Objective: understanding the teamwork of a Psychosocial Care Center Alcohol and other Drugs (CAPSad) driven by the motivations of users from the perspective of social phenomenology of Alfred Schutz. Method: this is a qualitative and phenomenological research conducted from September 2013 to February 2014, with health workers of a CAPSad in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data collection was performed by means of phenomenological interviews and analysis by comprehensive interpretation. Results: it identified the importance of CAPSad on consolidation actions, such as: care togheter with the user; expansion of lifeworld user; and promoting autonomy in these actions. Conclusion: the study showed that we can move forward inthe consolidation of shares tied to the mental health needs of process users, allowing them to be protagonists of processes of its existence. Descriptors: Nursing, Mental health, Mental health services, Philosophy.
In order to perform well in their specific tasks and to increase their job satisfaction and commitment with the organization, people high in PsyCap are always applying the maximum effort and higher levels of perseverance, keeping the willpower to generate the best solutions for problems and to answer positively to adversity (Avey, Avolio & Luthans, 2011). They have not only a strong confidence in their own abilities to deal and to overcome the several challenges but also the cognitive capacity of self-regulation that guarantees initiative, pro- activeness and self-discipline to achieve their goals, being more likely to help co-workers and to support the organization, reducing the possibility of leaving the job (Abbas et al., 2014; Gooty et al., 2009; Luthans et al., 2007). Higher level of psychological capital capacities, such as hope, resilience, self-efficacy and optimism, drives to development of positive emotions and increases the levels of confidence, determination and pathways of thought (Avey, Luthans & Youssef, 2008). Empirical studies has supported the linear connection between psychological capital and the previous referred employees’ attitudes and behaviors, such as: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work happiness and staying intentions (Avey et al., 2011).
Besides Maslow, Herzberg (1959) also made a valuable contribution without opposing Maslow’s ideas, but looking at the Satisfaction side of work instead. Steuer (1989) refers to motivation as manifesting the created tension for a need and that satisfaction expresses the feeling of attending to that need. Satisfaction at work is considered to be a pleasant emotional state resulting from the individuals’ assessment of their work, which results from the persons’ perspective on the satisfaction of their most important values at work (Locke, 1969, 1976). Satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work are considered by some authors as the two extremes of the same phenomenon, which is noticeable in studies whose scales measure this construct by using both concepts in opposing extremes in Lickert’s scales (Begley & Czajka, 1993; O’Driscoll & Beehr, 2000). However, other authors, such as Herzberg (1959) with his dual-factor or motivational-hygiene theory, make a distinction between satisfaction and dissatisfaction, considering them as two distinct phenomena.
Teachers’ motivation is essential to the success of educational policies. When studying this concept, it is necessary to examine school and teacher characteristics. Due to the relevance of this theme, it becomes crucial to analyze the body of research conducted about it, taking into account organizational variables —as schools are organizations— but also psychological capital and work satisfaction. Therefore, a bibliometric study was conducted using Web of Science (WoS) database, having defined the search period for the years 2000-2013 and only considering works that belong to the psychology field. 33 documents in total fulfilled the inclusion criteria, where it was verified that: (a) 2012 was the year with most publications; (b) work satisfaction was the concept which was most frequently studied, along with teacher motivation; (c) the educational psychology category had the most documents; and (d) English was the dominant language in these works. The United States of America and Canada obtained the highest values inthe following bibliometric indicators: number of documents (Ndoc) and number of researchers (Nres), and Israel had a higher level of productivity (Prod) than the other countries. The results and their implications are discussed.
worker with the healthy desire for power as well as the will to exercise it. Such worker becomes the team’s spokesperson for re-negotiating the payment of work packages whenever changes occur inthe original scope of work. These leaders are also effective in standing up for the team’s interests and getting things done from internal suppliers. The firm perceived the production system design to improve the workers’ cooperative and proactive behaviour within the teams, but also to propitiate a certain level of competition among teams. Such dispute for individual benefits at the level of operations led the firm to consider adding collective production goals and bonus schemes inthe hope of creating intra-team collaboration. However, managers feel that friction will continue to occur since there are many variables that lie outside of their control which can impact on the achievement of goals. Therefore, proactive management towards the organization of production is complemented by reactive management regarding the accommodation of conflicts. It was mentioned that as the project stress increases and control over dynamics decreases, the higher is the manager’s need for affiliation in order to maintain a friendly work environment and to gain commitment for successful project delivery.
because you have so many projects in different industries and you work quite a lot, so you get to learn from very smart people. So, I think you have just lots of chances to learn and that is what gives you such an advantage in your future career I think, because you learn so much you end up having an advantage over other people maybe working in other jobs, so I think it is super important. Besides, I would describe myself as a curious person. So, there are many reasons for learning and personal development as number one. I think for the other ones it all depends on the expectations. For example, I think you know when you get into strategy consulting that you will not have that much flexibility at work, that you usually need to be at the client ‘s side during the week and all of that. You work long hours, you cannot often do home office and that kind of stuff due to the nature of the job, so I think that ranks last, I just know, I do not really have it. The second most important one, I said job security and stability, it also has to do with the long-term perspective of thework. You work for the top strategy consultancies; they take care of you and your job is relatively secure for some amount of time. It is not only about job security, but also about career security. It is not as much risk as for example going to a start-up. The monetary compensation obviously is nice, it is a really good factor in strategy consulting, but at the same time for me it is not the most important one. I would definitely be willing to earn way less money if I could for example work less hours. Meaningful work, generally is important to me, but again expectations in strategy consulting, I think a lot of work you do is a bit unnecessary and you might work for clients or in industries you are not 100 percent into, or you do not think that they are amazing or do meaningful things. But I would choose the strategy consulting job to learn, it does not have to be 100 percent meaningful.
In this study psychometric properties of the AMS according to the RSM were examined. The original version of the AMS lies in a 7-category response scale anchored from “Does not correspond at all” (c1) to “Corresponds exactly” (c7), with a midpoint “Corresponds moderately” (c4). The current results suggested that this response scale for the AMS might not work properly inthe sample studied, because: i) a monotonic increase in steps was not found inthemotivation for knowledge and inthe remaining successive response categories scores, which are below the reference values; ii) some outfit categories shows high misfit, which undermine overall fit; iii) step calibration advance reveals misfit above 5.00 logits. These measures indicated weaknesses in all of the AMS dimensions.
Why do firms include warrants in their IPOs? There are currently two theories who divide the academic community on the subject. In one side, the Agency Cost theory formulated by Schultz (1993), that succinctly states that companies with greater agency problems tend to choose unit IPOs, arguing that they are used as governance mechanisms. In contrast, Chemmanur and Fulghieri (1997) Signalling Hypothesis claims that high-quality firms include these financial instruments inthe offering to distinguish themselves from low-quality firms, affirming that firms who comprise units are trying to signal the quality of their firm and consequently are already well managed. Among the many supporters of Schultz theory (1993), there can be found numerous empirical proofs related to the efficiency of units as governance regulators, the core idea takes its position on the availability of cash-flows. As Michael C. Jensen (1986) remarks, managers tend to invest badly when they have excess of free cash-flows. Unit IPOs can work as a ‘staged financing’ similar to what happens with Venture Capitals, restricting the free cash-flow problem.
Distinguishing behaviour led by social norms from behaviour led by moral norms is, however, not clear cut. As mentioned above, both kinds of norms may be seen to emerge and be sustained by interpersonal relations. Moreover, conformity to social norms may be partially grounded on moral norms; inthe case of trust, for instance. Trusting that others will comply with previous agreements, even when it goes against one’s self-interest, may be backed by one’s adherence to a moral code rather than by enlightened self-interest or the desire for relational satisfaction. Individuals actually follow particular norms of fairness even when they do not have the opportunity to develop relational ties or establish reputation for future beneficial interactions. The fact that third parties are sometimes willing to punish, at a cost to themselves, non-cooperative behaviour that affects others may be an indication of just that (Fehr and Fischbacher, 2003). At any rate, moral norms are distinct from social norms in that their underlying motivation is the sense of duty, and conformity is not contingent on other people’s behaviour. Workers, or a substantive number of them, provide effort if they take it as a moral duty. In an extensive US survey, moral motivations
In terms of the extrinsic or intrinsic factors that motivate them, there is a slight difference when these answers are correlated with the position held by the respondents. Thus, about 71% of the junior civil servants feel more motivated by intrinsic factors. In contrast, permanent civil servants (74%), public managers (55%) and high officials (67%) feel more motivated primarily by extrinsic factors. Regarding their future plans, about 50% of the junior civil servants see themselves still working in public administration in five year-time. 40% of the permanent civil servants see themselves having the same position in five year-time, and the rest of them think they will get promoted, retire or workinthe private sector. One third of the public managers think that in five year-time they will still workin administration but in a higher position, whereas another third of them think they will workinthe private sector.
It was the first step Starbucks had to start their work and commitment to the environment and the community; sf was created in 1997 and its priority areas are fostering job opportunities for young people, water, sanitation, and hygiene, coffee, tea and cocoa communities support, as well as foster local community development. Part of the last one – local community development – is the participation of the partners (employees) in volunteer workinthe society. There are many projects available where customers and baristas can make a difference in their community and spend their time and effort working for something different and relevant for the community. It can be a healthy kid’s day for example, in which children’s health and well-being is the main theme, or it can be a spring clean-up at Esopus library, helping cleaning and maintain gardens beautiful places to be or by simply planting trees (see exhibit 17.1). The “opportunity for youth” are fostered by Starbucks together with another associations (for example the Schultz Family Foundation and YouthBuild USA) with the main objective of reducing the scared number of more than 290 million young people who are neither employed or attending to school.
EXPLORING THEMOTIVATION TO THE CHEMISTRY STUDY. This work intends to identify the reasons why people either like or dislike chemistry classes, based on a written questionnaire answered by 157 students of private and public schools. It has a main question - “Do you like to study chemis- try? Why?” - and along with others that complement it, we attempt to explore both pupils’ school and personal experiences which help them to increase their learning capacities. The answers have given us a very rich piece of discussing material about the like-and-dislike on the study of chemistry mainly about the social interactions in teaching not only this but all other subjects.
The use of surface EMG in ergonomics can be quite valuable to continuous monitoring of local muscle fatigue during performance of different types of working tasks. However, the state of “fatigue” is multidimensional and it can be described considering five dimensions: lack of energy, physical exertion, physical discomfort, lack of motivation and sleepiness (Åhsberg, 2000). Several studies of occupational fatigue have used subjective ratings and physiological methods of measurement (Bosch et al., 2007; Keir, Sanei, & Holmes, 2011; Kimura, Sato, Ochi, Hosoya, & Sadoyama, 2007; Mathiassen & Winkel, 1996; Seghers, Jochem, & Spaepen, 2003). Self-administered questionnaires are important to assess perceived fatigue related to work, and the use of reliable and valid instruments, is essential. Among other advantages, the cross-cultural adaptation of an instrument previously developed and validated in another language allows comparisons between national/cultural groups relying on a standard measure designed and adapted to measure the phenomenon cross-culturally and it is less costly and time- consuming than generating a new measure (Guillemin, Bombardier, & Beaton, 1993). The process of cross-cultural adaptation intend to ensure a consistency inthe content and face validity between original and target versions of a questionnaire (Beaton, Bombardier, Guillemin, & Ferraz, 2000; Wild et al., 2005). The Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI) developed by (Åhsberg, 2000) is a self-report instrument that has been originally created to measure work-related perceived fatigue (Åhsberg, 2000; Åhsberg & Gamberale, 1998). In Portugal, there is not any validated measure of fatigue that is specifically designed for workers perception.
Each of the four pulses described above is independent; there is no way to sort them hierarchically or to trade one for another. It is useless paying a wonderful salary and expecting the people get excited by theworkin an organization that does not promote the formation of ties, or in which thework seems without sense or people feel helpless. Besides, it is not enough just to help people to establish links and form a cohesive team when wages are low or the job is boring. Obviously it is possible to have people working in this context. However, they will never work hard enough for reaching companies’ aims (see Nohria et al, 2008, p. 89).
The Multidimensional WorkMotivation Scale - MWMS There are scales that are based on SDT in various domains of life, such as the academic (Vallerand et al., 1992) or sports domain (Pelletier, Rocchi, Vallerand, Deci, & Ryan, 2013). Regarding the field of work, Blais, Brière, Lachance, Riddle and Vallerand (1993) published the first scale of motivation based on SDT, in French, despite problems with the internal validity and with the scale of extrinsic regulation (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of only 0.50) which encouraged Tremblay, Blanchard, Villeneuve, Taylor and Pelletier (2009) as well as Gagné et al. (2015) to develop the scale (in French and English). These scales, however, had some problems, such as following the tradition of asking people why they did an activity, which inthe workplace could be problematic and led to the development and validation of the MWMS. This is a scale that considers themotivation for workin its field of analysis (Vallerand, 1997) and, for this reason, it was selected to develop its adaptation and validation to the educational context, differing from other measures of motivation for work-oriented tasks (Fernet, Senécal, Guay, Marsh, & Dowson, 2008). MWMS attempts to develop and distinguish itself from previous scales in four different ways.
Another important aspect of this analogy between instruments is the quantification of new topics that are job motivators and were identified by this research. As highlighted by captions in Chart 8, of the 37 topics identified inthe template, only 15 were covered by the instruments of Hackman and Oldham (1975) and Sims, Szilagyi, and Keller (1976). This characterizes the greater detailing of motivational characteristics associated with five dimensions of job design theory, more adequate to the current organizational environment of information society. As a result, this paper proposes a template that can assist managers in analyzing the motivating potential of current jobs within information society. The use of the template can also identify possible modifications to be made in job design in order to make them more stimulating.
Based on Malhotra’s (2007) typologies of sampling techniques, nonprobabilistic sampling “relies on the personal judgment of the researcher rather than chance to select sample elements” while in probabilistic sampling “sampling units are selected by chance”. Therefore, the sample selection had two phases. In a first phase, the selection of respondents was made by convenience (nonprobabilistic technique), which means that the elements of the sample were chosen because “they happened to be inthe right place at the right time” which, in this case, can be translated inthe fact that they are Portuguese. In a second phase, the sample was selected through a probabilistic technique, once the questionnaire was available for all the members of all Portuguese Junior Enterprises inthe same way (three ways were used: all JE’s received an email and publicized the questionnaire among its Junior Entrepreneurs; the survey was posted in groups of social networks that are exclusive for Junior Entrepreneurs; and also through friends that know more people within the target). In this last phase, all the members of the population have the same probability to answer to this survey, since they all see this information inthe same way. However, it is important to notice that the fact that the technique used was a non-probabilistic one will make the extrapolation of results for the entire population impossible.
This article aims to analyze the motivational factors, using the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and the application of the Multidimensional WorkMotivation Scale (MWMS) (Gagné et al., 2014; Santos et al., in press) among workers in technology companies in Southern Brazil. The data collection included 256 respondents of the questionnaire and 06 semi-structured interviews, therefore being a quantitative-qualitative research with a descriptive nature. Inthe quantitative step, we applied the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), scale reliability analysis by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and other statistical tests. The qualitative step was treated through content analysis. The main results indicate that these workers are primarily oriented by Autonomous Motivation, followed by Controlled Motivation. It should be noted that the Demotivation factor was not evidenced inthe set of workers studied. We recommend that motivation be addressed jointly at the organizational, leadership and individual levels, covering more elements that can leverage worker well-being and consequently improve organizational results.
As a complex behavioural, affective and cognitive process (Scott & Bruce, 1994), innovation requires (a) the identification and definition of a problem, followed by the generation of creative solutions, (b) active search and gathering of resources (human and non human) for idea support and validation and (c) the presentation, testing and validation of the model or project developed (Carmeli et al., 2006; Kanfer, 1988). All of this depends on the existence of self-navigation skills, ones that only exist through self-leadership (Carmeli et al., 2006; Latham & Locke, 1991; Manz, 1986; Manz & Neck, 1999). In fact, besides the obvi- ous necessity of a supporting environment for innova- tion (Amabile, 1988; West et al., 2001), it is also nec- essary that the individual possess self guidance and navigation competences that allow him to navigate through challenges and frustrations, usually associated with (1) problem identification and situational con- straints, (2) generation of new ideas and solutions, (3) gaining the trust of those taking part inthe process and
has imposed on education in general new forms of learning, some with less relevance, but others with recognized results inthe educational and scientific community. The Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) are an example of one of these technologies with recognized results because that seems to contribute to the acquisition and mastery of digital competences inthe context of the realization of the teaching-learning process supported by the networks. It is in these networks that all the participants inthe educational process interact and collaborate with all, cultivate connections, debate the themes, present their criticisms, update their knowledge, acquire new skills, make decisions, but generically develop as members of a connectivist community. Based on these assumptions, in this research we intend to make a review of the literature to identify the aspects that, in detriment of regular education, to encourage the teachers to adopt the MOOC as technology for their professional development and to carry out the process of teaching and learning. Thus, through an exploratory research, characterized as documentary, we use the main sources of information, in this case scientific articles published on the subject to understand the relevance and contribution of the MOOC in an educational universe supported by technologies. In general, the results, although preliminary because of temporal limitations issues in accompanying the rapid evolution of the scientific production of knowledge, suggest that on the one hand the teachers opt for MOOC education for the ease of distance learning; on the other hand, adopt the MOOCs for the acquisition of digital skills oriented to the new challenges.