Mineral metabolism

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Assesment of mineral metabolism in patients with HIV-infection, chronic hepatitis с and co-infection HIV/ chronic hepatitis С

Assesment of mineral metabolism in patients with HIV-infection, chronic hepatitis с and co-infection HIV/ chronic hepatitis С

Research Objective: Evaluate the indicators of mineral metabolism in HIV-infected patients, patients with chronic hepatitis C and co-infection HIV/HCV. Material and Methods: The content of microelements (zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe)) in serum was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The study involved 99 patients: with chronic hepatitis C — 32 patients, with HIV infection — 34 and co-infection of HIV/HCV — 33 patients. Results: Micro- elements and metal-dependent proteins metabolic disorders as a reduction of the zinc, haptoglobin contents, and an increase of copper, iron, and ceruloplasmin contents were identiied in patients with chronic hepatitis C. In HIV-infected patients and patients with co-infection HIV/HCV were identiied reducing zinc, copper, iron, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin. In patients with co-infection HIV/HCV compared HIV-infected patients lower zinc, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin contents (р<0,001) were detected. In patients with co-infected HIV/HCV, as compared with a group of chronic hepatitis C were set lower values of all parameters (p<0,001). Conclusion: Integrated assessment of the degree of deviation from the control of the trace element content and activity metal-dependent enzymes showed that its highest signiicance was typical for patients with co-infected HIV/HCV, which is higher than that of HIV-infected patients in the 1,2-fold and 2,2-fold in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
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The interplay between mineral metabolism, vascular calcification and inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): challenging old concepts with new facts

The interplay between mineral metabolism, vascular calcification and inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): challenging old concepts with new facts

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most powerful predictors of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), with heightened susceptibility to vascular intimal and medial calcification associated with a high cardiovascular mortality. Abnormal mineral metabolism of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) and underlying (dys)regulated hormonal control in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) is often accompanied by bone loss and increased vascular calcification (VC). While VC is known to be a multifactorial process and a major risk factor for CVD, the view of primary triggers and molecular mechanisms complexity has been shifting with novel scientific knowledge over the last years. In this review we highlight the importance of calcium-phosphate (CaP) mineral crystals in VC with an integrated view over the complexity of CKD, while discuss past and recent literature aiming to highlight novel horizons on this major health burden. Exacerbated VC in CKD patients might result from several interconnected mechanisms involving abnormal mineral metabolism, dysregulation of endogenous calcification inhibitors and inflammatory pathways, which function in a feedback loop driving disease progression and cardiovascular outcomes. We propose that novel approaches targeting simultaneously VC and inflammation might represent valuable new prognostic tools and targets for therapeutics and management of cardiovascular risk in the CKD population.
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Beyond mineral metabolism, the bright immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D in renal disease

Beyond mineral metabolism, the bright immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D in renal disease

C alcitriol is the hormonal form of vitamin D and is formed by two hydroxylation steps: a hepatic 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D and a subsequent kidney 1 alpha-hydroxylation (1-3). The active metabolite of vitamin D3, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is a hormone which principally regulates calcium and bone metabolism. Deficiency of vitamin D is public globally. While the integrity of the vitamin D is crucial for human health, nutritional vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy persons, associates with a higher risk of mortality for all causes, in spite of normal serum calcitriol (2-4). Besides of its classical actions, calcitriol applies its pleiotropic properties in a wide variety of target organs and cell types, often in an autocrine/paracrine manner. These biological actions of calcitriol have suggested a multitude of potential therapeutic determinations for the vitamin D hormone in the therapy of hyperproliferative disorders (e.g. psoriasis and cancer) and immune dysfunction (1-4). Deficiency of vitamin D links with an early onset of a variety of disorders such as high blood pressure, insulin resistance, proteinuria and immune abnormalities that enhance the tendency for viral and bacterial infections, and multiple organ injury due to systemic inflammation causing atherosclerosis, impaired DNA-damage responses and renal lesions too. It is noteworthy to remember that the physiological action of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is mediated by the receptor of vitamin D (3-5). Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is discovered in various organs and cells including small intestine, bone and kidney. Furthermore to the regulation of calcium metabolism, calcitriol is involved in various biological
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J. Bras. Nefrol.  vol.35 número4 en v35n4a03

J. Bras. Nefrol. vol.35 número4 en v35n4a03

prevalence of mineral metabolism anomalies in CKD populations; the few therapeutic options currently available; and the fact that many patients are still outside the target range recommended for PTH, vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus levels, it is desirable to continuously update the guidelines and address the impacts disease has on morbidity and mortality, in addition to incorporating new drugs that induce less hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia, so as to improve the management of CKD-MBD.

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FGF23-klotho axis as predictive factors of fractures in type 2 diabetics with early chronic kidney disease

FGF23-klotho axis as predictive factors of fractures in type 2 diabetics with early chronic kidney disease

The primary function of bone is to maintain its structural integrity though a constant process of bone remodeling. Moreover, bone is also a key player in the regulation of mineral metabolism. More recently, bone was also recognized as an endocrine organ that releases two important hormones, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (Ocn). 6,7 FGF-23 regulates phosphate and vitamin D metabo­ lism and Ocn is an essential in energy metabolism, and sexual reproduction. 8

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Stress, glucocorticoids and bone: A review from mammals and fish

Stress, glucocorticoids and bone: A review from mammals and fish

Aging is an imbalance between damage and repair that makes organisms undergo an increasing vulnerability to challenges during the post-maturational life, decreasing their ability to survive (84). Along these lines, aging disturbs the homeostatic system but perhaps it should not be considered as a stressor since it does not elicit per se a physiological stress response. However, aging is closely related to responsivity to stress and it seems to produce similar effects to those seen in the chronic stress response. In mammals, aging causes greater HPA axis activation and thereby an excess production of GCs that negatively affect bone metabolism (7). It has been proposed that HPA axis hyperactivity could be due to a decrease in the number of GC receptors in the brain, which in turn affects the negative feedback regulation, but can also be the result of repeated stress events (7). An age-related increase of corticosterone as well as upregulation of 11βHSD1 (enzyme that activates GCs) expression in bone, which led to reduced bone vasculature and skeletal fragility in mice (85). Studies in humans have provided evidence that elevated cortisol levels affect bone mineral density. Thus, elderly men and women with a high level of evening salivary cortisol had a reduced bone mineral density in the lumbar spine (86). Also, high plasma cortisol levels in older women contributed to bone loss in the femoral neck (87). Additionally, a positive correlation between cortisol concentration and bone loss rate was found in the lumbar spine in elderly men (88). Fish grow continuously throughout their lives and usually their skeleton maintains its integrity with aging. A few exceptions can be found in semelparous species, such as many salmonids and eels (51, 63, 76) in which sexual maturation, reproduction and related skeletal remodeling coincide with the end of life. Both GC and sex steroids increase along the migratory route and peak levels coincide with important organ and skeletal remodeling. In pink salmon specifically, cortisol levels rise over 20-fold in both males and females (89) being thus likely that GCs may have important effects over bone metabolism. Despite the fact that most fish do not appear to undergo important skeletal changes as they age, the use of fish as models for probing into aging-related health conditions with impacts on bone mineral metabolism in human offers ample possibilities, since they can be treated and selected to simulate such conditions, including those directly or indirectly related to disturbances in circulating GCs (90–93).
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Association Between Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Association Between Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

In this cross-sectional study of patients with CKD 1-3 not yet on dialysis, we report a signiicant association between elevated levels of ADMA and increased coronary artery lesions as objectively assessed by coronary angiography. Moreover, this association remained statistically signiicant after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors such as gender, lipid proile, smoking, hypertension and GFR. Besides, determinants of the mineral metabolism in CKD patients (serum Ca, P, Ca×P product) were not found to be statistically signiicant predictors of the Gensini score of coronary lesions in multivariate analysis.
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ISSN 0100-879X BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES AND CLINICAL INVESTIGATION

ISSN 0100-879X BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES AND CLINICAL INVESTIGATION

In our first study conducted in 2004-2005, we evalu- ated 36 children and adolescents, 13 of them with CCD (77% with low bone mass) and 23 controls (8). Of the 23 control subjects, 10 moved to other addresses. Most of these individuals are children of migrant rural workers, a fact that prevented us from locating them, with 13 control subjects being left in the study. Of the 13 CCD children, 4 were excluded (2 of them died during the observation period, 1 was submitted to hepatic transplantation and 1 could not be located), leaving 9 CCD subjects. The present study corresponds to a reevaluation of the remaining group 3 years later (T1). The basal period (T0) contemplates only results of those individuals able to participate in the sec- ond evaluation. Thus, in the current study the CCD group consisted of 9 children and adolescents, 5 boys and 4 girls with a mean age of 10.0 ± 5.5 years and a median age of 9.7 years. The etiology of liver disease was extrahepatic bile duct atresia in 5 individuals, ductal hypoplasia in 2, choledochous cyst in 1, and Alagille syndrome in 1. The severity of liver disease for all patients was classified as Child-Pugh A. The control group consisted of 13 healthy children and adolescents, 6 boys and 7 girls with a mean age of 10.6 ± 3.2 years and a median of 8.4 years and with normal height for age (Table 1). The control individuals had no personal history of metabolic disease, acute or chronic disorders, and were not taking any drugs interfering with bone and mineral metabolism. They were recruited at the Puericulture Outpatient Clinic of the Medical Center of Vila Lobato, FMRP, Ribeirão Preto, among those routinely fol-
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Gla-rich protein (GRP) as an early and novel marker of vascular calcification and kidney dysfunction in diabetic patients with CKD: a pilot cross-sectional study

Gla-rich protein (GRP) as an early and novel marker of vascular calcification and kidney dysfunction in diabetic patients with CKD: a pilot cross-sectional study

This is the first clinical study showing the association of circulating levels of GRP with CKD pathology and vascular calcification. Here we show that, in adult diabetic patients, serum GRP levels progressively decrease from stage 2 to stage 4 CKD, correlating with markers of mineral metabolism, vascular calcification and pulse pressure. Moreover, low levels of GRP were strongly associated with vascular calcification and pulse pressure, providing support to the hypothesis of being considered as a novel cardiovascular risk factor in this population.

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SHORT-TERM CHANGES AND LONGITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION OF CARBON METABOLISM IN THE PIAUÍ RIVER ESTUARY (SERGIPE, BRAZIL)

SHORT-TERM CHANGES AND LONGITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION OF CARBON METABOLISM IN THE PIAUÍ RIVER ESTUARY (SERGIPE, BRAZIL)

grated over 24 h. were negative, as a result of the intense mineralization processes. Benthic commu- nity appears to be an important component of the ecosystem metabolism. Microphytobenthic floating flocs (mainly Lyngbya cf. confervoides, with presence of Nitzchia spp. and Cosccinodiscus spp.) were observed abundantly at first day noon. Flotation occurs when microphytobenthic produc- tion is high, forming molecular oxygen bubbles over the superficial sediment layer. The disag- gregation and decay of this material can explain the measured mineralization rates on water column. Moreover, the exposed subsurface sediment layer, rich in dead organic matter and presumably pre- viously anaerobic, could become an important decomposition site and source of dissolved nutrients. The removal of this thin microphyto- benthic layer allow aerobic decomposition of the organic matter, with enhanced mineralization rates. This process, as also observed in a hypersaline, phosphorus limited coastal lagoon (L. Araruama, RJ), may sharply modify the water biogeochemistry (Souza, 1993). Lyngbya mats spreading over water column can produce both decaying organic matter, ammonia, and nitrate high concentrations over the estuary, releasing the nitrogen once fixed (Phlips et al., 1992; Rysgaard et al., 1994; Paerl & Pinckney, 1996). This non-heterocystous ciano- bacteria may present nitrogen fixation, even in the floating flocs, despite the O 2 saturation, since they mantain the mat structure, with the existence of low oxigen microzones (Wetzel, 1993; Paerl & Pinckney, 1996). The high biomass of Entero- morpha spp., another N 2 fixing algae (Owens & Stewart, 1983) observed on the upper estuarine areas, can also contribute for the enhancement of dissolved inorganic nitrogen stock.
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Effect of antimalarial drugs and of clindamycin on erythrocyte metabolism. A review

Effect of antimalarial drugs and of clindamycin on erythrocyte metabolism. A review

EFFECT OF ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS AND OF CLINDAMYCIN ON ERYTHROCYTE METABOLISM.[r]

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Considerações sobre os aspectos jurídicos da atividade minerária no Brasil

Considerações sobre os aspectos jurídicos da atividade minerária no Brasil

Em 2004, o Decreto 5.267, em seu artigo 22, expressa que as competências relativas à atividade mineral são de atribuição da Secretaria de Geologia, Mineração e Transformação Mineral,[r]

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Análise da contribuição ambiental por meio da alteração da matriz energética do setor brasileiro de ferro-gusa e aço.

Análise da contribuição ambiental por meio da alteração da matriz energética do setor brasileiro de ferro-gusa e aço.

No entanto, segundo Jacomino et al. (2002), com o aparecimento de leis restringindo a devastação de florestas, impostas, principalmente, pelo governo inglês, a indústria tentou utilizar o carvão mineral em substituição ao carvão vegetal. No início, as dificuldades para conseguir seu amolecimento e cozimento dentro do forno inibiam sua utilização. Contudo, com a transformação do carvão mineral em coque, foi possível utilizá-lo no alto-forno. Assim, por volta de 1708 – 1709, na Inglaterra, o primeiro ferro-gusa era feito a partir do coque de carvão mineral, sendo, hoje, essa a maior fonte de energia do setor industrial de ferro-gusa e aço (BRASIL, 2012a).
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Suplementação proteica a pasto sob o consumo, digestibilidade e desempenho na terminação de novilhos Nelore na época das águas.

Suplementação proteica a pasto sob o consumo, digestibilidade e desempenho na terminação de novilhos Nelore na época das águas.

Objetivou-se avaliar a utilização de suplemento mineral e suplemento mineral proteico na terminação de novilhos Nelore em pastejo de Brachiaria brizantha, no período das águas, e suas implicações sobre o consumo de forragem, o desempenho animal e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes. A parte de campo foi implantada numa área de 26 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de aproximadamente 6,5 hectares (ha), formados de Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu. Foram utilizados 18 novilhos Nelore, com 28 meses, peso vivo de 400,5 ± 7,5kg e castrados, distribuídos em dois tratamentos: suplementação mineral até a terminação e suplementação mineral proteica de baixo consumo até a terminação. Não houve efeito sobre o consumo de pastagem, da fibra em detergente neutro, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, carboidratos não fibrosos, cinzas e nutrientes digestíveis totais. O desempenho animal e a conversão alimentar não sofreram efeito da suplementação. Não houve efeito sobre o coeficiente da digestibilidade da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e da fibra em detergente neutro. Houve efeito da suplementação com sal proteinado sobre a digestibilidade dos carboidratos não fibrosos. É desnecessário a suplementação com sal proteinado na época das aguas.
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Einstein (São Paulo)  vol.8 número2

Einstein (São Paulo) vol.8 número2

During childhood and adolescence, both bone deposition and bone mass formation exceed resorption, leading to increased bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in phases that coincide with accelerated weight and height growth. It is during the final stages of puberty (11 to 14 years for girls and 13 to 17 for boys) and adulthood that greater bone mass formation is observed, characterizing the so-called “peak bone mass” (2) .

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Indústria mineral.

Indústria mineral.

A conotação de mineral estratégico sempre teve as suas raízes fundamentadas em dois conceitos básicos: escassez (natural ou artificial) de recursos e possibilidade de confronto militar. Estando o mundo atualmente em situação de superoferta da grande maioria dos bens minerais, o comércio internacional encarrega-se placida- mente de promover o equilíbrio entre oferta e demanda, sem rivalidade aguda entre as potências que possam ameaçar tal equilíbrio. Em segundo lugar, o fim da Guerra Fria tornou desnecessária a auto-suficiência ou a formação de estoques estratégicos de bens minerais e de outras commodities. Segundo alguns autores, dentre os quais se destaca o professor Lester Thurow (1993), “os preços das matérias-primas em 1990 eram 30% mais baratos do que em 1980 e quase 40% abaixo do que eram em 1970. A revolução da ciência dos materiais atualmente em curso vai acelerar nos próximos anos, e novas reduções são esperadas no uso de quase todos recursos naturais por unidade de PNB. Fornecedores de matérias-primas naturais localizados no Terceiro Mundo encontrarão mercados cada vez menores para seus recursos cada vez mais baratos”.
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Low bone mass in children and adolescents

Low bone mass in children and adolescents

in a child can result from inadequate gains of bone mineral, bone loss, or a combination of the two (8,58,59). Understanding this is critical, because most drugs used to treat osteoporosis in adults are anticata- bolic agents that reduce bone loss. Children who fail to gain adequate bone mineral may require therapy that is anabolic or bone building. It is beyond the scope of this article to review the current therapies for pediatric low bone mass (5,6). At the very minimum, however, the finding of low bone mass should prompt a search for possible cause(s), including a review of overall nutrition, calcium intake, vitamin D stores (serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D), hormonal status, phys- ical activity, and underlying disease status. All risk fac- tors should be addressed.
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Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr.  vol.36 número3

Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. vol.36 número3

However, it is well known that the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). 41 Complex I plays a major role in controlling oxidative phosphorylation, and its abnormal activity can lead to defects in energy metabolism and thereby to changes in neuronal activity. This unique feature explains the mitochondrion’s great vulnerability to lipophilic molecules. 41 Inhibition of complex III usually results in the generation of ROS as a consequence of the intrinsic characteristics of the electron-transfer process to this complex from reduced ubiquinone (UQ). 42 To
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Sorption of the insecticide thiamethoxam by organic and mineral fraction from a brazilian oxisol.

Sorption of the insecticide thiamethoxam by organic and mineral fraction from a brazilian oxisol.

Na Tabela 3, observa-se que para as amostras de solo original e solo sem matéria orgânica os valores de K d e K f foram menores na camada supericial e maiores na profundidade de 0,4-0,70 m. Estes resultados reforçam a hipótese de que a matéria orgânica recalcitrante é mais efe- tiva na retenção do tiametoxam ou há maior interação deste inseticida com a fração mineral do solo, tais como minerais de argila, óxidos etc.

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Carbono orgânico e carbono residual do solo em sistema de plantio direto, submetido a diferentes manejos

Carbono orgânico e carbono residual do solo em sistema de plantio direto, submetido a diferentes manejos

consórcio entre mucuna+brachiária+crotalária. Ambas determinadas a partir de três amostras coletadas aleatoriamente com gabaritos de 0,50 x 0,50 m, e secas em estufa de circulação forçada de ar a 60°C ± 2°C por 72 horas. As adubações das culturas destinadas à produção de grãos (trigo, milho e soja) foram realizadas com a aplicação de fertilizantes minerais e orgânicos de forma isolada e combinada, obtendo-se assim as três fontes de adubação: mineral, orgânica e mineral+orgânica, respectivamente. A quantidade de fertilizante orgânico aplicado na adubação orgânica foi baseada no nutriente que primeiro suprisse a demanda da cultura, segundo análise do fertilizante orgânico
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