Abstract-In view of fast paced economic growth accompanied with rapid urbanisation, management of municipalsolidwaste has emerged as one of the major environmental challenges of present times. Indian cities are often characterized by poorly rendered services including wastemanagement-the most ignored of all basic services, on account of various reasons. The situation worsens with increasing population pressure in urban centers. Bhubaneswar is one such city of Eastern India, having an inefficient, outdated and unscientific wastemanagement system. This paper attempts to assess the existing state of municipalsolidwastemanagement (MSWM) in Bhubaneswar city with the aim of identifying the main obstacles to its efficiency and the prospects for improvisation of the solidwastemanagement system in the city. The existing solidwastemanagement system in the city is found to be highly inefficient. Primary and secondary collection, transportation and open dumping are the only activities practiced that too in a nontechnical manner. This paper systematically assesses the obstacles in the existing solidwastemanagement system in Bhubaneswar city and also tries to assess the potentials for its improvisation.
Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 6, n.5, p.28743-28757 may. 2020. ISSN 2525-8761 changes in perception, consumption, the separation of solidwaste at the generating source, participation in the construction of public policies for solidwaste and the recognition of the professional practice of recyclables material collectors in Paraíba municipalities. Therefore, Environmental Education is an indispensable tool for municipalsolidwastemanagement. In the absence of formation, there are obstacles to achieving the objectives set out in the National SolidWaste Policy and in the 2030 World Agenda.
The proper management of solidwaste is a major challenge for large urban centers in Brazil and Latin America recently. In developing countries, the health and environmental implications related to solidwastemanagement are urgent. MSW becomes an important issue for cities in emerging economies due to the high costs associated and to the lack of understanding over the factors that affect the different stages of MSW (Goulart Coelho and Lange, 2016). Over the past two decades, various actions and designs have been proposed for improving the treatment and disposal of municipalsolidwaste (Reichert and Mendes, 2014). The approval of Law 12.305 (Brasil, 2010) has supported a comprehensive guideline to lead Brazil towards a more sustainable wastemanagement system.
Municipalsolidwastemanagement (MSWM) has become an important issue for countries around the world. The challenges are particularly notable in developing and transitional countries reflected mainly in inappropriate management, underdeveloped technology, an unfavorable economic situation and the lack of environmental awareness, causing a tremendous environmental impact. Today, various models are applied to analyze solidwastemanagement systems from the regional to the municipal levels. Understanding the mechanisms and factors that currently drive the development of wastemanagement is a crucial step for moving forward and planning sustainable wastemanagement systems. The main objective of this paper is to apply the ISWM model, which is based on the Life-Cycle approach and follows the analytical framework methodology, to the research region. The trans- disciplinary research framework was empirically tested and subsequently applied in the region Republika Srpska. Using the benchmark methodology, based on environmental, institutional and economical sustainability, the wastemanagement is summarized in assessment profile. The results of the conducted analyses and the application of the developed model can be used further as a basis for the proposal of further strategic, political and managerial changes and support decision makers and stakeholders to handle waste in a cost-efficient and environmentally sound way.
Fast rising population level, explosion of economic growth, rapid urbanization and the ascend in community living standards are the detrimental factors responsible for the accelerated rate of municipalsolidwaste (MSW) generation in developing countries [1, 2]. Solidwastemanagement (SWM) appears to be a worldwide growing challenge in urban areas, especially in the rapidly rising towns and cities of the developing countries [3-6]. SWM reflects a foremost environmental and economic issue almost in all countries [7, 8].But municipalsolidwastemanagement (MSWM) is an extremely ignored spot mostly in urban cities of developing countries [9-15]. Due to progressive urbanization, the management of SW is appearing as a major threat to environment and public health in urban zones. But SWM is a vital environmental health service. It is a primary indispensable urban service. From the primitive era efforts have been made for safe disposal of SW. In those days habitations were scanty and land was abundant. With the rapidly growing urbanization a large number of people have started to flock in short spaces to hunt their livelihoods. As a result of the increase in density of population in the places of congregation, the waste generation per unit area has been also increased. Available land for waste disposal has been proportionately reduced. Disposal has been recognized as the most awkward functional element of SWM in developing countries. The factors causing the problems of SWM in developing countries are mainly technical and financial deficiencies [16, 17]. Other factors which hamper the effective SWM are institutional, economic and social ones .
It is a common perception that improves solidwastemanagement means making waste collection and disposal systems more efficient, raising public awareness and enforcing solidwastemanagement laws (Obeng Peter, 2008). However, a precondition for all these factors are a well-planned management operating within a permitting institutional framework and capable of generating financial resources required to meet operating, maintenance, and investment costs (Antipolis, 2000). So in order to build an acceptable and satisfactory level of MSWM service, the responsible institution primarily need to have well organized management that functions within an adequate institutional arrangement, skilled manpower and financial resources, appropriate rule and regulation, short and long term strategy, and good cooperation with different stakeholders. Otherwise, if one or more of the above-mentioned resources and frameworks are missing, then MSWM remains unattainable Watson Adam, (2004) and cited by Solomon cheru, 2011). This is one key reason why MSWM of Gondar town is very poor in terms of status as well as spatial coverage. It is clear that for sound municipalsolidwastemanagement of any town, there should be well arranged and capable institution. The opening pace towards building of this type of institution is began from building clear, short and efficient organizational structure of responsible institution of the town’s solidwastemanagement. In line with these issues, Gondar town municipalsolidwastemanagement system is organized under a jurisdiction of municipality in one of the eight work process called Sanitation, and Beautification. The town Sanitation and Beautification is directly accountable to Gondar town municipality office (Meenakship , 2005). 3.13.1. Institutional Mandate of Sanitation and Beautification
In addition, Law No. 96/12 of 5/08/96 of Decree No. 2005/0577/PM of 23/02/05, and Order No. 006/MINENP of 08/03/05 relating to environmental management, defines the duties/role of the NEMP associated with the protection of the atmosphere, marine and continental waters, soils, subsoil and human settlements; It regulates installations that pose dangers to the public; Stipulates modalities in conducting Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and categories of operations subject to EIA; It specifies air emission and waste water discharge standards; Sets conditions for issuing authorizations for a share and management of land for uses. It draws Conditions for refuse handling (collection, storage, recycling, etc.); Enterprises prescription relating to waste elimination by persons producing or treating waste; and Specifies the terms of reference for the supervision of “municipal dumps” by the competent authorities (PM, 2011). There exist related laws regarding MSWM in Cameroon, for the scope of this work, only this shall be considered tantamount to its broad coverage of MSWM policies.
According to Fehr (2006), centralized models for wastemanagement are successful in countries with a developed economy, but they struggle in developing countries. In substitution for the large plants that make up the centralized system, decentralization of composting has been taken up by various countries in the world. Systems in small and medium scales have been set up in India (ALI, 2004; ZURBRÜGG et al., 2004) and Bangladesh (ROUSE, 2004). This is where decentralized composting became a viable option after numerous cases of unsuccessful large-scale composting of mixed urban waste. Such programs have increasingly become popular in other countries. Platt, McSweeney and Davis (2014) showed 31 examples of community composting in the United States. In Canada, investment was made in major educational campaigns to encourage the po- pulation to adhere to selective collections, recycling and composting. There, now 61% of families carry out some form of composting (with waste from their kitchen or garden) (MUSTAPHA, 2013).
Solidwastemanagement is one of the most significant functions out by ULBs. However, the scarcity of suitable landfill sites is one of the constraints increasingly being faced by ULBs in the discharge of their functions. As a result, even several years after the issuance of the MSW Rules 2000, the state of MSW management systems in the country continues to raise serious public health concerns. Regional or inter- municipal solutions provide a viable option to redress this situation. Working together can be a practical and cost-effective way to discharge common tasks, share resources, and take advantage of the economies of scale that such arrangements would provide. This is applicable in the case of both large municipal bodies which experience scarcity of land resources, as well as smaller ones which may find technical and financial resources a challenge. Therefore, in public interest and with the aim of improving standards of public health and sanitation in the states, the Government of India has developed this Guidance Note on regional solidwastemanagement to facilitate the creation of appropriate strategies by the states and ULBs. This note is the result of work done over a period of about 18 months, and aims to support decision making towards the implementation of regional arrangements for safe treatment and disposal of MSW. Regional approaches to MSW management are common in several countries, and have recently gained momentum in a few states in India. Studies undertaken attest to the importance of two factors in the successful implementation of regional initiatives: (a) an explicit policy, supporting the adoption of regional approaches; and (b) a robust institutional framework, underpinning
The electricity sector in India supplies the world's 6th largest energy consumer, accounting for 3.4% of global energy consumption by more than 17% of global population. About 65.34% of the electricity consumed in India is generated by thermal, 21.53% by hydroelectric power plants, 2.70% by nuclear power plants and 10.42% by Renewable Energy Sources. More than 50% of India's commercial energy demand is met through the country's vast coal reserves. The country has also invested heavily in recent years in renewable energy utilization, especially wind energy. Four major economic and social drivers characterize the energy policy of India: a rapidly growing economy, increasing household incomes, limited domestic reserves of fossil fuels and the adverse impact on the environment of rapid development in urban and regional areas. Meanwhile, the rural areas are struggling with a chronically tight supply of electrical power. In order to properly manage the changing conditions, knowledge and estimation of the available resources and applying their relation with the population is of utmost importance. The paper deals with extraction of such information with the help of spatial techniques. This paper deals with estimation of the amount of solidwaste generated by a part of the Krishnagiri city using spatial techniques. Solidwastemanagement is one of the most essential functions in a country to achieve a sustainable development. In India, it has been one of the least prioritized functions during the last decades. The most common ways to treat waste in India today are open dumping and uncontrolled burning. These methods are causing severe environmental pollution and health problems. India is one of the world‟s largest emitter of methane gas from waste disposal. Since methane is a strong greenhouse gas, even small emissions have large impact on the climate. Like most municipalities in India, COK has experienced difficulties keeping in pace with last decades‟ industrialization, resulting in insufficient collection of municipalsolidwaste and over burdened dumpsites. Another consequence of the rapid industrialization is the increased demand for electricity. Today there is not enough installed capacity of power stations in Krishnagiri to meet this demand, leading to daily power cuts. This project will give an overview of the current waste used to generate electricity situation in Krishnagiri and analyze whether Hydro air Tectonics should build this combustion unit or if they should sell the generated RDF to industries. The result will be presented in a case study. The garbage has several nutrients and hence can be advantageously processed to produce many bye products and end products viz. gas, electricity and also organic manure which is highly suited for organic farming.
The enactment of the Federal Law 12305/2010, regulated by the Federal Decree 7404/2010 started the new SolidWaste National Policy (PNRS, in the Brazilian abbreviation) in Brazil, bringing a new challenge for solidwastemanagement in the country. The main changes regard the concept of shared responsibility, being implemented through the reverse logistics. Thus, the responsibility for the waste is shared among governments, private institutions and population (Brasil, 2010a). The first objective of the new PNRS is to reduce the amount of waste and to ensure appropriate final disposal of the materials that cannot be recycled or reused, promoting improvement of the population health and preservation of the environment. With this new regulation, municipal administrations, which are responsible for waste collection and proper destination in the cities, must terminate the open-air dumps operation by the end of 2014, and to implement selective collection and to license landfills in line with the legal and environmental requirements (Brasil, 2010a).
Municipalsolidwaste incineration (MSWI) is used worldwide as a treatment technology in a wastemanagement strategy. This technology reduces the volume of waste by approximately 90% and allows energy recovery in the form of heat and electricity (Abbas et al., 2001). However, this technology generates residues that are characterized as hazardous waste, such as fly ash and APC residues, and their safe disposal presents a major environmental challenge. In many countries, the disposal is done in specially designed landfills, after a stabilization process (Dias-Ferreira, 2005). In Denmark, around 100 000 t of fly ash and APC residues are produced annually but no specific statutory order regulates the management of these MSWI residues and the current policy is not to allow their temporary storage or landfilling in Denmark, treated or not treated. Therefore the current solution in Denmark is to export fly ash and APC residues to either Norway or Germany. In Norway, these residues are used for neutralization of acid waste and, in Germany, for backfilling salt mines (Astrup, 2008).
Among the plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium), nitrogen is of greatest concern because it is lacking in some materials. The other nutrients are usually not a limiting factor in municipalsolidwaste or yard trimmings feedstock. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen is considered critical in determining the rate of decomposition. Carbon to nitrogen ratios, however, can often be misleading. The ratio must be established on the basis of available carbon rather than total carbon. In general, an initial ratio of 30:1 carbon: nitrogen is considered ideal. Higher ratios tend to retard the process of decomposition, while ratios below 25:1 may result in odor problems. Typically, carbon to nitrogen ratios for yard trimmings range from 20 to 80:1, wood chips 400 to 700:1, manure 15 to 20:1, and municipalsolid wastes 40 to 100:1. As the composting process proceeds and carbon is lost to the atmosphere, this ratio narrows. Finished compost should have ratios of 15 to 20:1.
In the 1990s, Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) was a discipline aimed at supporting decision makers faced with making numerous and conflicting evaluations and deriving ways to come to a compromised solution in a transparent process. Caruso et al. (1993) developed a location-allocation MCDM model that also reflects environmental issues like resource and environmental impacts on the top of costs. Courcell et al. (1998) formulated a MCDM model to assess economic and environmental performance of municipal multi- material waste collection and sorting programmes applied to nine such programs in European municipalities. Fawcett et al. (1993) and Alidi (1998) applied a goal-programming model to aid in the integrated SWM, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for determining the weights and priorities for a given set of goals. Other types of MCDM models were later developed by Hokkanen and Salminen (1994, 1997), Karagiannidis and Moussiopoulos (1997), and Chung and Poon (1996). The involvement of multiple objectives in decision making within the ISWM process involves various trade-off problems among conflicting objectives (Haastrup et al., 1998). It is tied to the costs, environmental aspect like discharge coefficients, impact factors, and planning objectives, and may affect the simulation and optimization process and generated solutions in modeling stages (Huang et al., 2002; Fiorucci et al., 2003; Costi et al., 2004). In particular, they applied the compromise programming technique to harmonize the potential conflict during siting landfills, incinerators, and transfer stations in a growing metropolitan region. A goal programming model, which is a simplified form of multi-objective programming model, was also applied to assess the compatibility issues between recycling and incineration, considering economic efficiency and environmental protection goals achieved during trade-off (Chang and Wang, 1997b). The nonlinearity embedded in the modeling process was specifically handled by using a nonlinear goal programming model for urban solidwastemanagement (Sudhir et al., 1996; Chang and Chang, 1998a). The use of modeling-to-generate-alternatives (MGA) approach developed by Chang and Li (1997) aimed at generating solidwastemanagement alternatives with specific cost constraints. Specifically, Rubenstein-Montanto and Zandi (1999) applied a genetic- algorithm policy planning for the case of SWM.
Urban waste, or municipalsolidwaste (MSW), has led to environmental pollution and high costs to the municipality (MADU; KUEI, 2012). The World Bank (2012) expects MSW generation to attain 2.2 billion tons by 2025. When compared to the current estimate of MSW generation at 1.3 billion tons per year, many policies have suggested investments, especially in low income countries, where most of this waste is deposited in dumps and landfills. The improper management of MSW has severe environmental consequences, such as contaminants polluting water sources, as well as the emission of large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to global warming 1 (MADU; KUEI, 2012).
In relation to the integrated nature of management, the relevance of intermunicipal manage- ment as well as sanitation and USW consortium management should be mentioned. Many Brazilian municipalities have difficulties that are almost impossible to solve in isolation in terms of planning, regulating and promoting the proper operation of solidwaste handling services. It is, mainly due to the need to overcome these structural deficiencies, necessary to consider regional management through public consortiums, to try to achieve sustainable investments (Brasil, 2014:27). This model of interinstitutional cooperation, whose legal framework is provided by Law no. 11,107/2005, has advanced in recent years in terms of the number of formal consortiums, especially in the solidwaste sector (Britto, 2014). In fact, cooperative arrangements for the handling and final disposal of solidwaste already existed before the law, given that many municipalities do not possess the technical and financial resources necessary to implement the appropriate infrastructure for the final disposal of USW. Nevertheless, the law has strengthened these models, providing judicial and institutional support to intermunicipal cooperation. According to Britto (2014), the universe of solidwaste consortiums is vast, with there being a total of roughly 200 very heterogeneous consortiums. There are consortiums formed exclusively to share a sanitary landfill; there are consortiums that have broader activities in the management of solidwaste; there are consortiums involved in other sectors of basic sanitation; and there are consortiums with broad objectives in terms of regional and multipurpose development that incorporate part of the functionality associated with solidwastemanagement. According to this author, the southeastern region is the one that presents the largest number of institutionalized consortiums in operation. The cooperative model offers a series of advantages for municipal USW management, such as greater control over its treatment and final disposal; greater reuse potential, increased collection capacity, triage and recycling; incentives for the organization of waste collectors in cooperatives which in turn offer them improved working and living conditions as a result (Moraes, 2012). However, there are various impediments to the implementation of public solidwaste consor- tiums and their timely functioning, such as a lack of educated and trained professionals (Milanez et al., 2012), a municipal lack of technical and administrative support, and instability caused by the cycles of municipal government (Britto, 2016). Overall, integrated USW management, even though it represents a widely recognized and institutionally desirable objective, still faces many challenges.
Gerenciar os resíduos de forma integrada é articular ação normativa, operacional, financeira e de planejamento que uma administração municipal desenvolve, apoiada em critérios sanitários, ambientais e econômicos, para coletar, tratar e dispor o lixo de uma cidade, ou seja: é acompanhar de forma criteriosa todo o ciclo dos resíduos, da geração à disposição final ("do berço ao túmulo"), empregando as técnicas e tecnologias mais compatíveis com a realidade local.
In Latin America and the Caribbean, the suitable processing of waste through the use of landfills is around 55%, while the local governments with municipalsolidwaste (MSW) management plans are around 20%. In Quito, for instance, approximately 2000 ton/day of solidwaste are collected, and disposed in El Inga Landfill. The objective of this study is evaluating the MSW management of Quito through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. For achieving this goal, the ISO 14040 methodology was followed and SimaPro 8.4 was used as analysis software. The functional unit used is 1 ton of MSW, while, the material of study was the waste generated in households, commercial sector, schools and markets; whose values were obtained by the public companies EMASEO-EP, EMGIRS-EP, as well as from the open-access data of the city. The results show that using of biogas from the landfill allows the maximum saving of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Therefore, the biogas plant is the process with less environmental impact. The compaction and transportation of MSW displayed a slightly higher impact comparing with the previous process, presenting the second-best environmental performance. On the other hand, the leachate treatment shows the greatest environmental impact according to the model, despite of the effluents does not exceed the permissible limits of the environmental Ecuadorian legislation. The researchers consider suitable the analysis of composting and anaerobic digestion techniques as complementary options to reduce this environmental impact, due to the high organic fraction in the analyzed waste.
PCDD/PCDF emissions from incineration proc- esses were first detected in 1977 (Olie et al., 1977). Since then, scientists have assessed this type of emission by an array of thermal processes that also involve integrated gasification and combustion proc- esses (Huang and Buekens, 1996). The release of dioxins, furans, and other pollutants during waste incineration accounts for its environmentally nega- tive reputation (Cunliffe and Williams, 2009). Once PCDDs and PCDFs enter the atmosphere, they are subject to chemical, physical, and biological trans- formations, ultimately contaminating the soil, water bodies, and sediments (Martens et al., 1998).
It was also developed MDS for alternatives that make up the indicators, which made it possible to observe the similarity of 93% between alternatives 1 (knowledge of the dangerousness of the WHS), 3 (with waste contamination causes: consequence WHS from mishandling), 4 (form of waste segregation practiced in the health units) and 7 (type of treatment and final disposal data to WHS). It is important to note that the alternative 8 (training that employees are subjected) is widely dispersed the similarity of other alternative bands. This does not mean that such an alternative is a negative point for the overall goal but it got significant judgment of experts before the other alternatives, or such alternative stood out from others.