MCQ and CR have been studied in several areas such as Mathematics (e.g., Katz, Bennet, & Berger, 2000; Stankous, 2016) and Economics (e.g. Hickson, Reed, & Sander, 2010; Kennedy & Walstad, 1997), highlighting potentials and disadvantages of both types of questions. However, none of these studies was peremptory in discouraging the use of MCQ. In Computer Science a set of studies argues that MCQ should be used in this area. Roberts (2006) used the MCQ in his study to evaluate under- graduate students for enhancing the process of learning. He concludes from students’ feedback that the use of MCQ for evaluations seems to be an effective way of learning. However, he highlights that the conclusions of his work must be researched further with more data. Kuechler and Simkin (2003) studied the correlation between MCQ and CR questions in a programming course and found small differences between both, only affected by gender, dummy values and coding. From their results and the characteristics of MCQ, the authors conclude that this type of questions should be preferential when compared to CR questions.
With regard to learning, an evaluation ile was used, including 15 multiple-choicequestions about the technical content taught during training programs (venous puncture, airway aspiration, surgical wound dressing, medications, giving baths, performing electrocardiograms, vital signs, expiry date of medical devices, nursing notes/prescriptions, gas therapy, catheter ixation and dressing, oral hygiene and precautions) with the nurse/continuing education coordinator of the institution and based on protocols and the content taught by them during the integration period of newly-hired professionals.
Objective: To evaluate the accidents with biological material among medical interns interning in a trauma emergency room and identify key related situations, attributed causes and prevention. Methods Methods Methods Methods: we conducted a study with a quantitative approach. Methods Data were collected through a questionnaire applied via internet, with closed, multiple-choicequestions regarding accidents with biological material. The sample comprised 100 interns. Results Results Results Results Results: thirty-two had accidents with biological material. Higher-risk activities were local anesthesia (39.47%), suture (18.42%) and needle recapping (15.79%). The main routes of exposure to biological material were the eyes or mucosa, with 34%, and syringe needle puncture, with 45%. After contamination, only 52% reported the accident to the responsible department. Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion: The main causes of accidents and routes of exposure found may be attributed to several factors, such as lack of training and failure to use personal protective equipment. Educational and preventive actions are extremely important to reduce the incidence of accidents with biological materials and improve the conduct of post-exposure. It is important to understand the main causes attributed and situations related, so as general and effective measures can be applied.
Slovakia is a country where the purchase of OTC (over the counter) medicines outside the pharmacy is not allowed by the government. This study aimed at evaluating patients’ satisfaction and acceptance of community pharmacists. Customer’s behaviour and expectations inluencing the purchase of prescription and OTC medicines were analyzed. A structured questionnaire having 15 multiple-choicequestions was used to analyze the descriptive parameters. Data collection lasted from January to February 2014. The sample size consisted of 357 high-school educated individuals under 40 years of age. The survey showed that the prescription and OTC medicines were bought equally. The participants reported a 96.0%, 96.3% and 90.2% satisfaction rate with willingness and approach of the community pharmacist, pharmacy services and provision of drug information respectively. As for the OTC medicines, 89.5% people considered the pharmacist an expert: 88.2% purchased medicines with pharmacist’s recommendation, 97.8% needed a professional counselling and 97.2% required a pharmacist’s guidance. As for the prescription drugs, only 72.1% considered the pharmacist an expert: 96.3% suggested that physician’s prescription was signiicant and 88.3% considered pharmacist’s guidance in the process of selection of prescription medicines nonessential. A comprehensible and respectable conversation was highly expected in regards to both the OTC and prescription medicines.
The knowledge of POCUS in nephrology was evaluated in three steps. The first step was performed immediately before the course, in which one of the two sets of cognitive tests was randomly selected. The tests had the same number of questions with the same degree of difficulty. Each test consisted of 20 multiple-choicequestions, and each question had four options. Additionally, one of the two other sets of image association tests, each question with four options were also applied to evaluate knowledge regarding the physical principles of ultrasound, image interpretation and contextualization of ultrasonographic findings in clinical nephrology cases, and procedures (renal biopsy and central venous access). To ensure the accuracy and technical quality of the questions, they were reviewed by one of the authors (OSE), who is a medical education specialist.
to be performed are categorized in one of five categories (mostly according to the parts of the body) and whether the patient has normal or any abnormal findings. Physical exam tasks are selected to cover each of the five categories with two stations covering either limbs/neurological or thorax (see Table 4 for an example). Of note, in every exam there is always a station to measure the vital signs of the patient. In the same CU, students are also assessed in a computerized test with 100 multiplechoicequestions about semiology and clinical reasoning (knowledge) and have a professionalism global rating score given by their tutors in the (small group) clinical skills lab sessions, during which history taking and physical exam are trained (professionalism). In order to provide more insight into the validity of the exam, we correlated these ‘external’ scores with the total OSCE scores and the scores of each component, taking the 2016 exam as an example (Table 5). Overall OSCE scores were significantly correlated with both professionalism and knowledge scores, but more strongly with the former. More interesting were the correlations with Table 2 – Student grades
Results: Students reported that the primary value for them of this Internet-based course was that they could choose the time of their class attendance (67%). The vast majority (94%) had a private computer and were used to visiting the Internet (75%) before the course. During the course, visits were mainly during the weekends (35%) and on the last week before the test (29%). Thirty-one percent reported that they could learn by reading only from the computer screen, without the necessity of printed material. Students were satisfied with this teaching method as evidenced by the 89% who reported enjoying the experience and the 88% who said they would enroll for another course via the Internet. The most positive aspect was freedom of scheduling, and the most negative was the lack of personal contact with the teacher. From the 80 multiple-choicequestions, the mean of correct answers was 45.5, and of incorrect, 34.5.
This study aims to determine the optimal number of options for multiple-choice test items. A com- mon item equating design was employed to compare item statistics, distracter performance indices, person statistics, and test reliabilities across three similar vocabulary test forms, A, B, and C, which were different only in the number of options per item. Forms B and C were constructed by ran- domly deleting one distracter from each item in Form A and Form B respectively. Form A, Form B, and Form C, each containing 30 multiple-choice vocabulary test items with five, four, and three options per item, were randomly given to 180 graduate and undergraduate English major university students. The three test forms were linked by means of ten common items using concurrent com- mon item equating. The Rasch model was applied to compare item difficulties, fit statistics, aver- age measures, distracter-measure correlations, person response behaviors, and reliabilities across multiple-choice vocabulary test items with five, four, and three options per item. Except for dis- crimination power of distracters which was revealed to be inversely affected by the number of options per item, no significant change was observed in item difficulties (p < 0.05), item fit statis- tics, person response behaviors, and reliabilities across the three test forms. Considering the amount of time and energy needed for developing multiple-choice tests with more distracters, three options per item were concluded to be optimal.
Growers frequently spray chemical insecticides to reduce high populations of crop pest insects in the field. These plants are marketed as “greens” – their leaves are often eaten uncooked in salads, making pesticide residues a concern. In organic farming, attacks of Microtheca beetles can make production impractical and intercrop- ping was not an efficient control strategy (Bowers, 2003). Basic information for the development of man- agement strategies, including host plant preferences, which could minimize insecticide applications and there- fore residues in the greens, is both desirable and neces- sary. Different feeding responses of M. punctigera to host plant species are probable. To confirm this possibility and to establish which species are preferred, and to determine degrees of preference, multi-choice feeding preference experiments were carried out in environmental chambers in the laboratory.
When multiple samples of composite material are available, in two or more experimental groups, parametric and non-parametric methods can be used to the analysis of data in the form of replicated spatial point patterns . We are considering here the situation in which we have one experimental group that contains several planar sections of a composite material. The main aim of this paper is to present a method to combine P-values from several independent tests against the hypothesis of spatial randomness of the particles. The basic idea of the method is to test whether collectively they can reject the hypothesis of spatial randomness.
According to Cherinda (2016), on a survey carried out to a group of students about satisfaction with the use of the Excel tool, they realized that the tool has many functionalities that allow them to manipulate formulas, identify variables, and managing academic work. Nevertheless, for a sample that did not have a conscience of the potentiality of Excel, these students confirmed by the questionnaire that they were developing positive attitudes regarding the model and form of learning in the course in which they were enrolled, more concretely, in the Mathematics and Statistic calculations. In this perspective, Cymrot (2006) used Excel to analyze students’ understanding of content, learning and ease of calculation in the discipline of Statistics for Engineering II by using some statistical techniques commonly used in the Six Sigma quality management program, such as Multiple Regression, Statistical Quality Control, Measurement System Analysis (MSA) and Factorial Experiments, concluding that there is no difference in the learning of these techniques, considering the use of Excel as imperative, but the latter demonstrated a different behavior, dissociating from the rest. However, students consider it important to use Excel in the topics covered by making calculations easier.
In this study, an efficient software package tool based on Artificial Intelligence algorithms is introduced  , it creates multi multiple-choice and true- false exams forms and automatically creates the key solutions for each form and get students' results automatically. It is what most teachers and instructors expect for. Transferring traditional exams will help teachers or trainers making interactive exams with multimedia enhancement to track exams results with insightful reports. The Editor Exam tool will support two question types, randomization of the questions and answers, import multimedia applications such as audio files and record narration for the examination, import media files to the exam, deploy the examination virtually anywhere and provide the result tracking system to collect the results automatically  .
The decorator crab Acanthonyx scutiformis (Dana, 1851) is endemic to the Brazilian coast and ranges from Espírito Santo to São Paulo states. At Praia Rasa (Rio de Janeiro State), A. scutiformis can be found mainly associated with mats of Plocamium brasiliense, a red seaweed known to produce defensive chemicals against herbivores. However, despite its distribution and abundance, little is known about the biology and ecology of A. scutiformis. The present paper thus aims to address the following questions: 1. Is P. brasiliense the seaweed most consumed by A. scutiformis at Praia Rasa? 2. Is the feeding preference of A. scutiformis related to the occurrence of chemicals in seaweeds? 3. Is decorating behavior related to the feeding preference of this crab?
CTT and GPCM were applied to Math4, Port4, Math6, and Port6 data. Tables 1 to 4 contain discrimination and dificulty indexes, bi-serial correlations, and estimates of GCPM discrimination and dificulty parameters. Since intersection parameters are not used for any research questions addressed in this study, their estimates are not presented. The chi-square hypotheses test for goodness of it suggests this IRM as an adequate model at the 5% level of signiicance.
Research on multiple dwelling has long-stand- ing and strong traditions within the second home literature (e.g. Hall & Müller, 2004) – although the term ‘second home’ may not pay due respect to this phenomenon as there may not be anything second- ary about such homes at all. However, research on second homes only takes into consideration some of the manifestations, meanings and materiality of mul- tiple dwelling and neglects other types of dwellings. As an example of such neglected dwellings, at present the authors are doing fieldwork at Danish caravan sites and one preliminary finding (Blichfeldt & Mikkelsen, 2014) is that during such holidays the caravan, the tent, the cabin and the recreational vehicle qualify as home and provide the kind of dwelling mentioned by Urry (2000) as well as the stability, tradition and security of home mentioned by McIntyre (2006). Taken together, research on second homes, caravanning etc. points to home – whether it is a second home in a traditional sense or a mobile home – being physically venues that facilitate dwelling, stability, security and domesticity during the holidays.
his was a cross-sectional study among nursing professionals working in three general hospitals, two public and one priva- te, from the city of Joinville, SC, from 2011 to 2013. For data collection, a questionnaire was applied to all nursing profes- sionals working in the admission sectors of orthopedics and traumatology, renal and liver transplantation, heart diseases, medical clinic and general surgical clinic, neurology, infecto- logy, general and neurologic intensive care units (ICU) and hospital irst-aid units (FA) aimed at treating adult patients. Data collection tool was a structured questionnaire with 21 closed questions with multiple choices and three open ques- tions about professionals characteristics (category, time of professional experience and type of hospital they worked with by the time of the study), qualiication and speciic accredita- tion about pain, knowledge and use of methods for its evalu- ation, and nursing professionals’ practice with regard to pain.
To this end, one must grasp different per- spectives in the act of the care: of the subjectivity of service users and workers; of situations re- quested by them and of support from managers, among other questions. The other aspects which demonstrated improving the care, such as em- bracement, establishing links and valuing the mutual respect between worker and service user, are conigured in different subjects, as an indi- vidual and unique posture which caused (contra) produções in the process of caring as a whole. That is, they are different practices which demonstrate the responsibilization of some members of the team in the act of the health care.
If we now gather together the multiple features that integrate the neurathian description of theory choice in science, we have the following situation. On one hand, given holism and the underdetermination of theory by data, choices will always be needed in science. On the other hand, scientific knowledge, just like knowledge in general, does not enjoy any kind of social neutrality, i..e, it is also subsumed to historical and social conditions. Now, in order prove that Neurath rejected the strict version of the contexts distinction, we must also show that he would allow for sociological explanation of the acceptance or validation of scientific theories, such that the context of justification would have to cover more then just logical methods. But that seems to be precisely the case here: