100 cm e ≤ 200 cm) (Embrapa, 2013), with horizon sequences A-B, A-E-B and A-B-C (Table 2), although the C horizon had occurred shallow depths in some profiles, like at 18 cm depth in the P3 profile. All soils were quite stratified, presenting a sequence of various thin horizons, as is characteristic of soils formed under conditions where material deposition predominates (Souza Júnior et al., 2001; Corrêa et al. 2003; Guimarães et al., 2013). Despite the hydromorphism action in all soils, in the P3 and P6 profiles were observed A-C horizons sequences and H1-H2-H3, respectively. In these profiles, the greater influence of the water table due to the proximity of water bodies limited the differentiation of characteristics, such as structure, as well as the development of other pedogenic processes besides hydromorphism and paludization.
Several studies on atmospheric pollution, as well as air quality monitoring programs, have used bioindicators. The vast majority of these studies used epiphytic organisms, such as lichens (Conti et al. 2016, Giordani 2007, Szczepaniak and Biziuk 2003, Van Dobben and Ter Braak 1999) and certain bromeliads (Alves et al. 2008, Brighigna et al. 2002, Figueiredo et al. 2007, Pyatt et al. 1999) as indicators. Such organisms uptake nutrients from the atmosphere and have the ability to accumulate well beyond their physiological needs (Godinho et al. 2009). This approach is an advantageous alternative to monitoring using pumps and filters, due to its low cost, its efficiency to monitor wide geographical areas for long periods of time, and the possibility to evaluate metallic elements that accumulate in the environment (Fuga 2006, Fuga et al. 2008).
Urbanization in Mexico is a multidimensional process within the society’s overall historical- structural transformation. Its demographic, economic, ecological, political and socio-cultural components must be examined within a unified framework that reflects the temporal and spatial diversity of the Mexican experience. Between 1521 and 1820, the Spaniards created hundreds of cities and new towns in the country. This urban expansion was not carried out just to assure military and political control, but to create a system for exploiting its human, mineral, and agricultural resources for the benefit of the country. The colonial urban system consisted of variety of settlement types by the administrative-military cities such as Mexico City, Guadalajara and Merida, the port towns such as Veracruz, Acapulco and Mazatlan, and the mining centers such as Guanajuato, Pachuca, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi and Taxco (Kemper, 1979).
Fungi can inhabit our organism without causing any harm, but they show themselves when the immunological system is compromised. In this study, a survey of the occurrence of filamentous fungi was carried out in public telephones of the MetropolitanRegionof the City of Recife, PE, Brazil. This showed the public phones as a possible mean of transmission of fungal diseases among humans. Samples from the environment, audios, speakers and keyboards were taken at the airport, mall, subway and bus station in the months of October/2003 (dry season) and June/2004 (rainy season), totaling 120 samples. The procedure of identification of species was carried out through conventional taxonomy. Thirty-four genera were isolated, totaling 73 species, the majority belonging to the anamorphic fungi (91.78%), followed by the Ascomycota (6.85%) and the Zygomycota (1.37%). There was no significant difference in the proportion of species between the dry and rainy seasons, with 46 and 53 species identified, respectively. Due to the lack of maintenance, or inadequate cleaning of public telephones, the fungi present in these appliances may cause mycosis in the users as these telephones are used by people from different social classes and variable habits, both healthy and immunocompromised.
ABSTRACT: Introduction: The spread of the HTLV infection in families living in the metropolitan area of Belém, Pará, Brazil, and the lack of studies in the general population requires studies to better understand its prevalence in the region. Methods: An anti-HTLV-1/HTLV-2 antibodies test was carried out on random adults in public places in Belém between November 2014 and November 2015. A proviral DNA test detected if the person was infected, and then a clinical evaluation and an intrafamilial investigation were carried out. Results: Of the 1059 individuals being investigated, 21 (2.0%) had seroreagent samples, 15 (1.4%) had HTLV-1, 5 (0.5%) had HTLV-2, and proviral DNA was undetectable in one case. The mean age of the infected people (57.2) was higher than that of those that were uninfected (46.2) (p = 0.0010). The prevalence of infection increased with age, especially in individuals with a family income equal to or less than a minimum wage. Intrafamilial transmission seems to have occurred in all of the families being studied. Among the patients with HTLV-1, 30% (3/10) already had some symptom related to the infection. Discussion: The increase in prevalence rates according to age may be due to late seroconversion of a previously acquired infection, or the cumulative risk of new infections, especially in women. Conclusion: There was a moderate prevalence of the HTLV infection among adult individuals from the metropolitan area of Belém, with a predominance of HTLV-1. This infection was associated with low income and increasingly older women. It also presented intrafamily spread and negligence in the diagnosis of associated diseases.
The GRCT establishes technical and operational parameters such as fleet, frequencies, times of operation and inspection leaving no room for contractors to seek innovative ways to foster innovation (e.g., through strategies related to maintenance, personal scales, definitions of vehicle model or travel schedules). Therefore, bidders have no way of differentiating their services from their competitors, since the public authority has imposed the way to provide the services in the bidding terms. This lack of flexibility ends up jeopardizing competitiveness, as it affects efficiency. Santos et al.  cite that good regulatory practice establishes that decisions regarding operational definitions should be left to the operators. Hence, the bidding terms do not adopt appropriate regulatory practice in this field as well.
Abstract - This study aimed to evaluate the flowering period and the physicochemical characteristics of peaches, aiming to find those most promising for the diversification of the peach crop in the MetropolitanRegionof Curitiba, Paraná State. We evaluated 8 selections and three cultivars in Porto Amazonas and 10 cultivars in Araucaria for flowering period, fruit set, diameter and height of fruit, average fruit weight, the skin color, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), ratio SS/ TA, hydrogen potential (pH). The flowering period occurred between late June and late September ranging from 16 to 25 days. The fruit set rate was greater than 50% for ‘Cascata 1513’, ‘Cascata 1429’, ‘Cascata 1577’, ‘Cascata 1743’ and for all cultivars in Araucaria. There were significant differences for the other variables assessed. It was concluded that in Araucária, ‘Charme’ and ‘Chimarrita’ are good planting options, have the same duration of the cycle (111 days), being ‘Charme’ a little later. Besides these, ‘Douradão’ and ‘Rubimel’ have good fruit size, moderate acidity and best SS/TA ratio, being earlier than the previous ones. ‘PS 25399’ is the earliest and showed reddish epidermis and great consumer interest. In Porto Amazonas, selections and cultivars tested produced little fruit of small size, being required more studies to be recommended in these area.
The social-occupational continents of the superior typology are marked by the greater density of the managers, intellectuals and small employers regarding to the other typologies. Extremely concentrated, these occupations represent more than a third of the total amount of working people in the typology in percentiles. Observing the social- occupational data for this typology, we can perceive the association between better opportunities of work and access to college to the social groups formed by the categories mentioned above, becoming evident their exaggerated spatial concentration, as well as the tendency to maintain and perpetuate this segregation. It is remarkable that the house workers also emerge in this typology for their bigger density, being as well the one with greater percentile related to the other categories, coming to more than 15% of the working population. The concentration of this category in this typology indicates, in one hand, the search to diminish the need of dislocation of the house workers, and on the other, the increment of the daily working hours, characterizing the continuance of the precarious forms of the labor relations. However, since there are new offers from the real estate market to the superior typology, we can conclude the tendency of dispersion of this category in the peripheral neighborhoods and in irregular occupation next to the working place, including mass inhabitations, forming real tenements inserted in the slums. We can say that few occupations last long in these typologies, which were removed in the last decades due to management programs.