1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D is the active form of vitamin D and is primarily generated in the kidney from 25-hydroxyvitamin D. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D circulates in lower concentra- tions than 25-hydroxyvitamin D but has much greater affinity for the vitamin D receptor and is more biologically potent . 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D enhances intestinal calcium absorp- tion in the small intestine and induces preosteoclasts to become mature osteoclasts. Osteoclasts remove calcium and phosphorus from the bone and maintain calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood. Adequate calcium and phosphorus levels promote the mineralization of the skele- ton . The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in all three low mineralwater groups were signif- icantly lower than that in the TW group. This result revealed that the long-term consumption of bottled low mineralwater might disturbed the mineralization of the skeleton according to inhibit the vitamin D activation. One previous study showed a doubling of the risk of hip frac- ture in postmenopausal women with low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration compensatory increased in short time of with low cal- cium intake, but when long term deficiency of vitamin D or in aged people, serum
Conclusions and directions of further researchers. There is an intensive foreign investment in the development of the industry of mineralwater. Formation of the state of quality and safety, monitoring compliance with in terms of quality and security of mineral waters, creating with natural mineralwater; tough fight falsification of mineral waters of Ukraine. Prospects for further study is more detailed analysis of mineralwater market, assessing its competitive position, introduction of new analytical tools for assessing competitiveness, formation of marketing brand positioning systems.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the quality of mineral waters sold on the Romanian market, compared to supplied tap water. There is a general trend in the behavior of Romanian consumers to avoid tap water, considered not sufficiently safe, from the toxicological point of view. This is due to the impression that investments in improving urban utility network of Bucharest, were not correlated with the rate of urban utility
There are few reports in the literature regarding the occurrence of yeasts and filamentous fungi in treated water and bottled mineralwater. This is partly due to the fact that causal relationships between fungal occurrence and waterquality remain uncertain. However, a dramatic increase in the number of invasive diseases due to fungi has occurred recently. This rise has been attributed to the large numbers of patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapies, chemotherapy, and organ and bone marrow transplants. All the samples of mineralwater analyzed here presented fungal growth. This suggests that, even though these fungi are commonly found in our environment, contamination or active growth takes place in the mineralwater. The two most abundant genera of filamentous fungi found in this work were Penicillium spp. (31.2%) and Cladosporium spp. (18.7%). In a previous research (15), a lower level of contamination was reported (15.4%), but the same fungi were isolated, though in different percentages: Penicillium spp. (37.8%) and Cladosporium spp. (13.3%). Another research also reports the prevalence of the genera Penicillium sp, Cladosporium sp, and Alternaria sp as determined in the mycological analysis of mineralwater (7).
According to Battaglene et al. (2005), Rotifera were a likely source of bacterial load to larval striped trum- peter (Latris lineata) in tanks. Moreover, Evjemo et al. (2003) verified that total protein in Calanoida-Copepoda was higher than 50% of dry weight than that of Rotifera. In the current experiment, Rotifera reached high den- sities and Copepoda, low densities. These factors may be influenced by growth and survival results of Brycon orbignyanus larvae. Quantity and quality of available food and the control of the culture water variations di- rectly affected the survival and performance of fish lar- vae.
One such example is shown in Fig. 3, which presents the sensitivity of the model to the amount of applied mineral ni- trogen fertilisers considering the reference case along with increasing/decreasing the amount of nitrogen fertiliser by 40%. One can see that the amount of nitrogen application in soil particularly affects the peak concentrations in river. This confirms in turn that the precise adjustment of fertiliser quan- tities should not be ignored. Further, the parameters for nu- trient retention and nutrient denitrification during the lateral transport should be plausibly chosen and should be appropri- ate for the region, since both factors have a notable influence on the simulation results.
The complex relationship between the data evaluated and land- use suggested a need for management practices across the water- shed, reducing soil loss and groundwater pollution (Veseth and Miller, 1992). Conservation planning must be used in the area. The results indicated the agricultural watershed’s exposure to pollutants and/or toxicity. The real significance of such variation was not fully elucidated by the present investigation. However, the study of the water in conjunction with soil will contribute to a mo- re comprehensive picture of environmental pollution in water- sheds, representing a useful reference point for future anthropoge- nic impact assessment in these areas.
For residents of slums, community-led measurement of water indicators may provide infor- mation that citizens can use to negotiate with governments to improve service delivery. The “right to research” is the idea that marginalized populations can collect strategic information to facilitate government accountability for basic service delivery [38, 39]. In Mumbai, slum dwell- ers’ federations have used household enumeration and mapping to prevent forced evictions and to enable community-managed resettlement [40, 41]. In India and Uganda, community- based monitoring of health services has been shown to increase healthcare utilization and dra- matically improve child mortality [42, 43]. Similar community-driven initiatives focused on monitoring the water supply may empower communities to claim the human right to water from governments through negotiation and activism.
description fits very well with the appearance of colonies that were observed. It is important to note that coliform bacteria are widely found in nature and does not necessarily indicate faecal pollution 12 . Enteric pathogen cannot normally multiply in water hence water is not its mode of transmission to human. However the infection those in human whose local or general natural defence mechanisms are impaired would be significantly low. The people likely to be at risk would be the very old or very young as well as patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. Other immuno compromised individuals suffering from AIDS would also be at risk. Also, water polluted by bacteria than permitted to contaminate food would lead to the multiplication of the pathogens to very large doses. The value of pH of all water samples appeared to lie between 8.06-8.48 which is well within permissible limit. pH provided the information about acidity and alkality of water. The eye irritation and exacerbation of skin disease have been associated with pH value > 11. The standard pH value of water is 6.5-9.2. So regarding the pH, all value of samples are within safe limit.
Several systems for intensive gas transfer, such as cas- cades, tower and plate aerators and high pressure spraying, are effectively applied in full-scale plants for this purpose. A vacuum stripper is applied in situations were aeration is un- wanted, as is the case in front of trickling filtration, to avoid clogging the distribution spraying with oxidation products. The stripping efficiency for dissolved gases is determined by gas properties, especially the water/air distribution (or Henry) coefficient, and system characteristics for the equi- librium state (determined by the air-to-water ratio, RQ), and kinetics (described by the transfer coefficient). The distribu- tion coefficients in Table 2 show methane’s lower affinity for water compared to that of carbon dioxide, implying a better removal of the former under the same system characteristics. Oxygen and methane are comparable in this respect. The constant temperature of the Oasen groundwater means fixed equilibria for the gas distribution, unlike for surface water and river bank filtrate with short travel times, where a rise in water temperature results in lower water solubility of the gases and an increased driving force for stripping.
However, simply implementing conservation practices may not always provide the desired out- comes. For example, despite widespread adoption of conservation in the Lake Erie Watershed, increased losses of P in agricultural runoff over the last decade, have resulted from complex, dynamic, but predict- able factors. These include the accumulation of P at the soil surface, a fall in the application of fertilizer, continued surface broadcasting of P, a focus on imple- menting conservation practices that reduce erosion and P particulate loss, a rapid rise in tile drainage fu- elled by higher grain prices, and release and remobi- lization of fluvial P. For instance, there are now more fields with tile drainage that connect to ditches and streams, contributing source areas of the legacy of P to Lake Erie. The combination of these factors created a “perfect P loss situation,” which, along with more intense summer rains, increased P inputs to Lake Erie to record levels in 2010, culminating in the 2014 tox- ic bloom and water crisis in Toledo, OH. In the year that followed, there were at least 25 theories proposed as to what may have contributed to the harmful and nuisance algal blooms (Smith et al., 2015). However, scientifically valid remedial strategies were not likely to be readily adopted by farmers due to several lo- gistical, practical, and cost limitations (Daloğlu et al., 2012; Michalak et al., 2013; Sharpley et al., 2012). Clearly, the research community needs to work close- ly with the farming community to generate innovative support, stewardship, and reward programs that will empower change.
this study was to monitor waterquality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA) regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a waterquality index (WQI) used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS). Poor waterquality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.
Finally, and importantly, the water intake rate per individual (WIR), used to calculate the reference concentration of the contaminant (RC), is influenced by several factors, such as climatic conditions of the region (temperature and humidity), temperature of water supplied to the animal, the animal species and breed, the type of diet consumed by the animals (content of sodium, fiber and protein, when elevated increases the amount of water intake), the growth stage of the animal (age), the characteristic ruminant or monogastric, and type of production to which animals are associated (ANZECC, 2000; RAISBECK et al., 2008). For example, the water intake supplied to animals for slaughter is usually lower than water intake by dairy cows (ANZECC, 2000). A lactating beef cow requires almost twice more water (64 L, approximately 16% of body weight) per day than the same non-lactating cow (32.9 L, 9% of body weight) in the same temperature of 21°C. On the other hand, a dairy cow with high milk production, of similar size, needs 90 L (20% of body weight) under the same conditions. At 32°C, however, this same animal would consume an amount of water equivalent to 40% body weight (RAISBECK et al., 2008). Thus, the variations found in the maximum allowed values of different regulations may also have originated from these variables, including the economic activities in each country/state. This confirms the need for specific waterquality criteria for livestock watering according to each country/region, encompassing the scenario and the reality of each.
For the enumeration of coliforms, the EPA procedure was used (20). Endo agar and mFC agar (Difco, De- troit, Michigan, United States) were used to detect total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively, following mil- lipore filtration (0.45 µm) and incuba- tion at 37 °C and 44.5 °C, respectively. For each sample, 100 mL of water was initially filtered, but when the coli- forms were too numerous to count, 50 mL of water was filtered. All counts were expressed as either total or fecal coliforms per 100 mL of water. All water samples having one or more co- liforms per 100 mL were judged to be of poor quality, based on the zero tol- erance level for coliforms in water that the EPA advocates (20).
Waterquality monitoring and construction activities in Malaysia: The last decades the coastal area many pressures are taken on the man-made activities (Economou, 2009). Urban development is particularly rapid in Malaysia. An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been the frequent occurrence of excessive soil losses from construction sites. There has also been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the site (DID, 2001). Therefore, in Malaysia, Department Of Environment (DOE) has proposed preparing waterquality monitoring plan during construction activities. Monitoring has four steps: (1) identifying sampling stations, (2) identifying sampling frequency, (3) describing waterquality monitoring parameters, (4) assessing waterquality condition compliance with regulatory requirements. Then according to the regulation and assessment results, plan is defined to regulate river waterquality by pollution control and mitigation measures on construction site referring to inspect Best Management Practices (BMPs).
Worldwide environmental pollution is increasing at the same rate as social and economic development. This growth, however, is disorganized and leads to increased degradation of water resources. Water, which was once considered inexhaustible, has become the focus of environmental concerns because it is essential for life and for many production processes. This article describes monitoring of the waterquality at three points along the Sinos River (RS, Brazil), one in each of the upper, middle and lower stretches. The points were sampled in 2013 and again in 2014. The water samples were analyzed to determine the following physical and chemical parameters plus genotoxicity to fish: metals (Cr, Fe, Al), chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, total and fecal coliforms, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen. Genotoxicity was tested by exposing individuals of the species Astyanax jacuhiensis to water samples and then comparing them with a control group exposed to water from the public water supply. The results confirmed the presence of substances with genotoxic potential at the sample points located in the middle and lower stretches of the river. The results for samples from the upper stretch, at P1, did not exhibit differences in relation to the control group. The physical and chemical analyses did not detect reductions in waterquality in the lower stretch, as had been expected in view of the large volumes of domestic and industrial effluents discharged into this part of the river.
The waterquality used to irrigate rice crop was studied; it is withdraw from Jacaré stream, tributary of São Francisco River at the Sergipe State. Water samples were collected in April, July, August and October of 2011 in six stations along of Jacaré stream and pH, electric conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, nitrate and total solid suspense were the parameters analyzed. The methodology used to analyze the parameters is according to APHA and determinate in Environmental Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of
Biostimulants are used in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to balance vegetative and reproductive growth as well as to increase cotton seed yield and fiber quality. Therefore, in order to study the efficiency of seed treatment with biostimulants, nutrition, production and technological quality for the cotton fiber, a field experiment was installed. The study was conducted at the Alvorada farm research field, in Luis Eduardo Magalhães municipality - BA. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replicates and five treatments (control group, untreated group, Booster®, Stimulate®, Improver® and Biozyme®). Leaf contents of nutrients, yield and technological quality of the fiber were evaluated. The results showed that application of biostimulants in the seeds increased the N, K, S and Fe contents in the cotton leaf, but there was no influence on the crop yield. However, these products caused changes in the fiber characteristics, related to length uniformity, micronaire, length and strength of the fiber.
bivalve cultures in the aquaculture ponds by lowering their exposure to pathogenic agents and reducing the health risks of human consumers. This may create a safer area for bivalve production when compared with the E. coli levels in Ria Formosa lagoon. According to monthly analysis of E. coli in oysters cultured in EPPO-IPMA for the past three years, the level of this bacteria in oysters has been always under class A, which mean oysters were safe to be directly consumed by humans. This contrasts with the class B of bivalves cultured in the area adjacent to EPPO-IPMA, which demands a depuration period before going to market. From a bivalve farmer standpoint, this can be an economic opportunity since it will give an advantage over tidal culture in Ria Formosa. Further characterization of the marine bacterial community would be useful to explain the effect of seagrasses on fish bacterial pathogens present in the water.
motolerant coliforms, among other variables. We found that all 30 systems were inappropriate for fish culture, for at least one of the parameters measured. Among the six parameters evaluated in this paper, 63% of the systems exceeded the regulated limits for at least four of the items of which phosphorus and chlorophyll-a were the most common. Open systems supported significantly higher TP concentrations and cyanobacterial abundance (p<0.05) than closed systems. Thermotolerant coliforms were also found in higher concentrations (marginally significant, p=0.07) in open fishponds than in closed ones. Because the samples were taken during the rainy season, the open systems seemed to be more vulnerable to nutrient input from the watershed. Therefore, in these systems, in addition to the input from fertilizers and the internal loading, external loading could also have contributed to the eutrophication process. As a consequence, cyanobacterial abundance also increased, reducing the waterquality. For example, the fish-farming ponds with the highest levels of TP and highest cyanobacterial abundances were open systems (7 and 12). The interaction of the management practices with land uses in the watersheds, modulated by regional climate, could accelerate the eutrophication process in the fishponds. Similar conditions have been found in other aquaculture systems in the Upper Tietê River and Mogi-Guaçu River basins, state of São Paulo (Sant'Anna et al. 2006, Eler and Espíndola 2006) (Table V). However, although