Mitigation of GHG emissions

Top PDF Mitigation of GHG emissions:

Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

use different species, energy pathways, system boundaries, and modeling assumptions; therefore, it is practically very difficult to compare these studies with each other to get an insight about the cost-effectiveness of various woody feedstocks in reducing GHG emissions. No study has done a side-by-side comparison of the economic and environmental performance of wood-based elec- tricity and ethanol at the production and consumption levels for existing automobile technologies using similar assumptions under realistic system boundaries. Comparable existing studies only focus on agriculture feedstocks and typically consider environmental [20–22] and economic performances [23,24] of energy products disjointedly. A consideration of both economic and environmental performances of different bioenergy products in a single frame- work is critical to compare cost-effectiveness of various GHG mitigation options to minimize total cost related with the reduction of GHG emissions at the national and regional levels [25]. Additionally, these information will help in determining the minimum carbon tax that would be needed to promote production and consumption of wood-based energy products in the US. Furthermore, existing studies [6–19] measure economic and environmental performances of biomass-based energy products either at production or consumption levels but not at both levels
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

MITIGATION OF METHANE AND NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FLOOD-IRRIGATED RICE BY NO INCORPORATION OF WINTER CROP RESIDUES INTO THE SOIL

MITIGATION OF METHANE AND NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FLOOD-IRRIGATED RICE BY NO INCORPORATION OF WINTER CROP RESIDUES INTO THE SOIL

emissions (partialGWP), the results indicated that residues left on the soil surface can potentially mitigate emissions from flooded soil by up to 60 % compared to emissions from soil with incorporated residue (Figure 8). Similar but lower results were reported by Harada et al. (2007). Analogously to the soil tillage systems, it can be inferred that conservation tillage systems characterized by the maintenance of plant residues on the soil surface can significantly minimize GHG emissions from flooded rice fields in RS. Currently, the systems of conventional tillage and minimum tillage are still used in about 80 % of the total area cultivated with rice in the state (IRGA, 2010). It is noteworthy that, as previously discussed, the retention of solar radiation within the greenhouse, in
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

A Methodology for Ex-Post Evaluation of Local Climate Change Mitigation Actions under a Multi-Level Governance Framework

A Methodology for Ex-Post Evaluation of Local Climate Change Mitigation Actions under a Multi-Level Governance Framework

The effect of population size refers to changes in the local energy system that are caused by the evolution in size of local population. Local energy use is clearly linked to the number of inhabitants that live in the municipality. More inhabitants imply more energy needs associated with private uses leading to higher energy consumption, in both the residential and transportation sectors. For instance, household energy consumption, as water heating and cooking, is closely related to the number of inhabitants. Besides the influence on private uses, the change in population size may indirectly lead to other changes, namely in local economy. For example, the increase in local population may lead to the creation of additional services in the municipality – as health centers, restaurants and others – which would inevitably lead to an increase in energy consumption from the services sector. Also, more inhabitants imply an increase in interchange of goods within and through municipality borders, leading to an increase of freight transportation. Even if both the direct and indirect effects are relevant in terms of changes of local GHG emissions, the estimation of the influence of population size is limited to the direct effects. This choice is justified by the fact that the indirect effects are already captured by the correction associated with changes in local economy (described in the subsection 5.4.7). So, the correction associated to differences in local population size is null for the economic sectors (services, industry and freight transportation) and for public lighting. Regarding the residential and passenger transportation sectors, it is assumed that the associated energy needs vary linearly with the number of local inhabitants for all energy uses. As it refers to a change in the energy needs, the correction is applied to the matrix of useful energy. This correction takes Matrices_A as the starting point; i.e., the corrected matrices (Matrices_B) are obtained by applying the correction expressed by equations 5.9 and 5.10 to Matrices_A.
Mostrar mais

282 Ler mais

Climate adaptation at local level: characterising adaptation options in Portugal

Climate adaptation at local level: characterising adaptation options in Portugal

In 1995, the first Conference of the Parties (COP) was held, and these meetings have continued to happen yearly since then (United Nations 2015c, 2019a). One of the most important ones was COP21, which led to the Paris Agreement entering into force in 2016 (United Nations 2015b, 2019b). The Paris Agreement built upon the UNFCCC and, like the Convention, it addresses mitigation and the importance of reducing GHG emissions. However, the highlight on adaptation and its urgency is much stronger than before, coming hand-in-hand with mitigation and being perceived as equally crucial: “Parties recognize that adaptation is a global challenge faced by all with local, subnational, national, regional and international dimensions, and that it is a key component of and makes a contribution to the long-term global response to climate change to protect people, livelihoods and ecosystems” (United Nations 2015b).
Mostrar mais

148 Ler mais

Greenhouse Gases Emissions and Economic Performance of Livestock, an Environmental Input-Output Analysis

Greenhouse Gases Emissions and Economic Performance of Livestock, an Environmental Input-Output Analysis

the consumption of fossil fuels presents a growth tendency (EPE, 2013; MONTOYA et al., 2016), methane from enteric fermentation and carbon dioxide from slash-and-burn are the greatest part of GHG emissions and are concentrated in Livestock and Fishing. For Bustamante et al. (2012), more than 50% of GHGs are directly or indirectly related to agriculture. Thus, it is relevant to note that although investments in other sectors of the economy generate greater impacts in the productive structure, they have lower GHG emissions levels. The same applies to exports. Indeed, the increase in exports of higher added-value food products over the exports in agriculture can decrease the intensity of emissions from foreign trade (PERUSSO, 2012). Nevertheless, technological changes on Livestock and Fishing, such as the crop and livestock integration, could have major results on mitigation of GHG (MACEDO, 2009) and reduce the GHG intensity on the others economic sectors.
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

Software Risk Factors: A Survey and Software Risk Mitigation Intelligent Decision Network Using Rule Based Technique

Software Risk Factors: A Survey and Software Risk Mitigation Intelligent Decision Network Using Rule Based Technique

The decision network in fig.4 has been generated through nodes of software risk mitigation as discussed in section III. These connected nodes provide paths to risk factors as a consequence of risk mitigations. Numbers have been assigned to nodes of a network for mitigation of risks. The rectangles in the diagram describe the risk factors specified in section II. The associations between risk factors and risk mitigation have been generated after the execution of rules stored in the knowledge base. E.g. Rule No. 11 Lack of Motivation of software development team members is a risk factor. When there is no motivation of employees from the project manager then there is a great chance of bad work environment. An RBS engine executes this rule and makes decision in conjunction of giving on-the job and off -the job training to employees, Good and skill full employees should be taken care of, Bonuses should be given to the employees, Attractive and smart salary packages should be announced, Respect and Honour of Employees should be maintained, Positive behaviour should be shown to the good employees and manager must have problem solving skills to handle hurdles. And the whole decision network is maintained in this manner.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Mitigation of agricultural emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

Mitigation of agricultural emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

al. (2012). Although our results are higher than these esti- mates, Harris’ estimates are typically lower than other recent estimates (Harris et al., 2012), which supports our findings. In terms of the area of deforestation, Harris et al. (2012) find annual forest loss for 73 tropical countries (excluding the Caribbean) of 36 750–143 330 km 2 yr −1 (with a median of 85 160). This supports our results for the same countries (we estimate 117 486 km 2 yr −1 total forest loss not only driven by agriculture), which lies within the same range. Estimates of deforestation area from Achard et al. (2014) are not eas- ily comparable to estimates based on country reported data (including our study) and disagree with the FAO FRA data partly due to the definition of forests (Achard et al., 2014). The major difference between estimates stems from the emis- sions factors rather than the activity data. Since our study uses a comparative approach to assess the need for mitiga- tion on a country level, we consider these data to be still use- ful for this purpose. Emissions from deforestation can also be higher than we predict, as these studies do not consider losses from peat soils, burning of the forest or other GHGs.
Mostrar mais

17 Ler mais

The detectability of nitrous oxide mitigation efficacy in intensively grazed pastures using a multiple plot micrometeorological technique

The detectability of nitrous oxide mitigation efficacy in intensively grazed pastures using a multiple plot micrometeorological technique

Research and by NIWA’s Atmosphere Research Programme 3 (2011/13 SCI). We are grateful to the MacKenzie family for the permission to use their land and for their kind logistical support. Jens Dalhaussen, Joanna Hasselbach and Mark Cooper provided invaluable field assistance. Frank Kelliher (AgResearch), Keith Cameron, Hong Di, Tim Clough and Rob Sherlock at Lin- coln University provided valuable feedback to an earlier draft of this manuscript, which has

45 Ler mais

Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

Acknowledgements. This work has been funded by National Science Foundation grants EaSM- 3 DMS 1419693, BTS-0215, EAR-1204774 and EF-1049251. We thank the Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability at Arizona State University for valuable support. The authors appreciate the comments and suggestions from Steven Peckham (NOAA). Chun Zhao (PNNL) and Xiaohong Liu (University of Wyoming) have also shared their successful experiences with

41 Ler mais

Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

As cities become the primary habitat of human beings, GHG emissions from urban residential consumption and the role of urban lifestyle has become increasingly significant. We present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption and apply it in Xiamen City, China. According to our results, reducing the GHG emissions from urban residential consumption is often beyond the control of individual consumers. Housing, electricity use and food consumption whose GHG emissions are from regional and national economic activities (PR-sourced) and wastewater treatment and solid waste treatment whose GHG emissions are from urban economic activities (PU sourced) accounted for about 70% and 17% of total residential GHG emissions in Xiamen City respectively. The entire energy or materials pathway to the end-users should be included in the policymaking scope. A large disparity in carbon profile between different households, with the high carbon households emitting about five times as much GHG as low carbon households. High carbon communities emit about twice as much GHG as low carbon communities. Residential consumptions which resulted in the majority of GHG emissions and which would likely increase significantly in the near future including housing, electricity use, and transportation, should be the key points for policymaking of low-carbon urban residential consumption in China. The survey- based GHG emissions accounting method of household consump- tion developed in this study can be readily applied to other cities. It provides a useful tool to understand and profile residential groups, and makes it possible to design tailored and targeted policies for GHG emissions reduction.
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

Programa brasileiro GHG Protocol

Programa brasileiro GHG Protocol

Além de ampliar a sua agenda ao longo dos anos, o Programa Brasileiro GHG Protocol também aprofundou os seus esforços na promoção de uma cultura corporativa de gestão das emissões de GEE. Em 2012, durante a Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre Desenvolvimento Sustentável, a Rio+20, o Programa Brasileiro lançou a Aliança Global de Regis- tros de Emissões, um consórcio de programas que apoiam ativamente esforços para mensuração e gestão de emissões de GEE. O propósito da Aliança Global, lançada em parceria com o Energy and Climate Registry (China) e The Climate Registry (Estados Unidos), é alinhar padrões, metodologias e ferramentais confiáveis e transparentes para a mensuração e gestão de carbono, oferecendo um entendimento preciso, comparável e padronizado de emissões por setor, por ativ- idade e por país, apoiando as empresas na sua inserção na economia de baixo carbono e os consumidores nas suas decisões de compra.
Mostrar mais

4 Ler mais

Bibliometric analysis on sustainability in the cement industry/Análise bibliométrica de sustentabilidade na indústria do cimento

Bibliometric analysis on sustainability in the cement industry/Análise bibliométrica de sustentabilidade na indústria do cimento

A calcinação do carbonato de cálcio, o processo de clínquerização e a queima de combustíveis fósseis no fabrico de cimento são os principais culpados das elevadas emissões de CO2 pelo sector cimenteiro. O CO2 é conhecido por ser o principal gás com efeito de estufa (GHG) e existem preocupações crescentes, tanto a nível nacional como internacional, sobre a redução das suas emissões. A investigação sobre tecnologias destinadas a reduzir as emissões de GEE durante o processo de fabrico do cimento pode ser encontrada na literatura científica, e inclui adição mineral, cimento sem clínquer (ou com baixo teor de clínquer), eficiência do forno, captura de carbono, utilização de matérias-primas e combustíveis alternativos, entre outros. O objectivo desta investigação foi apresentar uma análise bibliométrica de estudos sobre alternativas para reduzir as emissões de gases com efeito de estufa e substituir a utilização de clínquer ou cimento a nível internacional. A investigação foi baseada em artigos científicos publicados em revistas de renome de 2007 a 2017. Foram pesquisadas palavras-chave relacionadas com as emissões de CO2 da produção de clínquer e cimento dentro da vasta área da sustentabilidade na base de dados Scopus. A pesquisa incluiu dados sobre o tipo de soluções adoptadas para reduzir as emissões, o país onde o estudo foi realizado, e o número de publicações por ano e por revista. Com os resultados desta pesquisa em mãos, a quantidade de publicações de cada país foi comparada com os seus níveis de emissão de GEE. Segundo os autores, a sustentabilidade do sector cimenteiro depende da redução do consumo de energia do forno e do consumo de clínquer no cimento, ou da utilização de menos cimento no betão. Além disso, as categorias de impacto mais analisadas foram o consumo de energia e as emissões de CO2, apesar da probabilidade de outras categorias terem impactos ainda maiores.
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

Nota técnica: uso do GHG Protocol Agricultural Guidance e contabilização de emissões resultantes das práticas agrícolas e de mudanças no uso do solo: versão 1.0

Nota técnica: uso do GHG Protocol Agricultural Guidance e contabilização de emissões resultantes das práticas agrícolas e de mudanças no uso do solo: versão 1.0

Em abril de 2015, o Programa Brasileiro GHG Protocol promoveu uma oficina com o intuito de apresentar as recomendações do GHG Protocol Agricultural Guidance aos seus membros e construir conjuntamente com eles os parâmetros a serem adotados para os inventários de organizações brasileiras. O resultado desse processo está contido nas diretrizes a seguir.

9 Ler mais

Process based inventory of isoprenoid emissions from European forests: model comparisons, current knowledge and uncertainties

Process based inventory of isoprenoid emissions from European forests: model comparisons, current knowledge and uncertainties

McGuire, A. D., Sitch, S., Clein, J. S., Dargaville, R., Esser, G., Foley, J., Heimann, M., Joos, F., Kaplan, J., Kicklighter, D. W., Meier, R. A., Melillo, J. M., Moore, B., Prentice, I. C., Ra- mankutty, N., Reichenau, T., Schloss, A., Tian, H., Williams, L. J., and Wittenberg, U.: Car- bon balance of the terrestrial biosphere in the twentieth century: analyses of CO 2 , climate and land use effects with four process-based ecosystem models, Global Biogeochem. Cy.,

60 Ler mais

Greenhouse gas emissions from Indian rice fields: calibration and upscaling using the DNDC model

Greenhouse gas emissions from Indian rice fields: calibration and upscaling using the DNDC model

Recently the DNDC model has been modified for predict- ing GHG emissions from paddy rice ecosystems (Li et al., 2004). The majority of the modifications focused on sim- ulations of anaerobic biogeochemistry and rice growth as well as the parameterization of paddy rice management. The modified model was tested for its sensitivities to manage- ment alternatives and variations in climate and soil proper- ties. When estimating GHG emissions under specific man- agement conditions at regional scale, the spatial heterogene- ity of soil properties (e.g. texture, SOC content, pH) are the major sources of uncertainty. An approach, the most sensi- tive factor (MSF) method, was developed for DNDC to re- duce the magnitude of the uncertainty (Li et al., 2004). The modified DNDC model was used for estimating emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O from all of the rice paddies in China
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems

Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems

The carbon dioxide exchanges measured with micrometeorological systems are usu- ally used to test soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models for forest or crop- land surface (e.g. De Noblet et al., 2004; Dufr ˆene et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2005). Here, the originality of our approach was to use these measurements to test the CO 2 exchanges simulated with a crop model, and more specifically the ability of CERES-

34 Ler mais

Ecological intensification for managing biodiversity in agricultural systems: a systematic review

Ecological intensification for managing biodiversity in agricultural systems: a systematic review

In cases where no other suitable alternatives exist, synthetic resources and inputs can be permitted in organic production, to a minimum and where appropriate for a limited time (European Commission, 2017b & EU, 2007). Organic food has experienced an increased demand as a result of the rising concerns about sustainability, environmental impact and health effects (Randall et al. 2012). Organic management has clear benefits to wildlife biodiversity at farmland, typically 40 to 50% increase in organism abundance (Seufert et al. 2017). According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), organic agriculture is a system that instead of external agricultural inputs relies on ecosystem management. Synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, additives and irradiation, veterinary drugs and genetically modified seeds and breeds are replaced with management that is on-site specific and ought to increase and maintain soil fertility, prevent pest and diseases in the long run. Biodiversity, biological cycles, and biological soil activity are through the holistic production management system being promoted and enhanced (FAO, 1999). Many of these management types are in hand with ecological intensification management options (Figure 1.1) (Bommarco et al. 2013). The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) describes four principles of organic agriculture: i) the principle- of health, ecology, fairness, and care; ii) the health of soil, plant, animal, humans, and planet
Mostrar mais

116 Ler mais

Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

Bioethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels in the world. Globally, bioethanol production grew from 17,000 to 65,614 million litres from 2006 to 2008, respectively (RFA, 2009). In 2015, global bioethanol production reached up to 25576 million gallon with a maximum share of 57% from the United States of America (USA) (RFA, 2016). In the USA, about 13.7 billion gallon of fuel ethanol were added to motor gasoline in 2015. This fuel ethanol accounted for about 10% of the total volume of motor gasoline consumed in the country (US-EIA, 2016). Moreover, it is estimated that bioethanol will provide 7% of total global energy as a transportation fuel by 2030 (Escobar et al., 2009). Bioethanol is produced from starch and sugar crops such as cassava, wheat, barley, corn grain, or sugarcane (Kim and Dale, 2004; Nguyen et al., 2007; Macedo et al., 2008). The non-food biomass sources can also be used for producing bioethanol (Reijnders, 2008; Sassner et al., 2008; Najafi et al., 2009; Gonzalez-Garcıa et al., 2010). The process of bioethanol production is similar to conventional brewing beer process; where starch crops are converted into sugars, then the sugars are fermented into ethanol, and finally the ethanol is distilled into the final product. Bioethanol is blended with gasoline at ratios ranging from 2 to 85% by volume in order to use in flexible fuel vehicles (FFV) (UNICA, 2009; Ansari and Verma, 2012). Moreover, 100% ethanol concentration could also be used in dedicated vehicles (Zhi Fu et al., 2003; Macedo et al., 2008; Hahn-Hägerdal et al., 2009; Gonzalez-Gracia et al., 2012).
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

Summer and winter variations of dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids and benzoic acid in PM<sub>2.5</sub>  in Pearl Delta River Region, China

Summer and winter variations of dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids and benzoic acid in PM<sub>2.5</sub> in Pearl Delta River Region, China

ranged from 31 to 1035 ng m −3 (260 ± 213 ng m −3 , on aver- age), which are within the range of the values we reported in the same sampling sites in Hong Kong (Ho et al., 2007). The predominance of oxalic acid was recognized in previous studies also (Ho et al., 2007, 2010). The abundant presence of cis configuration (maleic acid and methylmaleic acid) in the urban atmosphere supports an oxidation of aromatic hy- drocarbons (benzene and toluene) as a precursor of oxalic acid. Three phthalic acids including o-, m− and p− iso- mers were detected. The isomer distribution was character- ized by a predominance of phthalic acid followed by tereph- thalic acid and isophthalic acid, being consistent with those reported in the aerosols in Mt. Tai, China (Fu et al., 2008) and East China Sea (Simoneit et al., 2004). The average concentration of phthalic acid in PRD (81 ± 74 ng m −3 ) is ∼2 times higher than that observed in urban area of Tokyo in summer (29 ng m −3 on average) (Kawamura and Yasui, 2005), but is close to those reported in the Chinese cities (Ho et al., 2007). Phthalic acid can be formed by photo- degradation of naphthalene (NAP) and other polycyclic aro- matic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric aerosols (Bunce et al., 1997; Jang and McDow, 1997). NAP is a ubiquitous pollutant in the atmosphere. The concentrations of NAP in urban areas such as Hong Kong have been reported to be as high as 3.5 µg m −3 (Lee et al., 2001). The products gener- ated in the reaction of gas phase NAP with OH radical have lower vapor pressures than NAP, thus promoting the forma- tion of SOA. Besides C 2 − C 4 dicarboxylic acids, the con-
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature)

Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature)

Wert, B. P., Trainer, M., Fried, A., Ryerson, T. B., Henry, B., Potter, W., Angevine, W. M., Atlas, E., Donnelly, S. G., Fehsenfeld, F. C., Frost, G. J., Goldan, P. D., Hansel, A., Holloway, J. S., Hubler, G., Kuster, W. C., Nicks, D. K., Neuman, J. A., Parrish, D. D., Schauffler, S., Stutz, J., Sueper, D. T., Wiedinmyer, C., and Wisthaler, A.: Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurement during TexAQS 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4104,

67 Ler mais

Show all 10000 documents...