3. Sivakumar Babu G.L., Reddy K.R., Chouskey S.K., Kulkarni H.S. Prediction of long- term municipalsolidwaste landill Settlement using constitutive model // Practice periodical of hazardous, toxic and radioactive waste management. New York : ASCE, 2010. Vol. 14. No. 2. Pp. 139—150.
Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 6, n.5, p.28743-28757 may. 2020. ISSN 2525-8761 changes in perception, consumption, the separation of solidwaste at the generating source, participation in the construction of public policies for solidwaste and the recognition of the professional practice of recyclables material collectors in Paraíba municipalities. Therefore, Environmental Education is an indispensable tool for municipalsolidwaste management. In the absence of formation, there are obstacles to achieving the objectives set out in the National SolidWaste Policy and in the 2030 World Agenda.
This research investigated transient water ﬂow in unsaturated municipalsolidwaste (MSW) packed in columns using neutron scatter- ing. The method developed was able to measure absolute moisture content and moisture variation in a sample of MSW produced in the city of Fortaleza (Brazil) during a simulated tropical rain event. The technique was proven to be eﬃcient, showing that channeling ﬂow accounts for most of the unsaturated ﬂow conditions. The most important eﬀect of micro-porous ﬂow was on water accumulation and small long-term outﬂow. Furthermore, the deﬁnition of field capacity used in soil sciences does not seem to apply to ﬂow in unsaturated MSW; the MSW layers kept increasing in moisture content long after water was allowed through. Finally, the long-term draining exper- iment demonstrated that the macro-porous matrix may not be a continuous medium, which makes experimental procedures that rely on matrix potential in speciﬁc points of the solidwaste mass inaccurate.
SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION OF ZINC AND COPPER IN SOILS TREATED WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MUNICIPALSOLIDWASTE COMPOST. This work aimed to access the contents and chemical forms and to estimate mobility and availability of cooper and zinc in samples from two soils (Haplortox and Paleudult) previously treated with doses of sewage sludge (SS) and municipalsolidwaste compost (MSWC), besides a control treatment. Largest percentages of Cu and Zn were determined in the organic matter fraction. Zn showed higher percentages of soluble and exchangeable fractions than Cu. Treatments with SS showed higher potential of Cu and Zn availability. Modifications in soil attributes due to residue application affected metal mobility and availability indexes.
The landfill is a method of treatment and final disposal of municipalsolidwaste (MSW) widely employed all over the world, mainly in developing countries. The biogas released from landfills raises environmental concerns, as it contributes to the greenhouse effect, due to its high content of methane and carbon dioxide, and in relation to the potential damage to health caused to the surrounding populations of these areas. However, biogas has a great energy potential, representing economic and environmental advantages, making the waste disposal in landfills more sustainable in relation to these economic and environmental aspects. In Brazil, few landfills are technically prepared in recovering energy from biogas, which may be encouraged by the new SolidWaste National Policy, which aims to fit the landfills to the technical criteria of engineering, as well as to provide appropriate instructions on the waste management throughout its life cycle. The present review deals with the process of biogas generation based on municipalsolidwaste and some techniques that provide quantitative data on the biogas emission, and also the current scenario in Brazil related to the energy recovery from such source of bioenergy and its future potentialities.
This experimental cell was made for geomechanical studies of municipalsolidwaste and geo-environmental by researchers from Unicamp. And although it has been installed in accordance with the existing precepts of the engineering landfill, its operation does not occur properly. In the 5 locations where there is control of the slurry flow, two have a low flow, indicating a possible prob- lem in the drainage generating slurry pockets. Thus, this project, besides studying the responses of the waste and how the geo- electric methods identify the geomembrane, it also investigates the presence of the pockets.
Fast rising population level, explosion of economic growth, rapid urbanization and the ascend in community living standards are the detrimental factors responsible for the accelerated rate of municipalsolidwaste (MSW) generation in developing countries [1, 2]. Solidwaste management (SWM) appears to be a worldwide growing challenge in urban areas, especially in the rapidly rising towns and cities of the developing countries [3-6]. SWM reflects a foremost environmental and economic issue almost in all countries [7, 8].But municipalsolidwaste management (MSWM) is an extremely ignored spot mostly in urban cities of developing countries [9-15]. Due to progressive urbanization, the management of SW is appearing as a major threat to environment and public health in urban zones. But SWM is a vital environmental health service. It is a primary indispensable urban service. From the primitive era efforts have been made for safe disposal of SW. In those days habitations were scanty and land was abundant. With the rapidly growing urbanization a large number of people have started to flock in short spaces to hunt their livelihoods. As a result of the increase in density of population in the places of congregation, the waste generation per unit area has been also increased. Available land for waste disposal has been proportionately reduced. Disposal has been recognized as the most awkward functional element of SWM in developing countries. The factors causing the problems of SWM in developing countries are mainly technical and financial deficiencies [16, 17]. Other factors which hamper the effective SWM are institutional, economic and social ones .
. About 25% to 50% of all food meant for consumption is regarded as waste [1, 2]. Economic growth, improvement in the living standard and rapid urbanization contribute to the acute generation of municipalsolidwaste (MSW) . MSW, under which food waste falls is not well managed in many developing countries (DCs) with regards to its collection, storage and disposal. This is posing great threat to the environment and the health of the general public . In most cities in the DCs, waste management (WM) gets little or no attention which leads to illegal dumping of waste by the populace which eventually results to heaps of wastes around the urban centres . Presently, the management of the organic fraction of municipalsolidwaste (OFMSW) is one of the environmental challenges confronting DCs as a result of its severe generation which ultimately results in pollution .
Haug (1993) based this model on several sets of data: Schulze (1961) with simulated food waste rewetted compost; Jeris & Regan (1973b) for a municipalsolidwaste with a high paper content; and Snell (1957) (cited in Haug (1993)) for ground garbage, on the variation of the composting rate with moisture content. According to these data sets, composting rate increases with increasing moisture up to a level, above which it starts to decrease. This decrease in activity is not due to any direct effect of moisture itself on the microbial community, but to the decrease in FAS caused by the increasing moisture levels. At sufficiently high moisture contents, FAS can go down to levels where oxygen storage and transport through the void spaces is reduced, thereby causing an oxygen limitation in the process. As such, F(MC) will account solely for the effect of moisture, and the rate reduction at high MC levels will be accounted for by the free air space correction factor, F(FAS) (section 2.2.5).
Abstract: Organic waste composes more than half of municipalsolidwaste (MSW) collec- ted in Brazil and most of it is not transformed into compost, creating serious environmental problems. This study aimed to: i) identify composting experiences of MSW developed in the state of São Paulo; ii) characterize the dynamics of the modalities identified; and iii) give an overview of MSW composting in the state. The characterization of the identified experiences allowed us to group them into six modalities within two management models: centralized and decentralized. Opportunities, challenges and demands have been observed for organizing efficient systems to collaborate with municipal management and produce quality compost for agriculture. The research has shown that organic waste brought into an efficient composting route has its recovery process interrupted, returning to landfills. This indicates that the National Policy of SolidWaste has not been sufficient to prioritize composting in cities in São Paulo state.
Abstract-In view of fast paced economic growth accompanied with rapid urbanisation, management of municipalsolidwaste has emerged as one of the major environmental challenges of present times. Indian cities are often characterized by poorly rendered services including waste management-the most ignored of all basic services, on account of various reasons. The situation worsens with increasing population pressure in urban centers. Bhubaneswar is one such city of Eastern India, having an inefficient, outdated and unscientific waste management system. This paper attempts to assess the existing state of municipalsolidwaste management (MSWM) in Bhubaneswar city with the aim of identifying the main obstacles to its efficiency and the prospects for improvisation of the solidwaste management system in the city. The existing solidwaste management system in the city is found to be highly inefficient. Primary and secondary collection, transportation and open dumping are the only activities practiced that too in a nontechnical manner. This paper systematically assesses the obstacles in the existing solidwaste management system in Bhubaneswar city and also tries to assess the potentials for its improvisation.
The organization of collection, transport and disposal of household waste in RS is under the direct jurisdiction of municipalities. Local municipalities are responsible for organizing effective waste management services within their administrative territories. Regarding the waste collection, local governments are responsible for the collection of municipalsolidwaste, which is performed by communal enterprises. Three types of companies can be defined through ownership: (1) communal enterprises owned by municipalities, (2) communal enterprises privatized by individuals and (3) private companies which perform waste management. In addition to the diversity in the ownership structure, a variety of services performed by companies has been identified, such as: the distribution of drinking water, sewage and wastewater management, maintenance of municipal hygiene, horticultural production, hazardous waste collection, recycling, maintenance and repair of motor vehicles, funeral related activities, cemetery maintenance, management and maintenance of the green market, chimney services and managing shelters for stray dogs. The total area covered by collection services varies from municipality to municipality. Moreover, the identification of the total collection area depends on the methodology used for analysis. For example, using the official statistics the coverage area of 66%, meaning that of the 376 438 tons of waste generated in 2012 only 250 223 tons were formally collected. However, according to other sources (e.g. interviews with experts and press releases) or other methodology, the collection coverage is even lower. Comparative analysis of data obtained by questionnaire on the number of households included in a regular system of waste
In Latin America and the Caribbean, the suitable processing of waste through the use of landfills is around 55%, while the local governments with municipalsolidwaste (MSW) management plans are around 20%. In Quito, for instance, approximately 2000 ton/day of solidwaste are collected, and disposed in El Inga Landfill. The objective of this study is evaluating the MSW management of Quito through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. For achieving this goal, the ISO 14040 methodology was followed and SimaPro 8.4 was used as analysis software. The functional unit used is 1 ton of MSW, while, the material of study was the waste generated in households, commercial sector, schools and markets; whose values were obtained by the public companies EMASEO-EP, EMGIRS-EP, as well as from the open-access data of the city. The results show that using of biogas from the landfill allows the maximum saving of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Therefore, the biogas plant is the process with less environmental impact. The compaction and transportation of MSW displayed a slightly higher impact comparing with the previous process, presenting the second-best environmental performance. On the other hand, the leachate treatment shows the greatest environmental impact according to the model, despite of the effluents does not exceed the permissible limits of the environmental Ecuadorian legislation. The researchers consider suitable the analysis of composting and anaerobic digestion techniques as complementary options to reduce this environmental impact, due to the high organic fraction in the analyzed waste.
India Is The Second Largest Nation In The World, With A Population Of 1.21 Billion, Accounting For Nearly 18% Of World‘s Human Population, But It Does Not Have Enough Resources Or Adequate Systems In Place To Treat Its Solid Wastes. Its Urban Population Grew At A Rate Of 31.8% During The Last Decade To 377 Million, Which Is Greater Than The Entire Population Of Us, The Third Largest Country In The World According To Population. India Is Facing A Sharp Contrast Between Its Increasing Urban Population And Available Services And Resources. SolidWaste Management (Swm) Is One Such Service Where India Has An Enormous Gap To Fill. Proper MunicipalSolidWaste (Msw) Disposal Systems To Address The Burgeoning Amount Of Wastes Are Absent. The Current Swm Services Are Inefficient, Incur Heavy Expenditure And Are So Low As To Be A Potential Threat To The Public Health And Environmental Quality. Improper SolidWaste Management Deteriorates Public Health, Causes Environmental Pollution, Accelerates Natural Resources Degradation, Causes Climate Change And Greatly Impacts The Quality Of Life Of Citizens With Increasing Population And Urbanization, MunicipalWaste Management In Our Cities Is Emerging As A Major Problem, Which Is Going To Get Even Worse In The Future. The Total Msw Generated In Urban India Is Estimated To Be 68.8 Million Tons Per Year (Tpy) Or 188,500 Tons Per Day (Tpd) Of Msw. This Will Lead To The Generation Of Even More Wastes With Serious Implications For Urban Sanitation And Health, The Environment And Global Warming And Climate Change. And Where Will This Waste Be Disposed, Considering That Large Cities In The Country Are Already Finding It Difficult To Locate The Land Needed To Dispose Their Waste? Of The Green House Gas (Ghg) Emissions (Which Include Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Etc
It is a common perception that improves solidwaste management means making waste collection and disposal systems more efficient, raising public awareness and enforcing solidwaste management laws (Obeng Peter, 2008). However, a precondition for all these factors are a well-planned management operating within a permitting institutional framework and capable of generating financial resources required to meet operating, maintenance, and investment costs (Antipolis, 2000). So in order to build an acceptable and satisfactory level of MSWM service, the responsible institution primarily need to have well organized management that functions within an adequate institutional arrangement, skilled manpower and financial resources, appropriate rule and regulation, short and long term strategy, and good cooperation with different stakeholders. Otherwise, if one or more of the above-mentioned resources and frameworks are missing, then MSWM remains unattainable Watson Adam, (2004) and cited by Solomon cheru, 2011). This is one key reason why MSWM of Gondar town is very poor in terms of status as well as spatial coverage. It is clear that for sound municipalsolidwaste management of any town, there should be well arranged and capable institution. The opening pace towards building of this type of institution is began from building clear, short and efficient organizational structure of responsible institution of the town’s solidwaste management. In line with these issues, Gondar town municipalsolidwaste management system is organized under a jurisdiction of municipality in one of the eight work process called Sanitation, and Beautification. The town Sanitation and Beautification is directly accountable to Gondar town municipality office (Meenakship , 2005). 3.13.1. Institutional Mandate of Sanitation and Beautification
The present paper assessed the municipalsolidwaste (MSW) gasification in a horizontal chamber, with post-combustion of the generated gases, in terms of the dioxins and furans emitted along with combustion gases. To this end, the MSW will be transported through a mobile grit gasifier coupled to a torsional combustion chamber. We will compare the results with literature data on the incineration process, to find out which operational features dif- ferentiate dioxin and furan emission by these two processes, incineration technology and gasification- combustion technologies.
The recycling of solidwaste is an excellent alternaive to provide the preservaion of natural resources, energy saving, reducion of the area demanding the landill, generaion of jobs and income, as well as public awareness for environmental issues. However, for the beter func- ioning, it is very important to implement a wide system of selecive collecion in the ciies, where recyclables MSW (municipalsolidwaste) be segregated in homes and collected by the municipal selecive collecion system. Despite being a good alternaive for the reducion of waste intended to landills, only a small porion (about 10%) of waste are reused or recycled in the ciies of Rio Grande do Sul, according to CEMPRE (Non-Governmental Organizaion of Business Commitment for Recycling) (Neto, 2001). One of the reasons for such low recycling is the poor packaging waste by populaion, due to the lack of informaion about selecive collecion.
Municipalsolidwaste incineration (MSWI) is used worldwide as a treatment technology in a waste management strategy. This technology reduces the volume of waste by approximately 90% and allows energy recovery in the form of heat and electricity (Abbas et al., 2001). However, this technology generates residues that are characterized as hazardous waste, such as fly ash and APC residues, and their safe disposal presents a major environmental challenge. In many countries, the disposal is done in specially designed landfills, after a stabilization process (Dias-Ferreira, 2005). In Denmark, around 100 000 t of fly ash and APC residues are produced annually but no specific statutory order regulates the management of these MSWI residues and the current policy is not to allow their temporary storage or landfilling in Denmark, treated or not treated. Therefore the current solution in Denmark is to export fly ash and APC residues to either Norway or Germany. In Norway, these residues are used for neutralization of acid waste and, in Germany, for backfilling salt mines (Astrup, 2008).