Microorganisms in chicken meat

Top PDF Microorganisms in chicken meat:

Ultrasound for improving the preservation of chicken meat

Ultrasound for improving the preservation of chicken meat

The content of lactic acid bacteria after application of 5 min ultrasound was lower (2.0 ± 0.2 Log 10 CFU/g) in the samples assigned to treatment of 40 kHz. On this treatment, a low intensity ultrasound (10.3 W) was used. However, at the end of storage (7 d at 4 °C) the content of lactic acid bacteria in the samples subjected to the treatment of 40 kHz was higher (4.0 ± 0.2 Log 10 CFU/g) than that of the other two treatments. On conclusion, the effect of 40 kHz did not inhibit growth of lactic acid bacteria under refrigeration as reported previously (Pohlman et al., 1997). Ot was observed that the effect of the initial content of microorganisms, used as a covariate to adjust the quantification of bacteria, was highly significant (P <0.0001) for mesophilic, psychrophilic, and lactic acid bacteria in the samples after ultrasound treatment.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Effect of evaporated ethyl pyruvate on reducing salmonella enteritidis in raw chicken meat

Effect of evaporated ethyl pyruvate on reducing salmonella enteritidis in raw chicken meat

Changes in the appearance and quality of carcasses, the need for equipment and operator training, and consumer rejection constitute major limitations for the application of physical methods. Also, during slaughter and processing, chemicals such as trisodium phosphate, chlorine-based compounds and organic acids are used in some countries to assist in the reduction of microorganisms in poultry carcasses (Del Río et al., 2007). For example, after treated with trisodium phosphate, chlorine-based compounds, and lactic or acetic acid Salmonella contamination has been reduced by 0.6–2.3, 0.9–1.1, and 0.8–2.2 log units, respectively. (Buncic & Sofos, 2011). But, the effectiveness of chemical decontamination methods may remain limited as they may not have access to the microbial pathogens which penetrated inner sites of chicken skin. Gaseous phase and volatile antimicrobials can reach the hidden areas of products and thus, have the potential to eliminate disadvantages of such decontamination processes. Several antimicrobials in the gaseous or vapor phase, including chlorine, ozone, allyl isothiocynate (AIT), methyl isothiocyanate and essential oils have been used to inactivate pathogens on fresh produce (Durak et al., 2012).
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Chicken Meat Submitted to Gamma Radiation and Packed with or without Oxygen

Chicken Meat Submitted to Gamma Radiation and Packed with or without Oxygen

In vacuum packing, air is removed from gas- impermeable packages, which are immediately sealed. During storage of vacuum-packed foods, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) level increases as a result of tissue and microorganism respiration (Gallas et al., 2009). According to Gallas et al. (2009), CO 2 is produced by microorganisms, because tissue anaerobic metabolism produces mainly lactic acid. In this packing technique, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration rapidly increases in 10 to 20% during the first four hours, reaching a maximum level of approximately 30%. At the same time, oxygen level is reduced to 1-3% due to the activity of meat enzymes. This modified gas environment hinders the development of rapidly-growing mesophilic heterotrophic aerobes and stimulates the growth of slow-growing lactobacilli. The shelf life of vacuum- packed meats in gas-impermeable packages is much longer compared with meats packed in the presence of atmospheric air (Oluwafemi, 2013).
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Patogenic and indicator microorganisms in chicken cuts sold in the Recôncavo da Bahia area, Brazil

Patogenic and indicator microorganisms in chicken cuts sold in the Recôncavo da Bahia area, Brazil

on 2nd January 2001 on food microbiological standards in Brazil provides the maximum coliform limits (10 4 CFU/g) at 45ºC for in natura chicken meat. However, other microorganisms may indicate flaws in the production or commercialization of this type of food. The verification of the commercialization quality of chicken cuts is thus highly relevant to avoid health risks which this type of food may cause when contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms. Hygiene-sanitary conditions, the presence of Salmonella spp. and indicator microorganisms of chicken cuts sold on the market of the Recôncavo da Bahia area, are analyzed and counted, and the relationship between conditions of commercialization and microbiological results is verified.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Ultrasound for improving the preservation of chicken meat

Ultrasound for improving the preservation of chicken meat

The content of lactic acid bacteria after application of 5 min ultrasound was lower (2.0 ± 0.2 Log 10 CFU/g) in the samples assigned to treatment of 40 kHz. On this treatment, a low intensity ultrasound (10.3 W) was used. However, at the end of storage (7 d at 4 °C) the content of lactic acid bacteria in the samples subjected to the treatment of 40 kHz was higher (4.0 ± 0.2 Log 10 CFU/g) than that of the other two treatments. On conclusion, the effect of 40 kHz did not inhibit growth of lactic acid bacteria under refrigeration as reported previously (Pohlman et al., 1997). Ot was observed that the effect of the initial content of microorganisms, used as a covariate to adjust the quantification of bacteria, was highly significant (P <0.0001) for mesophilic, psychrophilic, and lactic acid bacteria in the samples after ultrasound treatment.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

including aesculin hydrolysis, Voges–Proskauer (VP) and gas from glucose (triple sugar iron) tests. The organism of this genus is oxidase and catalase pos- itive, facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative, short rod-shaped bacteria. The highly valuable fish and chicken are not always safe to consume from the pub- lic health point of view. The newly identified etiolog- ical agents of diarrheal disease are mesophilic aero- monadswhich have emerged as an important public health hazard [2]. There is mounting evidence of their involvement in gastrointestinal and extraintestinal infection in human beings [3,4]. The genus Aeromonas comprises of two different groups of bacteria. One is non-motile psychrophilic Aeromonas salmonicida and the other group comprising of three mesophilic motile spp. A. hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. sobria [5]. Aeromonas is an environmental microorganism. They are cosmopolitan in distribution. Mesophilic motile aeromonads are ubiquitous and autochthonous aquatic microorganisms occurring in fresh water, sewage and brackish water [6] and in chlorinated and unchlorinated drinking water [7,8]. Besides these aer- omonads occur as the normal microbial flora of many aquatic and terrestrial animals and are proven diseases
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Meat Quality of Chicken Breast Subjected to Different Thawing Methods

Meat Quality of Chicken Breast Subjected to Different Thawing Methods

One of the main problems caused by meat thawing and cooking is the excessive release of liquid and consequently, nutrient loss, damaging processing profitability and deceiving consumers. Moreover, the thawing process should be controlled because temperature increase promotes the growth of microorganisms present in the meat, posing food- poisoning risks and increasing product spoilage. Inadequate thawing of frozen meat causes significant quality deterioration, due to the formation of large extracellular ice crystals, lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, protein denaturation, and microbial growth during thawing (Xia et al., 2012). In the study of Colpo et al. (2012), chicken breast thawed under refrigeration compared with thawing in a microwave oven and at room temperature presented the best meat-quality results, as shown by less product damage, as suggested by Colla & Prentice-Hernández (2003). When thawed in a refrigerator (4 °C) pork samples presented physicochemical characteristics closest to fresh samples and the least quality losses compared with other thawing methods (room temperature, water immersion, or in a microwave oven) (Xia et al., 2012).
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Salmonella spp., isolates from chicken meat

Salmonella spp., isolates from chicken meat

others, are also associated in a smaller proportion with human infection (CDC, 2014; Chen et al., 2012). NTS might be responsible for about 80.3 million foodborne illnesses and 115,000 deaths each year in the world (Majowicz et al., 2010), while Typhoid, Paratyphoid and enteric fever cause 25 million infections and 200,000 deaths each year globally (Dekker & Frank, 2015). Antibiotic treatment of salmonellosis is complicated because the microorganism under antibiotic pressure may select for virulence within the host (Diard et al., 2014), acquires tolerance and multiple drug resistance (MDR) phenotypes (fast-, moderate- and low-growing subsets) within host tissues (Claudi et al., 2014), and frequently incorporate new genetic material to resist the antibiotic selective pressure (Brown-Jaque et al., 2015). Salmonella isolated from food of animal origin shows higher rates of antimicrobial resistance (Chuanchuen & Padungtod, 2009), which is promoted by the misuse or underuse of antimicrobials incorporated in feed to prevent infectious diseases and to promote bird growth, and those MDR microorganisms may disseminate very quickly with the rapid global food market .
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

GAMMA IRRADIATION IN THE CONTROL OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN REFRIGERATED GROUND CHICKEN MEAT

GAMMA IRRADIATION IN THE CONTROL OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN REFRIGERATED GROUND CHICKEN MEAT

The control samples and the samples irradiated with 2.0 kGy presented bad odour from 7 days of storage. From 21 days of storage, these samples had a rotten appearance and brownish coloration. The samples irradiated with 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy did not present bad smell or rotten appearance in any of the periods of storage. The results of this work are similar to those reported by some authors who have observed that 2.5 kGy is an efficient dose of radiation to inhibit the growth of Salmonella and increase the shelflife of refrigerated chicken meat (Thayer & Boyd, 1992; Lescano et al., 1991; Lamuka et al., 1992). Similar results were observed by Hanis et al. (1989) who concluded that, despite this dose of radiation is not enough to promote pasteurization of the product, the microorganisms are greatly affected by the interaction between radiation and refrigeration.
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

CRF1/CRF2 and MC3/MC4 Receptors Affect Glutamate- Induced Food Intake in Neonatal Meat-Type Chicken

CRF1/CRF2 and MC3/MC4 Receptors Affect Glutamate- Induced Food Intake in Neonatal Meat-Type Chicken

A total of 264 one-day-old male meat- type chickens were purchased from a local hatchery (Mahan Co., Iran). Birds were maintained in stabilizing electrically heated batteries at a temperature of 32 ºC ± 1, kept at 40-50 %relative humidity and 23:1 lighting/dark period (Olanrewaju et al., 2006). They were kept for 2 days as flocks and then the birds were randomly allocated and transferred into their individual cages. A commercial starter diet containing 21% crude protein and 2850 kcal/kg metabolizeable energy (Animal Science Research Institute Co. Iran) were provided to the animals (table 1). During the study all birds had ad libitum access to diet and fresh water. 3 h prior to the injections, the birds were food deprived (FD 3 ) but had free access to water. ICV injections were done at 5 days of age. Animal handling and experimental procedures were performed according to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals by the National Institutes of Health, USA (publication No. 85-23, revised 1996) and the current laws of the Iranian government for animal care, and were approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Zero-inflated binomial regressions for modelling low prevalence of pathogens in chicken meat as affected by sampling site

Zero-inflated binomial regressions for modelling low prevalence of pathogens in chicken meat as affected by sampling site

contrast, for L. monocytogenes, thigh was the sampling site showing higher probability of detection (n = 94 samples for rejecting the batch at 95% con fidence). The obtained number of samples was calculated from the estimated prevalence values for wings given by Model 3 in Tables 2 – 4. When considering the binomial p values calculated from the ZIB models for the di fferent pathogens, a substantial reduction in the number of samples tested would be achieved in comparison to the estimated prevalence per sampling site. For Salmonella, Listeria and Staphylococcus spp., the number of samples needed using the ZIB model to reject poultry batches at 95% certainty (regardless of sampling site) were 155, 55, and 71 respectively. For those sampling sites showing a higher proportion of non-detects, even greater savings would be ex- pected by using Model 3 assumption. For instance, the estimated Salmonella spp. prevalence for breast is 0.0088 from Model 3 ( Table 2 ). Thus, to reject batches at 95% certainty, the required number of sam- ples would be n = 339, while assuming the binomial p value for any product the number of samples would still be n = 155. This clearly shows the usefulness of the ZIB model in the improvement of sampling plan performance, considering that microbial contamination present in any part of the chicken carcass would lead to batch rejection (or at least a hygiene warning). It should be noted that sampling plans could serve here as a veri fication tool since lower number of samples implies higher Table 3
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Validation of an HPLC-UV method for the identification and quantification of bioactive amines in chicken meat

Validation of an HPLC-UV method for the identification and quantification of bioactive amines in chicken meat

The consumption of food with high amine content can be harmful to health, potentially leading to histamine poisoning, migraine, or hypertensive crisis (Palencia et al., 2011). Approximately 30% of individuals with classical migraine may have a crisis when they consume tyramine-rich food (Glória and Vieira, 2007). At high concentrations, putrescine and cadaverine may lead to hypotension, bradycardia, exaggerated muscle contraction of the jaw, limb paralysis, and potentiation of the toxicity of other amines (Veciana-Nogués et al., 1997). Hence, the study of biogenic amines is important not only due to their toxicity but also because they can be used as food quality indicators. In this sense, the development of methodologies able to detect toxic compounds has been increasingly pursued to ensure that food products are not associated with any type of risk for the consumer.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

used to increase the protein content. But nutritional quality and availability of plant-based proteins are quite low compared to animal-based proteins. Animal-based proteins from eggs, milk, meat and fish are considered as complete proteins because of their favorable balance of essential amino acids. Various alternatives for fortification or enrichment of foods, especially bread have been described in previous studies (Bojňanská et al. 2012, Okafor et al. 2012, Waters et al. 2012, Indrani et al. 2015). Madenci and Bilgiçli (2014) used whey protein concentrate powder and buttermilk powder in leavened and unleavened flat bread dough at different levels (0, 4 and 8%). They pointed out that the protein content of the flat breads increased up to 14.6% with whey protein concentrate powder usage. Significant increments were also observed in ash and mineral (Ca, K, Mg and P) contents of the leavened/unleavened flat bread with utilization of 8% whey protein concentrate powder or buttermilk powder. Bastos et al. (2014) studied on the effect of fish filleting residues for the enrichment of wheat bread. As a result of the study, they reported that addition of fish processing residue to breads is a possible way to provide essential nutrients to the population through a well-accepted, accessible, and low-cost product. Also food process by-products such as brewer’s spent grain can be utilized for bread enrichment with its high level of essential amino acid composition (Waters et al. 2012).
Mostrar mais

13 Ler mais

Molecular tracking of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat chain: from slaughterhouse reception to end cuts

Molecular tracking of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat chain: from slaughterhouse reception to end cuts

It was not possible to identify in the present study whether the isolates from the carcasses and boxes from Sl2 were iden- tical to isolates obtained from Sl1. This similarity among iso- lates from different slaughterhouses was observed by Capita et al. ( 2007 ). who demonstrated by ribotyping a high genetic relationship among Salmonella spp. isolates obtained from different slaughterhouses. The obtained results allowed the identification of possible contamination routes of poultry car- casses during slaughtering, and revealed evidence that this contamination can be from the external environment, such as the breeding and shipping steps. Thus, it was demonstrated the relevance of adopting adequate control procedures in all the chicken meat production chain, since the initial stage of ani- mals breeding up to the final processing steps.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Characterization of hydrolysates of collagen from mechanically separated chicken meat residue

Characterization of hydrolysates of collagen from mechanically separated chicken meat residue

The collagen was subsequently precipitated in the presence of 0.05 M tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, at pH 7.5, by adding NaCl to a final concentration of 2.6 M. The precipitated collagen was centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 30 minutes in a centrifuge (Hitachi, CR22GOOO) at 4 °C, and then dialysis using a cellulose membrane was performed (typical molecular weight cut-off 14,000 KDa, Sigma, St. Louis, USA) for two days with 0.1 M acetic acid, and for two days with distilled water, both at 4 °C under agitation and with the solution changed every 12 hours. Finally, the collagen was frozen in a freezer (Metalfrio, VF50F) at -22 °C and lyophilized in a lyophilizer (Terroni, LS 3000, São Carlos, Brazil).
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Shelf Life of Chicken Meat Balls Submitted to Sous Vide Treatment

Shelf Life of Chicken Meat Balls Submitted to Sous Vide Treatment

In order to determine bacterial counts, a 25-g meatball sample was weighed under aseptic conditions, 225mL peptone water were added, and serial dilutions were prepared and seeded using the pour plate technique. Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB) and total psychrotrophs count were determined using Plate Count Agar (PCA, Merck code 1.05463), after incubation for 48 hours at 35 °C and 7 °C for 10 days, respectively (Harrigan, 1998). Total lactic acid bacteria count (LAB) were determined using Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar (MRS, Merck) after incubation at 30 °C for 72 hours under anaerobic conditions (Harrigan, 1998). For Enterobacteriaceae counts, 1.0 mL sample was inoculated into 5 mL of molten (45 °C) Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar (Oxoid code CM 485). After setting, a 10 mL overlay of molten medium were added and incubation was carried out at 37 °C for 24 h. The large colonies with purple haloes were counted(5).In order to determine Cl. perfringens count, sulfite polymyxin sulfadiazine (SPS, Merck) was added to the samples which were incubated at 37 ºC for 48 hours under anaerobic conditions(6). In order to determine Listeria spp. count, samples were incubated at 30 ºC for 24±2 hours. Then 0.1-mL pre-enrichment culture was added to 10 mL fully concentrated Fraser Broth medium for selective enrichment , and incubated at 35-37 ºC for 48±2 hours. After pre-enrichment, it was spread on Palcam agar (PA, Merck) with a loop, and plates were incubated at 30 ºC for 48 hours (Halkman, 2005).
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Antimicrobial effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on chicken breast meat contamination

Antimicrobial effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on chicken breast meat contamination

On the other hand, consumers have demanded from the food companies the application of practices to reduce the levels of chemical additives in food products, as many food preservatives have harmful side effects, including carcinogenic activity (Moreira et al., 2005). This has led to the search of natural alternatives for food preservation, minimizing consumers’ health hazards (Souza et al., 2003).The study and assessment of antimicrobial activity in natural products, such as spices, have been stimulated with the aim of finding new options for the replacement of chemical preservatives to control the growth of foodborne pathogens (Coutinho et al., 2003).
Mostrar mais

4 Ler mais

Evaluation of the BAX® system for the detection of Salmonella spp. in naturally contaminated chicken meat

Evaluation of the BAX® system for the detection of Salmonella spp. in naturally contaminated chicken meat

Lots of foods, especially raw meat, are contaminated with Proteus spp. and Citrobacter freundii, which produce colonies similar to those of Salmonella spp. in the selective and differential media used in the conventional method. According to the São Camilo Laboratory, Maringa, Parana (personal communication), a total of 50,481 food samples were analyzed using conventional method between 2008 and April 2011, including 21,370 samples of raw chicken meat (42.3%). Approximately 100% of the samples of raw chicken meat analyzed required the biochemical identification of the colonies, which greatly increased the time and cost of analysis. Although the percentages of false positives found in the first (3.6%) and second parts (5.8%) of this study are higher than those observed in other studies, these results demonstrate that the BAX® system is a good alternative routine technique for laboratories that analyze a large number of samples on a daily basis.
Mostrar mais

4 Ler mais

Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

The flavor of meat products is a resultant of multiple factors, the most important of which include: components and parameters of the production process. The key significance in finished product flavor development is ascribed to the type of applied meat as it affects the composition of volatile compounds. The key volatiles of cooked beef include: octanal, nonanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, methanethiol, methional, 2-furfurylthiol, 2-metyl-3-furanthiol, 3-mercapto-2-pentanone, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)- furanone. These compounds occur also in cooked pork and chicken meat, however their concentrations differ between species. The meaty-caramel odor notes typical of the cooked beef are attributable to high concentration of: 2-furfurylthiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)- furanone. For comparison, a lower concentration of 4-hydroxy- 2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone in pork results from significantly lower concentrations of its precursors, i.e. glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. The concentration of carbonyl compounds with greasy odor notes, like hexanal, oxtanal and nonanal, is lower in pork than in beef. However, the ratios between contents of compounds imparting greasy notes and these imparting meaty notes are higher than in beef (Belitz  et  al., 2009). The most important volatile compounds of cooked poultry meat include: 2-furfurylthiol, hexanal, 2(E)-nonenal, 2,4(E,E)-nonadienal, 2,4(E,E)-decadienal and 2,4(E,Z)-decadienal (Kerler & Grosch, 1997). During oxidation of poultry fat, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and γ-dodecalacton are formed from linoleic acids that are typical of the chicken meat flavor (Gasser & Grosch, 1991; Chen & Ho, 1998). During long-term stewing of beef, 12-methyltridecanal appears which is an important compound from the viewpoint of retronasal olfaction as it is responsible for the characteristic sensation of satiety and flavor. This compound is typical of beef and is not formed upon heat treatment of pork and poultry meat.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Mercado consumidor de carne de frango e derivados em Capanema, Pará / Consumer market of chicken meat and derivatives in Capanema, Pará

Mercado consumidor de carne de frango e derivados em Capanema, Pará / Consumer market of chicken meat and derivatives in Capanema, Pará

The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of chicken meat consumers in Capanema- PA. 400 questionnaires containing open and closed questions were applied to obtain qualitative and quantitative data. The results were processed using Microsoft Excel 2007 software. 58.5% of respondents are female and 41.5% male. Most of them have between one and two minimum wages (45.75%) and complete high school. It was found that 50% of people have sporadic frequency of consumption. The most used method of preparation is the barbecue. The biggest buying preferences are the whole chicken (44.68%) and the free-range chicken (64.01%) and the preferred places of purchase are the butcher or refrigerator. The attributes considered most important in relation to the point of sale of chicken meat were the proper preservation of the food (29.05%) and the hygiene of the facilities (27.97%). The smell, the validity and the appearance of the meat were the most important attributes of chicken meat. Capanema-PA consumers are more concerned with the quality of the food they consume than with the taste or practicality of the purchase. They also showed interest in inspected products to the detriment of clandestine chickens.
Mostrar mais

15 Ler mais

Show all 10000 documents...