participante de design flexível nas master classes, ensaios e recitais; 3) do estudo de documentos escritos pelos sujeitos da pesquisa. A partir da pesquisa discográfica com dezasseis guitarristas- compositores, Roland Dyens e Dusan Bogdanovic tornaram-se o eixo principal desta investigação. Examino como os mesmos articulam as formas do music-making em situações presenciais, comparando-as com os discos gravados. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada de outubro de 2012 a outubro de 2013 em França, Espanha, Liechtenstein e Sérvia. A coleta de dados ocorreu nos Festivais de Colmar, Belgrado, Sevilha e Vaduz. A observação de recitais ocorreu em Paris, Strasbourg e Colmar. Para a análise dos dados me apoio nos modos de ‘composição- performance’ de Finnegan (1989) e na tipologia de music-making de Elliot (1995). Palavras-chave: music-making; guitarrista-compositor; discos; festivais
In primary education, the lack of dedicated composition activity often reveals ingrained perceptions that relate to developmental stages in young children (e.g. Kratus, 1989). A study by Barrett (1996) investigated 137 compositions by children aged 6-12 and suggests that various structural strategies are employed, such as repetition, sequences, inversion and achievement of closure, even at an early age. On the other hand, many young children will find such basic compositional elements quite taxing, particularly those with little prior musical training. In these cases, music technology may provide a tool for facilitating such strategies; yet, while classroom applications using technology to compose or, less so, to improvise, at the secondary level of education (approximately 11-16) or the final Grades of Primary school (approximately 10-12) are well-documented in the literature (Major, 2007; Gall and Breeze, 2008), when it comes to creative musicmaking with younger ages (e.g. 7-8 year olds) similar classroom activities are much less common.
El Sistema, a music education programme with social upliftment as its core belief, began in Venezuela under the directions of Jose Antonio Abreu in the year 1975. It acquired Governmental support in 1977 when it became a youth development program. Since then, this pedagogic framework has spread across various countries. Not only does it allow the children to immerse into the process of makingmusic in an ensemble, it also opens up interaction opportunities between the educators, patrons and parents (Witkowski 2015). Geoffrey Baker gives an insight into the autocratic and competitive elements of the El Sistema Programme (Baker 2014).
Abstract: By focusing on the musical styles known as bossa nova and afrobeat, I ask: Given that glo- balisation/capitalism promotes exchange, borrowing, and imitation, can we make sense of ‘authen- ticity’? Can we speak of an authentically Brazilian or Nigerian music? If today ‘authenticity’ makes little sense, why is talk about ‘authenticity’ so pervasive? If we expose ‘authenticity’ as reiication, do we still need this term? What, then, may ‘authenticity’ mean? How can we restrict powerful musical cultures without limiting localities to replicating the past? How can cultures take up each others’ vitality without losing their particularity? Can we imagine a world stage inviting all music? I explore the astonishing but mostly uncharted lows between and within musical traditions. At the same time, I seek to ground those lows in locales. Moving somewhat against the grain of contemporary social theory, I retrieve the need for ‘reiication’ and ‘authenticity’. If we value a diverse world, we may wish to balance capitalism’s dominant lows with the desire to situate music-making in speciic locales.
ABRSM believes that effective assessment should have positive impact on progression; that its musical assessments should impact positively on musical progression. An effective musical assessment needs to measure the right things, and assessment criteria based on the essential ingredients of music-making ensure this. The ABRSM marking criteria derive from the fundamental elements of musical playing and singing – pitch, time, tone, shape and performance – eternal verities of music-making which existed long before ABRSM. As a consequence, the ABRSM marking criteria are applied to all instruments and singing, across all graded levels. They are a non- instrument specific, musical outcome-based means of assessment, used summatively by examiners to achieve accuracy and consistency in their marking. The criteria clearly show the difference between various attainment levels, so can equally well be used in a formative context by teachers and learners. Assessment needs to be meaningful for it to motivate learners. It needs to show insight and give signposts towards the next stage of learning. The ABRSM criteria encourage examiners to think across the full range of music-making ingredients, and thereby provide a diagnostic evaluation of relative strengths and weaknesses across the core skills assessed through the exam. There’s a virtuous circle linking progression and assessment, via attainment and motivation. As a learner progresses, there’s a sense of attainment. This attainment is recognised and formalised through an effective summative assessment, which in turn goes on to provide motivation, inspiration and guidance for the next stage of learning and progression - and so the circle continues.
Abstract: Street performance has a long history (the blind singers on the Balkan Peninsula, for example) and the history of music contains many articles, books and studies about historical music performances in open-air public places, be it street cries, barrel organ players or broadside ballads singers (Grochowski 2010, Tyllner 2001, Barański 1986 and others). While there exist some case studies about present-day music in open spaces (e.g. Tyllner 2001), busking (street musicmaking) is a field with a lot of space for further research to conduct as it takes a different form in different cities. Differences come from a great variety of factors: weather, legal rules, musical education, character of public space, tourism, cultural and artistic potential of urban areas. The purpose of this case study is to compare these notions in several selected cities.
Patterning around three musical worlds is most visible in the dendrogram in (Fig 2). The final “end” communities are in the dark green cells. Progressive modularity clustering moves from the left to right of the dendrogram. Furthest on the left, the first-order breakdown sepa- rates out three main categories of popular music—Rock, Hip-Hop, and Niche genres. As we move to the right, the Rock world breaks down to its “Subcultural” varieties, which we call “Countercultural,” “Mainstream,” and “Punk Offshoots,” and then finer categories therein. The Hip-Hop world, dominated by Rap, Hip-Hop, and R&B, breaks down no further into sta- tistically significant communities. They comprise both a major musical world and an “end” community—a fact of great significance, as we will see. The “Niche Genres” world represents a variety of less popular (as defined by the frequency with which they are selected by musicians) genres and communities. It is essentially a category encompassing musics not strongly tied to the two dominant poles of Rock and Hip-Hop. These include most notably Electronic music genres, Dark or “Extreme” Metal, and various underground and World Music genres, which emerge and further subdivide as we move to the right of the chart. The Genre-Community membership table demonstrates the considerable face validity of this clustering technique, though the variability in how sub-divided the different worlds are is an intriguing fact that we examine in more detail, below.
Indian music has a very long, unbroken tradition and is an accumulated heritage of centuries. Music in India was popular among all the sections of society and intertwined in life and culture from birth to death. Indian music was formed with the evolution of ancient religious and secular music. The Indian culture absorbed all the best that was brought by other nations in the process of historical development. The Indian music is quite diverse: there are classical instrumental and vocal works and traditional singing of sacred hymns, folk songs and music of different nations. In contrast to the music scholarship, where typically image is a certain regularity, discipline and harmony, beauty of the traditional Indian music in the free improvisation, which is used by the performer. Listening carefully of this music, the man in a new world, a different sounds and explore a different idea of music for himself. The aim of the Indian music, unlike European musical culture define, explore, create and move depths to people's moods. And the Indian instruments is a miracle, that could reflect all these philosophical and aesthetic views. Along with the vocal art, this musical tradition has rich variety of melodic and rhythmic instruments.
music, and was acquainted with all kinds of persons and institutions connected to music that might satisfy his interest in marginal European cultures. His history speaks of composers and performers, writers on music, instruments and their makers, music publishers and other institutions for music education and trading, in all places he could be informed about. Burney is progressive, an admirer of the Enlightenment, believing that his epoch is the summit of European civilisation. But music is not yet considered a high achievement of civilisation. He deines music as “An innocent luxury, unnecessary, indeed, to our existence, but a great improvement and gratiication of the sense of hearing. It consists at present, of Melody, Consonance, and Dissonance” (Burney 1776: xiii)
The comparison between two conditions and the cause/effect relationship between two variables (playing along with recorded music and mental representation) were strong reasons to develop an experimental design. This technique would allow more easily the immediate comparison between different conditions, as well as the isolation of those variables (Fiske, 1992:83). The design was that described by Campbell and Stanley (1963:25-26) as a ‘single natural package’ (i.e. a post-test-only, control group design), which involved a treatment phase (different for both conditions) and a post-test phase (identical for both groups). For the purposes of clarity and practicality (e.g. Taylor, 1989), the hypothesis was not formulated in a null form. Due to the positive expectation in the theoretical discussion, the general hypothesis anticipated that subjects in the audience-performing group would reveal a greater level of acquisition and organisation of mental representation of music than subjects from the audience-listening group.
Although Australia is regarded as a young country, it has a long and rich Indigenous history. There are over 100 recognised Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander groups each with their own languages, traditions and cultures. The Northern Territory is a region of Australia unique for its large geographic area, high Indigenous population and sparsely populated communities. Due to these factors, some schools in the area are difficult to access and may have students whose first language is not English. For a population of around 240,000, the Northern Territory has the highest percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia comprising approximately forty per cent of the popu- lation (MISON, 2015, p.10). There have been ongoing issues with equity and accessibility especially for students in regional and remote areas. There is also an overriding issue of identity and belonging. This is often expressed through the types of music learnt and played in local communities and educational institutions. What music is accepted can also reflect which cultures are dominant in society.
During our daily work, there have been always factors that are potentially stressful, such as time, our boss, work efficiency, amongst many more other factors. One might consider that music can be a way to combat this stress, helping the person to relax in a situation such as a meeting. It was important to realize that there are basically two types of personalities regarding the music factor. From the results,we can see that there are people who hear their favorite music and become relaxed, so that music works as a tranquilizer. It can also work as a stimulant, making the person more lively and can constitute an extra supplement of energy in some situations. Each cluster contains a list of music (style of music) that produced different effects on the participants, from feeling good while hearing the music to general discomfort. We may think that a cluster is comparable to the type of music lists that currently exist, such as the music list which encourages sport or study, amongst so many others. An important aspect observed is that for people who had musical training, the effect of music is not so obvious. This might be due to the fact that they have already heard numerous different styles of music and the brain has already been trained to appreciate or ignore some styles of music.
proposed a taxonomic system for classifying the various forms of amusias (i.e. tone-deafness), grouping them according to four diferent deicits: production deicits, perceptual deicits, memory deicits, and symbolic ma- nipulation deicits (either music reading or writing). All of these classiications consider amusias as a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders of music process- ing that afect either one or more components of musi- cal cognitive processing. herefore, amusias can afect the performance and perception of melodies or their components (pitch, loudness, timbre, duration, and harmony) as well as symbolic systems of musical read- ing and writing.
For two of these conceptual levels (skills and learning contexts; roles of cultural production in the relation to the self, the audience and society), there will be no real difficulty in making the adaptations and adjustments needed for other areas of cultural production. Indeed, any area of cultural production (intellectual or artistic) involves learning processes which may be formalized to a greater or lesser degree. This may also be associated with different learning contexts, together with different degrees of institutionalization and different types of accreditation. On the individual level, varying levels of investment and daily involvement in pursuit of the practices will be found. It is easy to conceive of a similar approach to the group of dimensions for the roles of cultural production in the relation to the self, with audiences and in society, considering here too the essence of the analytical dimensions proposed in relation to music: elements of gratification relating to audiences (peers, the consumer audience in the strict sense, the institutional audience and the specialist critics), and also representations concerning the social roles of the practices.
A base de dados Music OFM Portugal pretende apresentar em linha um índice de músicos que contribuíram significativamente para a atividade musical na Província Portuguesa da Ordem dos Frades Menores, com o correspondente espólio musical. Os limites cronológicos são propositadamente extensos, desde 1200 até ao presente, para registo de composições musicais contemporâneas. Este projeto também pretende disponibilizar aos investigadores imagens de manuscritos musicais e arquivos áudio, quando existentes ou disponíveis. Prevê-se alargar esta base de dados ao espaço luso-brasileiro durante a era colonial. Esta comunicação apresentará os principais objetivos deste projeto, o conteúdo da base de dados e respectivas formas de acesso. Pretende-se, num futuro próximo, que haja uma versão em inglês, permitindo assim alcance internacional. Este projeto é o resultado de um acordo de colaboração entre a Ordem dos Frades Menores de Portugal (OFM) e o Centro de Estudos de Sociologia e Estética Musical (CESEM) da Universidade Nova de Lisboa.
these dimensions are empirically intertwined, analytically they are not reducible to each other. In other words, the explanation of social phenomena reflects aspects of these three dimensions. As we shift our analytical lenses to the immediate interaction among the field’s actors, I borrow Goffman’s contribution on how a particular interaction order is established (Goffman, 1967; Rawls, 1989). The interaction order mediates the overall social structure and the individuals’ action, and regulates the games the individuals play. Although we may understand the interaction order as an institutional aspect that influences the individuals’ behavior, it is not necessarily subordinated to the overall institutional structure in a field. In our example of the music festivals, the real- time reaction from the audience could possibly not be aligned with the official critics or the host media’s opinion. As a result, the interaction order emerges as a powerful autonomous explanatory concept in the explanation of institutional change in organizational fields.
In some cases, the analysis also testifies to the practice of basing narratives on sales figures or critical acclaim (mainly exhibitions 2, 8, and 9) in an approach that L EONARD (2007) also reports as present in the UK. For this author, these narratives, based on a rationale of quantification that adopts sales figures and critical appreciation as points of reference, mostly address the biographical details of well-known musicians through recourse to iconic exhibits. These narratives are clearly shaped by the objective of displaying attractive exhibits, in order to increase audience numbers and therefore justify the museum’s cultural and financial management. Nevertheless, I believe that the motives supporting this approach in Portugal clearly diverge from those reported by Leonard. In a matter of fact, whilst it might be true that, hand in hand with the international situation, Portuguese museums are increasingly pushed to commercialize their exhibitions, seeking to achieve prominence and sustainability in the ‘city’s symbolic economy’ (P RIOR 2011, 513), I did not find that these museums expressly engaged with the production of exhibitions on music themes so as to boost their visitor numbers. In fact, most of the exhibitions surveyed came about rather as a matter of circumstance within a context of financial constraints. The analysis also made clear the fact that these museums having received no significant support and/or income has made it simply impossible for them to follow more recent strategies. Instead, at a time when a dramatic slump in turnover was consistently constraining the cultural sector, the museums attempted to take advantage of proposals from outside their own boundaries and welcomed projects covering a range of topics on music.
Finucane i współpracownicy (Finucane, Slovic, Hibbard, Peters, Mertz, Macgre- gor, 2002) wyróżniają dwa komponenty zdolności do podejmowania decyzji (decision making competence): zrozumienie (comprehension) i spójność (consistency). Zrozu- mienie odnosi się do umiejętności prawidłowej interpretacji dokumentów. Spraw- dzano ją zadając wiele pytań wymagających interpretacji informacji zawartych w ta- beli. Zdolność do przypisywania spójnych (niezależnych od sposobu przedstawienia opcji) wag poszczególnym alternatywom decyduje o powtarzalności korzystnych wy- borów. Finucane i współpracownicy wykorzystali zmodyfikowaną wersję procedury stosowanej przez Hsee (1996). Osoby badane dokonywały oceny atrakcyjności dwóch ubezpieczeń opisanych na dwóch atrybutach (przykładowo w zadaniu 1: odsetek osób, które są zadowolone z usług lekarza oraz czas oczekiwania na wizytę). Oceny tej dokonywano w dwóch warunkach: gdy widoczne były obydwie opcje jednocześnie lub każda z alternatyw oddzielnie. Za decyzje spójne uznawane były takie, w których ocena atrakcyjności ubezpieczeń nie zależała od sposobu ich prezentacji. Zarówno wśród osób młodszych, jak i starszych zaobserwowano odwrócenie preferencji, to znaczy w przypadku oceny łącznej wyżej oceniano program B, a oddzielnej program A. Efekt ten był jednak silniejszy u seniorów. W dalszych badaniach (Finucane, Mertz, Slovic i Scholze Schmidt, 2005) zauważono także, że efekty te nasilają się wraz ze wzrostem skomplikowania zadania. Podsumowując, osoby starsze mają pro- blem z właściwym rozumieniem informacji, a także ich preferencje charakteryzują się mniejszą spójnością w porównaniu do osób młodszych.
You are on the management team of a rapidly growing, privately held apparel company that had $80 million in sales last year and is projecting $150 million for next year. The company’s operations are entirely U.S.-based, an anomaly in an industry that has moved almost all manufacturing to foreign countries in search of cheap labor. Your company has succeeded by targeting a niche market that will pay more for fashionable styles, making the speed and flexibility of operations more important than the price. Your company is also unique in its employee policies. Poor working conditions are common at many apparel factories in the U.S. and abroad, and the industry is besieged by public criticism of labor practices. Yet a fundamental tenet of your company is the belief that apparel manufacturing should be profitable without exploiting workers. Management has worked hard since the company’s inception to treat employees as well as possible, and it has developed a reputation for these efforts.
Musical behaviors and skills vary widely, both among individuals and across cultural groups. In scientific research and in Western societies more broadly, the assessment of musicality and musical achievements typically emphasizes the ability to play an instrument, or the expertise of formally trained professional musicians. For instance, a large body of work examines differ- ences between professional musicians and “non-musicians” in a range of musical and non- musical abilities, or the impact of learning how to play an instrument in behavior, cognition, and brain functioning (Coffey, Mogilever, & Zatorre, 2017; Herholz & Zatorre, 2012; Lima & Castro, 2011; Moreno & Bidelman, 2014). This approach has been highly informative, but it does not do justice to the variety of ways people can engage with music and the multifaceted nature of musical abilities. It also does not capture individual differences in musicality beyond highly specialized groups, i.e., it neglects variation in the general population, and it is known that some music capacities can be achieved without formal training, through exposure and implicit learning (e.g., Bigand & Poulin-Charronnat, 2006).