25. Seria impossível, neste relato, enfrentar todos os aspectos da atividade didática do Philadelphia MuseumofArt. Entretanto, na documentação que Danielle Rice, diretora da “Division of Education”, me forneceu gentilmente, – da qual fazem parte, também, alguns impressos de uso interno do seu Departamento -, pude contar nada menos do que 21 categorias diferentes de iniciativas pedagógicas, que aqui enumero: 1. “A is for Art” (CD-R interativo com atividades baseadas em 33 obras do museu); 2. “Project ArtLine and Distance Learning Projects” (utilização das linhas telefônicas digitais ISDN para videoconferências, que ligam o museu com escolas de localidades remotas ou de outros estados americanos, com a possibilidade de interação em tempo real entre os educadores do museu e os estudantes); 3. “Experiment with Virtual Tours” (realização de um protótipo de visita virtual ao museu, destinado ao público das bibliotecas, dos aeroportos, das estações ferroviárias, etc.); 4. “Gallery Lessons for School Children”; 5. “Gallery Lessons for Preschool Children”; 6. “Summer Tours”; 7. “In-Service Training for Teachers”; 8. “Children’s Art Classes”; 9. “Family Programs”; 10. “Outreach Programs” (atividades realizadas fora do museu, dirigidas a categorias impossibilitadas, em geral, de visitar o museu – idosos e deficientes físicos em hospitais ou asilos, detentos em prisões de low-security, entre outras); 11. “College Programs”; 12. “Programs for Audiences with Special Needs” (laboratórios mensais para idosos, pessoas con incapacidades mentais ou de desenvolvimento, doentes de Aids); 13. “Form in Art” (aulas em ateliê ou nas salas do museu para cegos ou pessoas com problemas de vista); 14. “Art History Courses and Workshops”; 15. “Gallery Lectures (Spotlight Talks)”; 16. “Tours for Adults Visitors”; 17. “”Foreign Language Tours”; 18. “Guest Lectures and Symposia”; 19. “Concerts” (o programa dos concertos são concebidos para estabelecer relações temáticas ou históricas com as exposições temporárias em andamento no museu ou com aspectos do acervo); 20. “Performances” (dança, poesia, teatro, artes performáticas); 21. “Films” (entre outros, filmes sobre arte e artistas e filmes cujos temas tenham uma relação com aspectos do acervo ou com as exposições temporárias em andamento).
A. Maciel, C.F.B. Haddad, J.C. Costa, M. Sturaro, Swati Patel, and two anonymous reviewers provided comments, sug- gestions, criticism, and encouragement to publish these ideas. I acknowledge that reviewers do not agree with all ideas pre- sented here, and what is published is my sole responsibility. I thank Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior/Fulbrigth Comission/American Museumof Natural History (CAPES/Fulbright/AMNH, process BEX 2806/09-6) for a graduate fellowship. Part of this work was done while a re- search associate in the Laboratório de Herpetologia, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Brazil. I thank T.C.S. Avila-Pires and A.L.C. Prudente for providing me with working space there.
I would like to thank very much Mark Norell and Carl Mehling (Americam Museumof Natural History), Bill Simpson (Field Museumof Natural History), Scott Willians (Buerpee Museumof Natu- ral History) and David Bohaska (National Museumof Natural History) for allowing the access to Paleon- tological Collection. I thanks to my advisor Hussam Zaher (Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo) for providing important comments and guidance in my research and I thanks to Wellton Araújo Pinto (Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo) for reviewing the English language. This study was funded by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Processo: 2012/09370-2).
components: paper support, image forming materi- als, and gelatin as a binder. he most biosusceptible photographic materials are the gelatin and the paper, because they are organic and hygroscopic (Lourenço and Sampaio, 2009). Some external “materials”, such as dust, grease from ingerprints and glues, are im- portant factors in encouraging microbial develop- ment on photographs (Eaton, 1985). Many ilamen- tous fungi exhibit cellulolytic and proteolytic activ- ity and they are capable of degrading the paper sup- port and gelatin binder of photographs. In the case presented here, it can be concluded that infestation of photographs occurred ater the lood in Turkey. he microfungi identiied on the photographic sur- faces were the causative agents of biodeterioration. According to Borego et al. (2010), the main cause of the biodeterioration of the photograph collec- tions in the Photographic Library of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and in the Histori- cal Archive of the Museum La Plata were the yeasts and ilamentous fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium genera.
Medieval glasses can be associated to different forms such as goblets, beaker shaped vessels, and bowls and what seem to be fragments of bottles Decorations vary from concentric lines around the object’s body to small dots and different colours The origin of these objects is yet under discussion since we have no information about the production of glass in medieval Santarém However the resemblance of such glasses with Lisbon production may in fact indicate the acquisition in Portugal’s capital Other objects are similar to European productions
uranium oxides have been used for colouring glass and as colouring agents in ceramic glazes since the 19th century. In spite of Klaproth who discovered the uranium element and other authors who mentioned its role as a colouring agent for glass objects, the history of uranium in glass is not very clear. As reported by Lole, the earliest reference appears to date from 1817 in the book of C. S. Gilbert, ‘‘An Historical Survey of The Country of Cornwall’’, where it is written that uranium oxides impart bright colour to glass . Paolo Brenni states that due to secrecy maintained by the glass manufacturers there is no reliable literature that can be referred to . Franz Anton Riedel (1786e1844) began the production of uranium glass in the 1830s and Josef Riedel (1816e1894) developed two types of coloured glass named by him as Annagelb, (yellow) and Annagru¨n (green), in honour of his wife Anna. About the same time similar uranium glasses were produced in England and in France [3e7] . Uranium glass continued to be used in a great variety of objects.
This article has as its source texts of two important authors of Brazilian museological thinking: José Reginaldo Gonçalves in "Resonance, Materiality and Subjectivity: Cultures as Patrimony" (2005) and Ulpiano Toledo Bezerra de Menezes with his "The museum and awareness of city "(2003). I intend to work from these two dies, revealing their concepts and definitions in order to illuminate the meanings of patrimony, city and city museum. Thus, I seek crisscrossing paths proposed by the authors, covering the triad "City-Patrimony-Museum", based on the analysis and application of concepts such as city-artifact, resonance, materiality and subjectivity.
Not only had Australian Perspecta exposed the biases that impeded the recognition of Western Desert acrylic painting, it also provided a justification for including these canvases in the contemporary art arena. Despite efforts to establish the art credentials of Western Desert panting, the criterion of cultural authenticity continued to overshadow these early endeavours. The term ground painting , used to describe the dot-paintings of Papunya, was meant to provoke comparisons with the traditional (ceremonial) ground artof the Western Desert region. Thus, although the paintings were not themselves made from traditional materials, they at least purportedly followed an established style and were derived from a traditional (ritual) art form. For the time being, the case for cultural compatibility would allow art curators to sidestep the issue of cultural authenticity. This followed the logic that the new was at one with the traditional:
art a history , in Peter Sutton ed. , Dreamings: the artof Aboriginal Australia, New York: Viking, in association with The Asia Society Galleries, 1988, 143-179; Wally Caruana, Black art on white walls? Institutional responses to Indigenous Australian art , in The Oxford companion to Aboriginal art and culture, eds Sylvia Kleinert and Margo Neale, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 2000, 454-461; Howard Morphy, Seeing Aboriginal art in the gallery , Humanities Research, 8:1,, 2001, 37- , essentially reproduced as Placing Indigenous art in the gallery , in Becoming art: exploring cross-cultural categories. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, Susan Lowish, Writing/Righting a history of Australian Aboriginal art , Humanities Research, 15, 2, 2009, 133-151; Ben Thomas, Daryl Lindsay and the appreciation of indigenous art at the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne in the s No mere collection of interesting curiosities , Journal ofArt Historiography, 4, June 2011, 32pp; Ian McLean, How Aboriginal art conquered the art world , in How Aborigines invented the idea of contemporary art, ed. Ian McLean, Sydney: Power Publications with the Institute of Modern Art (Brisbane), 2011, 26ff; Caroline Jordan,
The natural hosts for SfPV infection are cottontail rabbits of genus Sylvilagus although pre- cise knowledge of the taxonomic range of SfPV host species is not well known. We confirm the presence of SfPV1 in three partially sympatric species of Sylvilagus, two of which (S. floridanus and S. audubonii) had previously been described as SfPV1 hosts (Fig 4). SfPV1 infection in the mountain cottontail rabbit (S. nuttallii) has not been recognized previously. All three species of Sylvilagus are closely related . Previous laboratory infection studies  have shown that SfPV can infect other leporids, so it is unsurprising that an additional Sylvilagus species should be susceptible in the wild. Our results support the hypothesis that SfPV1 is not strictly associ- ated with Sylvilagus floridanus, and provide evidence for natural infection of two additional Sylvilagus species. Prevalence rates did not differ significantly in the three positive species. However, we advise caution in interpreting these data, as representation of most negative speci- mens was low for meaningful comparison, and sampling, at least of S. floridanus, was biased. All recent infected S. floridanus (N = 4) were deliberately collected because they were symp- tomatic, and we assume that interesting “warty rabbits” were more likely to be retained for the KU collection than an ordinary rabbit. On the other hand, many specimens with inconspicuous growths would not have been retained for the collection. However, while general prevalence data may be biased, there is no reason to have sampled lesion-positive individuals more fre- quently in one species than in others. This suggests that prevalence rates of symptomatic indi- viduals in Sylvilagus and S. floridanus are indeed significantly greater than in Lepus. All specimens were inspected visually and palpated. It is possible, though examination of speci- mens was very thorough, that small lesions were missed when obscured by fur. A single (missed) finding among species with less than 50 individuals might change the conclusions, though obviously the probability of false negatives is, a priori, no lower in species with a large sample size than a smaller one. A systematic screening of asymptomatic specimens, or better from freshly sampled wild individuals, might obtain a better estimate of SfPV prevalence, though it is beyond the scope of this study.
Beragam cara untuk mendidik dan memperluas wawasan seseorang. Salah satu metode yang menyenangkan adalah dengan mengunjungi museum. Di museum seseorang dapat mempelajari bahkan ikut merasakan pengetahuan melalui cara-cara yang unik dan efektif. Secara sederhana museum dapat dijabarkan sebagai sebuah tempat penyimpanan berbagai bentuk ‘harta karun’ manusia baik yang dapat dipegang maupun tidak, seperti sejarah, kenangan, kebudayaan, mimpi, dan harapan yang tidak ternilai harganya. Namun secara resmi pengertian museum menurut The International Council of Museums (ICOM) adalah ‘A non-profit making, permanent institution, in the service of society and its development, and opent to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for the purpose of study, education and enjoyment, material evidence of man and his environment’ dan menurut The Museums Association (United Kingdom) ‘A museum is an institution which collects, documents, preserves, exhibits and interprets material evidence and associated information for the public benefit’ (Ambrose & Paine, 1993:8). Dari beberapa pengertian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa museum bukanlah tempat penyimpanan benda-benda kuno atau antik semata, melainkan juga sebagai tempat penelitian, pembelajaran, dan konservasi dari benda-benda tersebut. Museum harus terbuka bagi masyarakat dan bermanfaat bagi masyarakat umum.
Sometimes overly long descriptions are given or the visit takes too long becoming a sort of academic lecture. Instead, the role of guides is to entertain while educating (edutainment), as showed in Figure 1. Another behavioural failing is related to the objects used to point out details on the coaches, such as small flags, plastic bottles, rolled- up magazines, and so forth. The use of such objects is neither aesthetic nor appropriate for either the museum or the professional guide and certainly decreases the global perception of the tour.
DNA quality is a key limiting aspect of the success of PCR amplification reactions. Long-term preservation of biological samples may cause DNA shearing and DNA inter-strand cross- linking, which consequently result in DNA degradation. DNA shearing is the break-down of DNA into small fragments, which might be introduced by poor storage conditions such as exposure to UV radiation, high temperature, pH, and salinity . Consequently, the probability of obtaining long (i.e. .600 bp) PCR amplicons is much lower for museum specimens or processed biological materials such as food products or natural health products. Short mini-barcodes have been proposed as a cost- effective solution for gaining DNA sequence information in cases where genetic information from samples with degraded DNA is desired [4,5]. For example, integrative taxonomic studies may benefit greatly from the availability of mini-barcode sequence data in reference panels that include old and historically important specimens, such as those from the original type series. Such data potentially will allow for more confident applications of established names, especially in cases where species names have been considered synonymous because they are based on a cryptic stage of the life cycle. This may reduce the number of nominadubia
Within the realm of bryology, one of the most prolific botanists in describing new species was Karl Johan August Müller (1818-1899), from Halle, Germany (cited as Müller Hallensis). During his active years, he described many new species, probably more than any other bryologist ever. As an example, Müller (1898) described 117 new species, most from a single mountain in Brazil (Serra do Itatiaia). Unfor- tunately, in 1943, the Berlin Herbarium (the repository of his collections) was bombed and destroyed by fire (Merrill 1943; Hiepko 1987), a catastrophe of major proportions for the field of botany. As a consequence, many types, including some that were on loan from other herbaria and all types of Müller names housed there (many from Brazil), were lost. Since then, locating possible duplicates in other herbaria has been a major challenge and a taxonomic impediment. Many taxonomic works often have to deal with lost Müller types (e.g., Pursell 2007; Reese 1993).
The present text represents an attempt to understand the existing theories in the field of the art applied to the education and its main proposals. To the effort to articulate the field of the art with the one of the education the name of Arte-Education has been given. Expression is prevented Artistic Education to move away theoretical confusions to it: many times in its name are defended activities where it does not have the lesser respect to the artistic methods, because supposedly it searches educative and not it aesthetic. For Arte-Education the education ofart in its double aspect of artistic education and aesthetic education is understood. It is understood on artistic education when making art, the art object production, and for aesthetic education the appreciation and enjoyment ofart.
Since Macro mode, compared to Wide, compresses the ﬁ eld of view, a higher number of scans are needed, given the same surveyed area. But such increase of data and time to process is justiﬁ ed in case exactness of measurement is expected for scientiﬁ c purposes, as for the recording of the present condition of heritage objects directed to examine geometric and decorative features. Level of detail achievable in Wide mode, instead, serves better communication purposes, if models will have to be visioned and explored on-line. Wide distance is preferable also because better results are obtained, compared to Macro, in undercut’s views, hollowed regions which can be difﬁ cult to rebuild: in Macro, size and depth of ﬁ eld are almost half than Wide (see Table 3), often causing lack of coincidental visibility for both sensors (emitter and receiver) on the same area of the object (Figure 7).